If misconduct or fraud is suspected, the journal will investigate the case in accordance with COPE guidelines. If reasonable concerns arise after an investigation, involved authors will be contacted at their email addresses and given an opportunity to address the issue. Depending on the situation, this may result in the journal taking the following actions, including but not limited to:
1. If the manuscript is still under consideration, it may be rejected and returned to the author.
2. If the article has already been published online, depending on the nature and severity of the violation:
- a correction may be placed along with the article If a fundamental error or a mistake (e.g. an experimental error or miscalculation) was discovered,
- in some cases, the editors may decide to retract an article.
Reasons for potential retraction of the article:
Once the decision to retract an article has been made:
In some cases, the authors of the article considered by the journal may ask to withraw their article. A withdrawal may be initiated only before the article is published. To withdraw an article, the authors must write a clear and concise letter with an in-depth explanation as to why the manuscript needs to be withdrawn. The letter must be signed by all authors. A withdrawn manuscript is removed from the publisher’s database altogether, and copyrights remain with the authors of the withdrawn manuscript.