THE FORMATION OF EU POLICY ON THE COUNTRIES OF THE EASTERN MEDITERRANEAN AND THE DEFINITION OF THE REPUBLIC OF CYPRUS IN IT

Issue: UA Foreign Affairs, №3,2020

Doi: 10.46493/26632675-2020-3-2

Authors:

Boris Humeniuk, Head of the Department of Public Administration and International Relations of the National Pedagogical University. M. Drahomanov,

The article is devoted to vitally important issue of researching formation  conceptual-legal routes in relations between EEC (future EU) and countries of Eastern Mediterranean which stability  (or instability) may extremely affect security and normal functioning of European community itself.  The start of establishing official relations between EEC and former colonial states of the region such as Algeria,  Egypt,  Jordan,  Morocco,  Syria,  Tunisia and first of all Cyprus,  the process of their gradual transformation are in the focus of the article. From the very beginning of formation of their policy towards the countries of this region leaders of the EEC paid special attention to official Nicosia considering this capital as a  unique bridge between European community and countries of the Eastern Mediterranean in the context of implementation of its foreign strategy in the region.  The article underlines that yet since March 1957 when EEC was established its father founders paid huge attention to the countries of the Eastern Mediterranean.  The  major task of this cooperation between two partners was to secure political,  economic  and social stability on the southern borders of the European community and create favorable conditions for preserving and further increasing the volume of trade with the countries of the region,  providing for transparent and unwavering supply of energy resources from this region to the members of the EEC.  The article familiarizes with comprehensive analysis of different stages of formation and implementation of foreign strategy of EEC towards Eastern Mediterranean countries,  particularly emphasizes that crucial event in this process took place in 1972 at the Paris Summit when  "Global Mediterranean Policy 1972-1992" was adopted.  This new strategy opened another one chapter in the history of relations between European Community and countries of the region.  The main idea of this new strategy was to elaborate and implement a common,  unified approach of the EEC towards former colonial of Africa,  Carrebean and Pacific Ocean regions including in this concept first off all countries of Eastern Mediterranean region.  But this programme failed and the article explains the reasons,  based on numerous experts opinions,  negative outcomes of this policy.  Actually EEC Continued the practice of establishing new,  as a rule,  discriminatory treaties with this category of countries of the so-called third world,  which did not provide for the achieving by them a full-fledged membership in the Union in the future.  The special attention in the article is paid to the police of EEC towards the Republic of Cyprus.  This country was one of the first,  which signed the Association Agreement with the EEC in 1972 aiming at achieving swift accession to the European community.  Unfortunately it didn't happen because of the fact of the invasion of Turkey on the northern part of the island under the pretext to defend rights and freedoms of turkey-cypriot community mainly inhabited in this area of the island.  The next very important step in terms of facilitating relations between EEC and Republic of Cyprus was the decision of Counsil of Association of EEC in 1975 to start direct financial cooperation.  At that very year the government of the Republic of Cyprus asked for financial support from EEC after Turkish occupation of the northern part of the country which constitutes 37 % of the territory of the island.  Brussels took a positive decision to grant this support,  dividing it in three tranches: 30 mln ecu (1977), 44 mln ecu (1984) and 62 mln ecu (1989). It meant only that despite the start of military actions that caused huge economic and humanitarian damage to the Republic of Cyprus,  which later were transformed in a long-lasted frozen conflict,  the Republic of Cyprus remained one the priorities of Brussels policy in the region. Such intensive interest of the EU towards official Nicosia was proved by the fact of accepting by Brussels of application of Nicosia to achieve a status of member of EU club. This favorable and privileged attitude of EU towards Republic of Cyprus can be explained by the following arguments: the country always demonstrated the positive image on the international scene,  it was a member of Counsil of Europe and OSCE, Nicosia  (Archbishop Makarios - the first president of the RC) was one of the founders of  non-aligned movement  (the members of this  NAM were  other Arabian Mediterranean countries as well). Thus there factors were regarded by the leaders of EU as reasonable motive to consider a Republic of Cyprus in the capacity of mediator in the region.  Achieving by Republic of Cyprus a full-fledged membership in the EU in May 2004 and legal accession to all corresponding European Union structures has vividly demonstrated both achievements and certain failures of this paradigm in relations between EU and  Republic of Cyprus. So far the achieving by Republic of Cyprus  a full-fledged membership in EU was regarded by the majority of greek-cypriot community as strong and effective leverage to exert pressure on Ankara by "aligned front" to resolve the Cyprus problem and the expectation of Cypriot community were so serious and long awaited that there failure pushed forward on the Cypriot political surface the feeling of euroscepticism and disappointment.  Thus the expertise of Cyprus way towards Eurounion membership is very valuable to other candidates of the club,  including first of all Ukraine.

Keywords : EEC, Eastern Mediterranean countries, EEC external strategy, full EU membership

Language of the article : Ukrainian

The date of online posting : 20.04.2020

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