Electoral History of the Populist Right-Wing Parties of Austria, France, and the Netherlands (1980-2017)

DOI: 10.46493/2663-2675.31(5).2021.9-14

Authors:

Valerii Pavlenko , Taras Shevchenko National University of Kyiv

Mykola Polovin , Taras Shevchenko National University of Kyiv

Abstract.

The relevance of this study can be traced in two aspects: first, the need to explore and understand the reasons for the growing popularity of right-wing populist parties in EU Member States; second, for Ukraine as a potential candidate for EU membership, it is crucial to understand the role that the expansion of the European Union in 2004 played a part in fuelling anti-immigration sentiment and increasing support for right-wing populists. This paper examines the electoral history of right-wing populist parties in Austria, the Netherlands, and France from the early 1980s to 2017, as well as the specific features of these political forces. The study demonstrates the common and distinctive features of nationalist, anti-immigrant parties in the Kingdom of the Netherlands, the French Republic, and Austria, as well as analyses the historical preconditions for the development of nationalist parties: the French Front National (since June 1, 2018 Rassemblement national – “National Unity”), the Austrian Freiheitliche Partei Österreichs (“Freedom Party”) and the Dutch Partij voor de Vrijheid (“Freedom Party of the Netherlands”). The authors analyse the influence of the issues in the societies of the aforementioned countries on the electoral success of these parties. The study investigates the electoral trends and the main factors that had popularised voting for the right-wing populist parties of Austria, France, and the Netherlands during the specified period. The authors demonstrate the direct impact of the issue of illegal migration (particularly from Muslim countries in the Middle East) on the electoral priorities of the Dutch, French, and Austrians. The history of the creation of the current leading right-wing populist parties in the above-mentioned countries is covered in detail, analysing their ideological evolution and indicating their differences in economic, social, and political aspects. The reasons for the growing popularity of right-wing nationalist parties in Austria, the Netherlands, and France are revealed, with most attention paid to the issue of Muslim immigrants, as well as the growing distrust of Indigenous Austrians, French and Dutch in EU bodies and policies. The importance of charismatic leaders of right-wing populist parties in the success of these political forces has been demonstrated. The paper demonstrates the role of internal disputes and ideological differences within the French National Front, the Austrian Freedom Party, and the Freedom Party of the Netherlands in the electoral results of the parties

Keywords : French political order, Austrian Freedom Party, right-wing forces in the Netherlands, nationalism, populism

Language of the article : ukrainian

References :

1. McKeever, A. (2020). Immigration policy and right-wing populism in Western Europe. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan.

2. Mouffe, C. (2018). For a left populism. London: Verso.

3. Lazaridis, G., Campani, G., & Benveniste, A. (Eds.). (2016). The rise of the far right in Europe. Populist shifts and othering. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan.

4. Jean-Yves, C., & Lebourg, N. (2017). Far-right politics in Europe. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.

5. Nohlen, D., & Stöver, P. (2010). Elections in Europe: A data handbook. Baden-Baden: Nomos Verlagsgesellschaft.

6. Bergmann, E. (2017). Nordic nationalism and right-wing populist politics. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan.

7. Dietze, G., & Roth, J. (Eds.). (2020). Right-wing populism and gender: European perspectives and beyond. Bielefeld: Transcript Verlag.

8. Ignazi, P. (2003). Extreme right parties in Western Europe. New York: Oxford University Press.

9. Shields, J. (2007). The extreme right in France: From Pétain to Le Pen. London: Routledge.

10. Noble, C., & Ottmann, G. (Eds.). (2020). The challenge of right-wing nationalist populism for social work: A human rights approach. London: Routledge.

11. French President Sarkozy reshuffles after poll defeat. (2010). Retrieved from http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/europe/8580276.stm.

12. Agnew, J., & Shin, M. (2020). Mapping populism: Taking politics to the people. Lanham: Rowman and Littlefield.

13. Austria's far-right Freedom party invited to enter coalition talks. (2017). Retrieved from https://www.theguardian.com/ world/2017/oct/24/austrias-far-right-freedom-party-invited-to-enter-coalition-talks-sebastian-kurz-ovp-fpo-europe.

14. Fraser, N. (2019). The old is dying and the new cannot be born: From progressive neoliberalism to Trump and beyond. New York: Verso. 

15. Bergmann, E. (2018). Conspiracy & populism. The politics of misinformation. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan.

16. De Jonge, L. (2021). The success and failure of right-wing populist parties in the Benelux countries (Routledge studies in extremism and democracy). London: Routledge.

17. Nederland weer van ons! (2017). Retrieved from https://www.pvv.nl/images/Conceptverkiezingsprogrammma.pdf.

18. Surge for Dutch anti-Islam freedom party. (2010). Retrieved from https://www.bbc.com/news/10271153. 

19. Euro dominated Dutch polls go down to wire. (2012). Retrieved from https://www.aljazeera.com/news/2012/09/12/ euro-dominated-dutch-polls-go-down-to-wire/.

20. Holt, K. (2019). Right-wing alternative media. London: Routledge.