Fighting with “the tyranny of Distance”: History of transport in Australia

DOI: 10.46493/2663-2675-2021-3-4-4

Authors:

Olga Zernetska , Doctor of Political Sciences, Professor, researcher of the department of global and civilizational processes of the Institute of World History National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine

Victoriia Droniv , Master of International Economic Relations Acting, junior researcher State Institution "Institute of World History" National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine

Abstract.

Transport plays a vital role in the development of state of Australia. Transport can be compared with arteries of different industries of different types of economy. This infrastructure is especially important for Australia which has a great territory and low density of its population. That’s why the development of transport despite the remoteness of the continent from the Old World went parallel but sometimes even ahead of Europe. For the first time in Ukrainian science, an attempt has been made to investigate at the interdisciplinary level the formation of Australian state with the help of transport. Events are presented in chronological order because the very history of the discovery of the continent began from sailboats. Sailboat transport at the time of the discovery of Australia and the transportation of the first convicts, their supervising soldiers and administration together with free settlers from The Great Britain arrived on sailboats. The use of sailboats in transport along the coast of Australia is also clarified as well as hunting for whales, the future visits to the Pacific Islands and transportation from there valuable species of wood. The transition to steam shipping and later to motor shipping is distinguished, subsequently to motor shipping, innovative port changes of the coast of Australia for better floating and for better placement of cargo on steamers and their uploading taking into account the cost of human labour, of appropriate mechanisms and devices. Features of Australian river navigation are also considered. The development of land transport is studied. It is proved that the development of rail transport in the XIX st. became an important link in the transport system of Australia. Its advantages and obstacles which for many years stood in the way of development are allocated. The problems of different gauge in each Australian state are analysed and the difficulties of overcoming them are emphasized. Road transport and road construction have come out in Australia at a rapid space. It was found that road construction for Australian society was not only economic but also of great social importance because the soldiers who returned to their homeland from the First World War had their jobs on road constructions. The origin and development of aviation on the fifth continent are analysed. The figures of aviation designers are singled out. They pioneered aviation industry in Australia. Conclusions are drawn that this industry became dominant in Australia now.

Keywords : Australian transport, history, its role in social and economic life, water transport, rail transport, automobile transport, aviation

Language of the article : ukrainian

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