Головні статті

№7 / 2017
22.11.2017, 17:30

Occasions of the presidential and parliamentary races in France 2017Oksana Mitrofanofa
SummaryThe article is devoted to investigation of programs of candidates for the French presidency in 2017 and parliamentary elections. The author analyzes the specific popularity of "National Front" and its growth factors, including the party reforms held by Marine Le Pen and the internal situation in France. It is underlined the attractiveness of E. Macron program for right and left electorate. It is analyzed the political parties state and it is predicted their future.Keywords: Le Pen, Macron, National Front, presidential elections, Ukraine, France.
Pre-election races in France brought some unexpected results. Prime-right center-right forces have shown that former French President Nicolas Sarkozy is not very popular with the French. The Prime Minister François Fillon became the leader of the prime minister, moving the ex-prime minister Alain Juppe to second place. The question arises as to whether sufficient forecasts are taking into account the influence of the televised debate factor of voters watching and the course of which may change the voter's opinion depending on the credibility of the candidate when presenting his program? In a typically Hollistic spirit, Fillon advocated France to take first place in the renewal of the European Union and promote understanding among European countries of the urgency of creating a Europe that would be respected by key partners, especially the United States and China. In his view, France should be the driving force behind the revival of the EU. In his program, concerning the renewal of Europe, Fiona spoke about the security of citizens with effective borders, controlled immigration and autonomous defense; Economic and financial sovereignty through the transformation of the euro into a reserve currency; Investment, innovation and research for large European projects and building a knowledge society.
Regarding immigration, F. Fillon put forward a proposal to establish in the constitution the principle by which immigration will depend on France's ability to accept and integrate immigrants. Parliament will annually set quotas on the number of immigrants and identify the regions of the world that France will want to address [1]. Phoenix is a Hollywood player - therefore, favorable to Moscow, but only to the extent that the interests of France are not endangered. For Fiona, the isolation of the Russian Federation is not a solution, but can only lead to a deterioration of the position occupied by this country. According to many representatives of the French political elite, European history has established links between France and Russia, and Russian art, primarily literature, causes pro-Russian tropism. Corruption scandal that erupted around the job F. Fillon of his wife and children as assistants formal, significantly reduced its rating and canceled the presidential prospects - for abuse of French civil servants held at the taxpayers' money, is absolutely unacceptable and condemned regardless of the amount received by them Profit.
For the French it is important that the government gets their money in the form of taxes, and therefore civil servants who appropriated public money, in terms of the French, steal their own money.But, at the same time, the information about the peculiarities of the official's personal life (the rumors spread that Macron are a homosexual), since they do not affect the interests of other French, are perceived tolerant and do not affect the rating (in the era of F. Mitterand, the situation was a bit different, therefore the president concealed his An exiled daughter, N. Sarkozy, soon after the election, divorced his wife Cecilia, and then married with C.Bruni; his successor, F.Hollande, did not at all deal with the legalization of his own ties, except for PAX-u with S. Royail, mother of his 4 Children).
According to the results of the second round, the primaries of the Socialist candidate in the presidential election in France were former Minister of National Education Benoit Amon. Regardless of the peculiarities of the program, the general situation in the country, at the current stage of which there was a decline in the popularity of the socialists through the work of the party of socialists in power and the president-socialist F. Hollande, whose rating has fallen significantly due to failure to implement certain election promises, in particular overcoming unemployment and correction of the general danger situation through a series of terrorist acts in France.
B. Amon proposed to introduce an unconditional basic income of 750 euros for all adult Frenchmen. It is not known how much this postulate could be realized, but it is indicative that in France various social assistance programs are now widely available in all directions. He believed that France had taken too few migrants, and therefore proposed the introduction of "humanitarian visas" for refugees, which would allow migrants to legally come to France for temporary residence and protection. However, it should be noted that for many French this idea was unacceptable in view of the recent terrorist attacks and the dissatisfaction with the fact that refugees and immigrants receive a variety of social assistance, while ordinary Frenchmen pay significant taxes, and therefore they do not like the money of their taxes Go to these subsidy programs. In a way, the evidence of this is the growing popularity of the "National Front" led by Le Pen, who advocated a completely opposing approach to immigration and migration to France.
B. Amon also stressed the role of the referendum, by which it is possible to abolish certain laws [2]. Concerning the issue of the inviolability of borders and the situation with Russia, appearances during televised debates were interesting on March 20, 2017, when B.Amon declared that "there are agreements that are being implemented and which must comply with international law ..., but it is unacceptable that Putin annexes Territory of a sovereign state that he considers it necessary today to support the war in a neighboring country" [3]. Jean-Luc Melanshon, French presidential candidate from the left, replied to B. Amon that "... it is in vain to appear armed to the teeth before the Russians". But B. Amon added: "When we want to discuss something with Putin, it is better to have any arguments for themselves" [3].
François Fillon admitted that the question of the borders "should be put in accordance with international law and self-determination." But "there are boundaries that have been defined in unacceptable conditions for people that separate peoples, and we can not refuse to start a debate on this issue" [3], the former prime minister insisted, thus supporting Melanchon's view. The debate in France suggests a paradoxical, at first glance, opinion of the ideological descendants of General de Gaulle in the realm of complete independence of France in international politics, more like socialists than non-Golist leaders such as Francois Fillon and Nicolas Sarkozy. The last in every possible way emphasize the need to negotiate with Russia, expressing the appropriateness of lifting sanctions and expressing concern about conflict with a state that has a strong military power. In the position of center-righters there is a certain fear of Moscow, and, consequently, the weakness and the desire to interpret international law, depending on current profits, on the situation and avoiding a hypothetical confrontation with a more powerful country.
But the socialists - both the former unpopular president Francois Hollande and the presidential candidate Benoit Ammon - emphasized the inadmissibility of violations of international law and borders and the willingness to take restrictive measures. The socialists picked up the ideological legacy of the general and believed that France could and not be afraid of disputes with the most powerful players in the world strategic space, advocating the foundations of international law.
Emanuel Macron is the winner of the presidential election in France, a young politician, former minister of economics. E. Macron left the Socialist Party, and on August 30, 2016, he resigned from the government to take part in the election race. Attention was drawn to the fact that when he came to power, he would not have a political party in support of which he could count on - it is only the movement "Forward" founded by him in April 2016, described as "neither right nor left." However, this factor had a positive influence during the elections because the French felt some fatigue from the representatives of the traditional bourgeois parties (socialists and right-centered), and waited for a policy capable of addressing pressing security and counter-terrorism issues, as well as on improving the domestic political situation, reducing unemployment, but not by the huge cuts in civil servants who were scared by right-centered people. As the course of events shows, the movement "Forward", having transformed into a party, will receive a parliamentary majority.
E. Macron is a supporter of the Schengen agreement. In the security field, E. Macron demonstrates a deep understanding of the problems caused by the inadequate coordination of European intelligence agencies. Macron considers expedient to create a joint intelligence (European) and, at some point, a joint police force to fight organized crime and terrorism. E. Macron declares his movement to be neither right nor left. If we analyze his fiscal program, he really put forward proposals interesting for the right electorate and events interesting for the left. In particular, the rich strata of French society were angry with the wealth tax, the ISF, introduced by the Socialists, through which some individuals (including the famous French actor Depardieu) decided to emigrate from France. Macron proposed to reform this tax largely, occupying an average position between the right, who wanted to cancel this tax, and socialist B. Amon, who, because of the increase in taxes, planned to finance the total profit for all. However, Macron proposed to abolish the tax for dwellers (taxe d'habitation) for the poor and middle class [4].
With regard to international politics, E. Macron stated: "I am convinced that it is in the interests of America to cooperate with the EU. We have common values and a similar structure of the economy, and I doubt that Trump will defend the interests of the United States without co-operating with the EU." Asked about Truman's comments on NATO, Macron said: "We would react if it came to it (weakening the Alliance), but I'm against the development of premature scenarios." [5] Macron supported the extension of sanctions against Russia if there were no progress in the implementation of the Minsk Peace Accords in eastern Ukraine. He also considered it important to maintain constant talks with Russia [5].
The popularity of Marin Le Pen can be explained by several factors. First, it is not known how much there are actually supporters of the "National Front" and its leader. In certain circles in France, it is not accepted to say that you vote for Le Pen to avoid excesses in xenophobia and radicalism, excessive in the eyes of many French. Consequently, a certain number of voters are not recognized in sympathy for this party. Second, M. Le Pen upgraded this movement and made him more acceptable than he was during her father Jean-Marie Le Pen, who founded the National Front in 1972. She made efforts to ensure anti-Semitism and homophobia, Inherent in her father's party, have gone back to the past, and protectionism towards French citizens and their security have become the cornerstone of the political program that has given her supporters. On May 4, 2015, the National Front suspended the membership of Zhan M. Le Pen in the party, on which he reported abdication from the daughter who led her, and on August 20, 2015, the party announced the exclusion of its former leader. Thirdly, in recent years, the situation in France has undergone dramatic changes: the terrorist attacks in Paris in 2015 and in Nice in 2016 have created an atmosphere of danger and insecurity.In this atmosphere, M. Le Pen reminds voters that while indigenous French are suffering from tax burdens, immigrants receive social assistance. Note that for a special desire and the indigenous French may well not work, getting numerous varieties of assistance and social housing from the state. However, against the background of the proliferation in the immigrant environment of antisocial behavioral patterns (drug abuse, drunkenness and conscious unemployment), the benefits of obtaining social protection in comparison with indigenous populations looks particularly blatant, which Marin Le Pen uses, drawing people's attention to the disadvantages of the current system and calling for it Reform in the direction of strengthening the protection of indigenous French. Le Pen also emphasized the expediency of returning border control for security reasons, because for ordinary citizens domestic policy issues are more urgent than external, and they are ready to endure some inconvenience for their own security.
Marin Le Pen also became a contributor to several scandals - however, they did not have such consequences for its rating, as in the case of F. Fillon on his attractiveness as a candidate. For a long time already they write about a loan received by M. Le Pen from a bank connected with Russia, but this fact does not concern the French budget and directly interests of the French. More serious is the accusation of misuse of the European Parliament's finances. However, in the case of Le Pen, voters just support the anti-European union's attitude to its political force, which is why these facts do not repel supporters from the party leader, as happened with F. Fillon.On May 7, 2017, the 2nd round of the presidential election took place in France. Emanuel Macron, who was supported by 66% of voters, won victory. According to sociological studies, E. Makron's victory in the 2nd round was quite predictable. The BVA poll (26-28 April) showed that 41% of voters who voted for J.-L. Melanchon, will vote for Macron, and 18% - for M. Le Pen; 71% of voters who voted for B. Amon preferred E. Macron, and only 4% - Le Pen; 41% of voters who voted for F. Fillon expressed support for Macron, and 26% - Le Pen.
The candidate for the Socialist Party in the 1st round B. Amon, the first secretary of the Socialist Party of the Russian Federation, called for E. Macrona to vote. Cambadelis, as well as the leaders of the Republican Party's right party, are Ph.Fion, A.Jupp, N. Sarkozy, as well as other well-known political and public figures. E. Macron adhered to an active offensive strategy. He screwed up the extremist nature of the "National Front" and called his rival only for the surname, to emphasize that she was only the daughter of the infamous former leader of the "National Front" J.-M. Le pen.
A convinced supporter of the EU, a specialist in economics and finance, a young energetic president is fully capable of giving the EU a fresh impetus and bringing long-awaited changes within France. First of all, the French will wait for him to resolve the issues of unemployment that failed to resolve his predecessor F. Hollande and the relief of tax burdens that he had already announced in his program due to the reduction of the housing tax and the improvement of the budget situation, for which Macron proposed a series of measures. Of course, the French are waiting for increased security - however, only Macron himself is unable to resolve this situation in view of the growing world terrorism and the unpredictability of terrorist attacks, but he announced a serious increase in the cooperation of European intelligence services and police, and already from the ability to properly coordinate these structures Both within France itself, where there is a problem of rivalry of intelligence agencies, and on the pan-European level, the success of Macron's program will depend.
Before the newly elected president, there are serious problems. E. Macron has promised to cut government spending by 60 billion euros for 5 years and at the same time increase by 5000 the number of teachers and 10,000 police officers. E. Macron's program envisages an increase in the defense budget along with a reduction in some taxes, in particular for small businesses, housing for 80% of the population, and wealth tax. During the summer of 2017, E. Macron intends to implement liberal labor laws. Despite the protest of trade unions, this policy was led by E. Macron even when he was Minister of the Economy. This means that Macron will face a crackdown on trade unions that would hamper his attempts to liberalize the labor market.
For Ukraine, E. Macron as President of France is a very interesting partner, on the understanding that he will advocate, first of all, the interests of France and the EU, will rely on respect for legal principles, but will probably carefully analyze the economic situation in the country, especially the issue of corruption. Given the success of the reforms, he will continue to support the Minsk process and help Ukraine - however, after further infinite corruption scandals in Ukraine, and for successful escapes abroad, Ukrainian corrupt officials, E. Macron may reduce aid and support to a failed country that has been bogged down in a clan-oligarchic The struggle for decades, and besides, Ukraine is not a priority area of national interests of France. Voters will be waiting for a new president to solve French problems, rather than spending money to help corrupt countries.
E. Macron formed the government under the leadership of Eduard Philippe of 18 ministers and 4 secretaries of state following his assumption of office. It is significant that the president has fulfilled his election promise regarding gender equality: 11 women and 11 men are appointed members of the government. E. Macron managed to unite in the government of the right, left and center. Thus, Prime Minister E. Philippe and Economy Minister B. Le Mer are representatives of the right. Minister of Foreign Affairs became J.-I. Les Diane, a member of the Socialist Party, formerly the most popular minister of the government of F. Holland. J. Colomb, one of the first socialists who supported Macron, became Minister of the Interior. Centrist F. Bayru, who in 2007 won the third place in the presidential election, became Minister of Justice. Personnel diplomat S. Gular was appointed Minister of Defense. The government also involves representatives of civil society. In particular, the Minister for Higher Education, Research and Innovation, F. Vidal, president of the University of Nice-Sofia, Antipolis, did not take part in political activities earlier; L. Flessel, Olympic Fencing Champion, born in Guadeloupe, became Minister of Sports; Secretary of State for Gender Equality appointed M. Shyapa, founder of the Association to support working mothers.
E. Macron promises to radically renew the political life of France. For foreign experts, his plans for reforming the European Union are of major interest. Instead, the main problems in the domestic policy will be the overcoming of unemployment, improvement of the social and security situation. A significant problem will be the search for compromises with the French trade union movement. It should not be forgotten about the millions of people who supported M. Le Pen and feel misled - in the 2nd round of the parliamentary elections, the "National Front" is again deprived of a prominent parliamentary representation. If E. Macron does not improve the internal situation in the country, his rating will fall, as well as his predecessor F. Holland, which will significantly affect the political situation in the EU and its further prospects.
According to Ifop-Fiducial polls of May 24, 2017, the support of the Forward Republic Party was 31% for the parliamentary elections, 19% for the Republicans, 18% for the National Front, 15 for the left-wing radicals 'Uncorrupted France' % And socialists - 7%. The results of the parliamentary elections in France, held in 2 rounds of 11 and 18 June, provide a mapping blade to E. Macron in the implementation of the fundamentals of his strategic course. The Party of Presidents "Forward, Republic!" received 308 seats, its allies, the Democratic Movement, 42, Republicans - 113, their Allies of the Union of Democrats and Independents - 18, Socialists - 29, "Uncorrupted France" J. L. Melanchon - 17, "French Communist Party" - 10, and "National Front" - 8, which allowed Marin Le Pen to go to parliament for the first time, receiving more than 60 percent of the vote in his district.However, it should be noted that the turnout of the French in the second round of parliamentary elections was record low - 42.6%, which indicates a certain apathy of voters. Thus, the charismatic and energetic E. Macron received a significant loan of trust from the French and leverage in the parliament to implement his program. It is now up to him to prove to his own people their professional ability and ability to reform the country, not forgetting the fears of those strata of society who voted for his political opponents.
The political landscape of France has been radically changed, and some analysts define the changes as revolutionary (in particular Barbara Wesel). It is very interesting and unusual that the actual movement of E. Makron's "Forward", which almost instantly turned into a political party "Forward Republic!" was acquired by the authorities. Although in the run-up to the presidential campaign, and now this party movement, there is a lack of political experience, in my opinion, this will not be a negative factor in their work; on the contrary, professional competence and commitment to the principles of morality can be a significant positive factor for this party. And only the practical activities of the new president and his party will eventually show how successful the French were. Under conditions of success, the party may well occupy a significant place in the political life of France and in the future if deputies will perform their work in a worthy manner.
It is indicative that, almost as usual, the supporters of the "National Front" were quite numerous, and their leader Marin Le Pen went to the second round of the presidential election, and in the first round of parliamentary elections, according to sociological studies, this political force favored almost One fifth of voters. True, only 8 deputies from the "National Frontier" passed the parliament, which is even less than 10 elected Communist MPs. However, the fears of their followers have not disappeared, and they are worried about the consequences of E. Makron's reforms.
The political future of the Socialist Party of France is incomprehensible, because this power is split, and the party seems to be falling at the peak and it is unknown whether one of the leaders will be able to bring it out of this declining state in the near future. Meanwhile, part of the former voters of the Socialist Party was reorientated, which resulted in the political olympics of the successful speaker Melanshon "Uncorrupted France", becoming thus a political reality of France.
E. Makron was expecting some unpleasant surprises from his own allies - the Ministers of the "Democratic Movement". It was assumed that in connection with the parliamentary elections there will be insignificant changes in the Cabinet. But the investigation launched by the Paris Public Prosecutor's Office in early June on the alleged fictitious recruitment of members of the Democratic Movement, Assistant Defense Minister Silvia Gular, in the European Parliament, triggered her request for resignation. She said: "Protection is a complex case. The honor of our armies, our husbands and women who serve and risk their lives, should not be confused with contradictions that have nothing to do with them" [6].
Let's compare, the decisive move of S. Gulard and the tactics of F. Fillon, who, as a football player (team player) scored a goal in their gates. Despite the scandal and the investigation into the fictitious recruitment of his family members, he was, until the last, a Republican candidate, thus having personally deprived his probable candidate of his party for a better result in the presidential election - in addition, he lowered his party's ranking, because part Her supporters, indignant about the situation with F. Fillon, voted for other political forces. To a certain extent, it is the honor of S. Gulard who gave priority to an impeccable image of the French Ministry of Defense, and not his own political ambitions.
After the Defense Minister resigned on June 21, other ministers from the "Democratic Movement" - Centrist leader Justice Minister Francois Bayrou and European Affairs Minister Mariel de Sarnese. At the moment, the scandal is gaining momentum - a couple of days after the resignation of ministers, Radio France has launched an investigation, in which under the condition of anonymity former assistant to a deputy from the Democratic Movement in 2004-2009 stated that several assistants of the MEPs did not perform any work for deputies. Several parliamentarians funded work not at the full rate of assistant deputies, who did not actually work. He concludes that the budget for assistants of deputies served to finance the political party, at least in part. Their work was not at the full rate, financed by the EU, served to carry out the ambitions of F. Bayru. However, the mayor of the city Po (F. Bayru) claims that his party simply goes through difficulties - the employment was normal, legal and moral. He adds that the "Democratic Movement" has never had fictitious employment [7]. Minister of Territorial Cohesion of France Richard Ferrand also joined the ministers in retirement. He was the head of the electoral headquarters of E. Macron and the general secretary of the Presidential Movement "Forward". Real estate fraud is the reason for the investigator's scrutiny of this figure by the Brest Prosecutor's Office, which has struck a significant blow to the image of Macro's party in the context of the priority of morality, which the president declared as the strategic goal of his course.
The irony of fate is that it is F. Bayru who is the author of the law on morality, according to which deputies will be banned from hiring close relatives! In addition, they will have to provide more information about their relationships with other institutions, associations and companies, and politicians convicted of corruption will be banned for ten years to hold public office. The reform of the political party financing system is also foreseen. The prospects for adopting the law are optimistic. It is interested in it as a parliamentary majority, because the president himself advocates the "moralisation" of public life, which is his election promise, and opposition parties. According to deputy director of the German-French institute Stefan Seidendorf: "First of all, there is a feeling that a particular political class abuses existing privileges" [8].
Now, Prime Minister E. Philip has appointed new ministers. Florence Parli became Minister of Defense, Nicole Beloube - Minister of Justice, and Natalie Luazo became Minister of European Affairs under the French Ministry of Foreign Affairs.
The French still have fresh memories of the recent scandal with the fictitious recruitment of family members by F. Fillon, which transformed him from presidential race leaders to politics with a false reputation. It is likely that these scandals and unexpected resignations are not the last in the cadence of E. Macron, as French journalists will continue to closely monitor the activities of their politicians, and French judges, picky and independent, will try to bring the case to a logical conclusion that, in essence , Is a significant success of the French political system and can serve as a model for the achievement of democratic norms for many countries of the world. The French can be proud of their independent courts, and citizens of other countries in which the courts are still far from perfect, and judicial reforms are being dragged to a certain extent envy the citizens of France who voted to show their attitude to non-communism.


References

1. Mon projet pour la France [Ressource électronique]. - Mode d'accès: https://www.fillon2017.fr/<wbr>projet/2. A portée de vote existe un futur désirable [Ressource électronique] - Mode d'accès: https://www.benoithamon2017.<wbr>fr/le-projet/3. Présidentielle: vif échange entre Hamon et Melenchon sur la Russie [Ressource électronique] - Mode d'accès: www.francesoir.fr/<wbr>actualites-elections/<wbr>presidentielle-vif-echange-<wbr>entre-hamon-et-melenchon-sur-<wbr>la-russie4. Maziur V. Emmanuel Macron : son parcours , son projet, sa campagne / V. Maziur [Ressource électronique] - Mode d'accès: www.lesechos.fr/<wbr>elections/emmanuel-macron/<wbr>0211680794992-presidentielle-<wbr>2017-emmanuel-macron-sa-<wbr>campagne-son-projet-2057545.<wbr>php5. France's Macron expects Trump to maintain close ties to Europe [Electronic resource]. - Access mode: www.reuters.com/<wbr>article/us-france-macron-<wbr>trump-idUSKBN14W0066. The head of the French Ministry of Defense resigned because of the threat of a corruption scandal [Electronic resource] - Access mode: www.ukr.media/politics/ 309770 /7. Modem: nouveau témoignage / La République des Pyrénées. June 24-25, 2017.8. Fighting corruption in France: the morality of politicians want to secure the law [Electronic resource] - Access mode: www.dw.com/uk/the fight against corruption -france -francy -morality -politicians -choose -provide -law / a-39253509


Creating a digital single market for Europe(Civilization breakthrough)Olga Zernetska

Summary

The article is dedicated to describing the strategy for a Digital Single Market for Europe. It is considered as a great innovation, which has been transforming not only European economy but the whole European society. The main pillars of this strategy have been investigated and analyzed. Special attention has been paid to the achievements in this direction.Keywords: Europe, strategy, digital market, innovation.
On May 6, 2015, the European Commission published an important document related to the European Parliament, the European Economic and Social Committee and the Committee of the Regions on the most urgent initiative entitled "A Digital Single Market Strategy for Europe", abridged - DSM The document notes that "the global economy is rapidly becoming a digital one, in which information and communication technologies (ICTs) are now not a specific sector of the economy, but are the basis of a modern innovation economic system (the author's allocation is O.Z.) [1]. This is a statement of extreme weight. Indeed, during a single generation's life, including a generation of scholars who are studying the development of digitalization and ICT, the Internet and computer-media communication, to which I belong too, there is a tectonic economic-civilizational shift. He changes all aspects of human life.
Internet and digital (digital) technologies transform people's lives - at the level of the individual, at the community level, at the business level. After all, people become more integrated through all sectors of modern life: economy, trade, health, education, transport, recreation, etc. Digital technologies change very nature and dynamics of organizations and labor markets. The distribution of the Internet provides individuals, companies, public authorities with an even greater knowledge base, helps in making important decisions. Europe has many resources to create a global digital economy. However, such a large-scale project is being launched for the first time.
The document emphasizes that the creation of the Single Market is one of the greatest achievements of the EU not only for Europe, but also for the whole of global trade, investment and the world economy. From now on, there is an urgent need to create a digital single market, where everything that is possible in the already existing Single Market would become available digitally. At the same time, fragmentation and barriers, especially regulatory "walls", existing in the European digital environment, inhibit this process. Europe must definitely "move from 28 national markets to a single one" [2].
The digital agenda for Europe is one of the ten major strategic European political initiatives by 2020. The purpose of the strategy of the single digital market is to open up the digital opportunities for individuals and business as a whole, to improve the position of Europe as a world leader in the digital (digital) economy. A digital single market can create opportunities for new startups and allow existing companies in the market of more than 500 million people. Completing the formation of a single digital market can bring to the European economy an additional EUR 415 billion annually, create new jobs, and transform public services [3]. Inclusive DSM provides additional opportunities for citizens if they are equipped with appropriate digital skills and abilities.
The increased use of digital technologies can increase access to information and culture, improve job quality, and promote the creation of a modern, open e-government. The well-known German politician, Günter Ottinger has been elected Commissioner of the European Union from the digital economy and society. Vice-president of the digital single market Andrus Ansip (Estonian Prime Minister) heads the project team called "A Connected Digital Single Market".
The strategy of the digital single market in Europe "is aimed at solving the main tasks in three directions:First, creating better online access to digital products and services. This means the conditions under which efforts will be made to ensure that the dichotomous world of the European Union becomes holistic. That is to say - a leveled market where it would be possible to buy and sell digital products and services without hindrance. According to the European Union, 315 million Europeans use the Internet every day. The introduction of a digital single market will reveal the potential of e-commerce for European consumers. So, in 2014, only 15 percent of Europeans made online purchases in other European countries, while 44 percent made it at home. European consumers can save 11.7 billion annually if they choose a full range of European goods and services using online shopping. [3] Reserves for the introduction of a single European digital market are very large, since only 7 percent of small and medium-sized businesses are trading across the borders of the European Union member states. It should be noted that one of the reasons why consumers and small companies are not interested in e-commerce is the existing rules that accompany these transactions. They can be complex, incomprehensible and different in the EU member states. 28 different laws discourage companies from cross-border trade, preventing consumers from taking advantage of more competitive offers and a full range of online options.
There is one more point that hinders the development of e-trade. Small online businesses that would like to trade with other European countries face the need for tangible costs. After all, you need an average of 9,000 euros to adapt to the national laws of other European countries. In fact, these costs for adapting to legislative changes for small and medium-sized businesses are lost profits [3]. If identical e-commerce laws are adopted in all European countries, 57 percent of companies will apply this type of trade and will further develop it. This is a huge increase in trade turnover and, as already noted, additional jobs for citizens of the European Union.
Secondly, it is necessary to create an environment in which the digital networks and services could flourish. It means the development of rules that would coincide with the advancement of modern technologies and support the development of infrastructure. One of such important prerequisites is access to digital content. First of all, it is a modern civilized European copyright environment. Copyright supports creativity and the cultural industry in Europe. The EU is justly relying on creativity in the global competition and is a global leader in some copyright sectors. DJ content is one of the most trusted ways of developing a digital economy. According to the EU, 56 percent of Europeans use the Internet for cultural purposes. It is anticipated that their spending on cultural entertainment and media will double over the next five years [3]. The world of digital devices is developing fast and changing.
Equally important is the fact that they can be purchased through numerous European borders. Inventors in this area do everything to ensure that consumers have the opportunity to watch cultural content anywhere, anytime and anywhere. In this context one can not but mention what the European Union is doing to support the European audiovisual industry. One of such very important events is the MEDIA program. This is an abbreviation for French: Mesures pour Encourager le Development de L'Inustrie Audiovisuelle. It was launched in 1991. Today it is part of the Creative Program of the "Strategy for a Digital Single Market for Europe" (ie, "Measures to interest the development of the European audiovisual industry"). Every year, the MEDIA program helps screen almost 2000 European films, television series and other projects that are distributed digitally in cinemas, on television and on video on demand.
The MEDIA program has supported over 20,000 producers, film directors and screenwriters over the past 25 years, and has helped them adapt to new technologies. MEDIA provides support at the early stages of the film's life cycle: investment in development, delivery time, etc. These are, for example, writing scripts, financing marketing research, business events, etc.MEDIA also invests in distribution of films, theatrical distribution and video on demand across European borders, thus supporting European cultural diversity. MEDIA also helps in the creation of titles, in the process of duplication, in the promotion of films and, along with other European institutions, finances online cinemas that display European content. MEDIA has already made a worthwhile contribution to the growth in the number of viewers who watch European films. So, in 2014, 33.2 percent of the films shown in Europe were European films. You can compare figures: in 2010, it was only 25.4 percent of the European films that were shown in Europe. Films and markets in northern, central and eastern Europe are also growing, thanks to the success of their cinema abroad.
The European Union's MEDIA program since its launch in 1991 has invested more than 2.4 billion, including the production of 1,000 films in Europe and their international distribution. In 2016, at the Cannes Film Festival, the 25th anniversary of the MEDIA program was celebrated as a program of the European Union in support of the European audiovisual industry.
Vice-President of the European Commission Andrus Ansip and EU Commissioner Günter Ottinger attended this at the Cannes Film Festival in order to take part in the discussion on the achievements of the MEDIA program. And also to discuss how the European Union can further strengthen the audiovisual sector, which employs more than 1.3 million people in the European Union. This is done in accordance with the strategy of creating a digital single market.
Andrus Ansip, vice president of the Digital Single European Market, said: "The MEDIA program plays a leading role in helping European films reach a new audience across borders, and we must continue to develop this access and increase the circulation of content to Europe within the right framework of the European Union. Digital development brings new opportunities and challenges for the audiovisual sector. [4].
Günther Ottinger, EU Commissioner for Diversified Economics and Society, said: "The MEDIA program has become a sign of quality for European films. I'm proud to see that almost half of the films involved in the Golden Palm Gilka fight this year were supported by the MEDIA program. It must constantly adapt to the needs of this sector. In June 2016, we launched a program of € 121 million for cultural and creative sectors for audiovisual projects."
So, we can note the well-adjusted EU new strategy for a single European digital market and the old, effective programs that have been running for more than one decade for the audiovisual sector of the European economy, which has a synergistic effect on the development of a new strategy for Europe.
Thirdly, digitization should be considered as a locomotive for the growth of well-being. That is to provide all the conditions for its development and make sure that the European economy, industry and employment fully use all the opportunities offered by digitalization. This direction is also very important. The European Union faces the challenge of creating a vibrant economy. It will focus on large data, cloud computing and Internet things that are central to EU competitiveness. It should be noted that the sector of large data is growing by 40 percent a year, that is, 7 times faster than the ICT market as a whole. Modern economists-scientists consider large data as a catalyst for economic growth, such as innovation and the acceleration of digitalization of all sectors of the economy, especially important for small and medium-sized businesses, as well as start-ups and society as a whole.
Large data also changes the very method of scientific research, as well as how knowledge is distributed in the transition to a more effective and responsible system called "Open science": Open science is a movement that aims to make scientific research, Data and their distribution is possible for all levels of the concerned society: whether it's amateurs or professionals. He supports practices such as public research publication, an open access campaign, inspires scientists to support these projects and, in general, to make publishing and sharing of scientific knowledge easier" [5]. Of course, the "Open Science" movement has both supporters and opponents in different parts of the world. Both the first and the second have their convincing "pros" and "against". But in the European Union decided to put on "Open Science". The Europe-funded project Facilitate Open Science Training for European Research (FOSTER), aided by the development of a movement for open science, actively promotes it within the European Union.
According to the European Commission, the use of large data from 100 leading European manufacturers could lead to savings of 425 billion euros. Studies show that by 2020 analysts of large data can boost economic growth by an additional 1.9 percent, equivalent to a GDP growth of 206 billion euros [2].
The fragmentation of the EU's digital market, which it now has, is not conducive to the proper growth of cloud computing, large data operations, Internet-to-speech, to reveal the full potential of opportunities in Europe. Architects of this market believe that they should remove a number of technical and legal barriers. For example, there are barriers to maintaining large data: each EU member state has its own services to store large data and keep it inside its territory. The lack of open and interoperable systems between such services is another barrier between the trans boundary movement of large data and the development of new services. Certain barriers exist in the field of jurisprudence.
Another obstacle to the creation of a single digital market is the uncertainty of citizens of different European countries that the storage of data in cross-border "clouds" is completely safe. At the same time, a study by European economists suggests that if in 2013 "clouds" retained 20 percent of the information, in 2020 its volume will double by 40 percent [3].
In 2010, the European Commission adopted an important document entitled "European Interoperability". In the context of the new European strategy, this resolution should be implemented steadily and at all times. In a digital economy, interoperability means a lot of things. This is to ensure effective communication between digital components and devices, networks or data stores. This is a fast and uninterrupted connection of supply networks between production and service sectors. It is also the best communication across borders between communities, community centers and government structures. Another - active communication of e-government services from different countries-members of the European Union.
Standardization, as another condition for the implementation of the Strategy, plays a very important role in enhancing interoperability. Therefore, she is also given a lot of attention in this process. According to the European Commission, an integrated standardization plan will be developed to identify and identify the main priorities for standardization. They will focus on technologies and areas that are considered critical to the digital single market, including core sectoral standards and interoperability in areas such as health (in the first place, telemedicine), transport (for example, travel planning), the environment and Energy.
An important moment in the strategy is to support an inclusive digital single market, in which citizens and businesses will have the necessary skills and prosper from the existence of interconnected and multilingual e-services: from e-government, e-health, e-energy to e -transport.
An urgent problem facing the European Union is the growing demand for skilled workers with digital skills and abilities. Demand for them grows by 4 percent annually. In 2020, there will not be enough 825,000 skilled ICT professionals [3]. At the same time, as noted by experts from the European Union, in parallel, it is necessary to constantly work to improve basic digital skills among not only ordinary citizens, but also specialists in all economic sectors in the EU. It is also necessary for those who are looking for work to improve their chances of getting modern vacancies. This is objectively important, since in the near future, 90 percent of the diverse nature of the work will require a level of digital skills and abilities.
So, two years have elapsed since the adoption of the "Strategy for a Dictating Single Market for Europe". What changes have occurred in the European Union during this time? This is detailed in the Digital Economy and Society Index (DESI) developed by European economists and statisticians. This paper summarizes the various indicators that help track the development of the digital economy in Europe and see the evolution of each EU member state on this path. According to it, we have the opportunity to analyze the latest statistical data, which show various aspects of the promotion of different countries of the European Union in relation to the implementation of the Strategy [6].
So, in general, at present, Denmark, Finland, Sweden and the Netherlands have achieved the greatest success on this path. Followed by Luxembourg, Belgium, the United Kingdom and Ireland. The lowest rates are Romania, Bulgaria, Greece and Italy. In 2016, Slovakia and Slovenia achieved the greatest progress. Instead, Portugal, Latvia and Germany have lowered their performance.Looking at the individual indicators achieved by the EU member states, the following trends are emerging. The biggest success in the so-called "connectivity area" was registered in 2016 in the Netherlands, Luxembourg and Belgium. The weaker results in this respect were Croatia, Bulgaria and Poland [6].
As for the indicator of "human capital or digital skills", Denmark, Luxembourg, Finland, Sweden and the Netherlands, which scored the highest scores, came ahead. Instead, Romania has the lowest rates in Bulgaria, Greece and Italy. In general, 79 percent of Europeans regularly use the Internet, that is, at least 3 times a week. An important indicator is that the number of students in the European Union who graduated from the faculties related to science, technology, engineering knowledge and mathematics from the age of 20 to 29 years, has somewhat increased. The same small increase can be noted in the field of training specialists from information and communication technologies. The most advanced integration of technology into production has appeared in such EU member states as Sweden, Ireland and Finland, and Romania, Poland and Bulgaria are the least developed countries in this area.
One can not but mention the activity of Europeans in the gradual use of the Internet from simple actions, such as the purchase of films, computer games online, to such rather complicated operations as booking tickets for travel, banking, etc. With regard to the use of the Internet by citizens of different countries, in 2016 the most active were Danes, Swedes, Luxembourgers and Dutch. The Romanians, the Bulgarians and Italians, found themselves at the end of the list, found less activity in online activity.As far as digital public services are concerned, here, first and foremost, is the productivity of e-governments in European countries. It was most effective in Sweden, Finland and the Netherlands, while Romania, Hungary and Croatia are lagging behind.
Consequently, the following conclusions can be drawn:1. Analysis of the main areas of "Strategy of digital single market for Europe" gives reason to speak of a well defined strategy of modern large-scale innovative development of the EU in all its areas: economic, social, political and cultural. Although it lasts until 2020, its implications are far-reaching improvements that will digitalization that make Europe not only interconnected regional entity competitive geo-economics and geopolitical phenomenon in a globalized world.2. The statistics show the considerable achievements of the vast majority of European Union member states in the implementation of the "Strategy of a digital single market for Europe". Moreover, the fact that leading countries such as Denmark, Finland, Sweden, the Netherlands are obvious is evident. Luxembourg, Belgium, Great Britain and Ireland. Since the implementation of this Strategy is scheduled for 2020, there is the possibility of catching up with countries that are now lagging behind, as was done in 2016, say, Slovakia and Slovenia.3. Since the Strategy is an inclusive plan for all Europeans in all areas of their life, it can be extrapolated that it will become a kind of civilizational breakthrough in the modern world, when digitalization changes the way of life of Europeans and the picture of the world in many respects.4. The only problem that does not allow us to make substantiated conclusions is BREXIT's influence on the implementation of this far-sighted strategy. Therefore, this problem can only be signaled and monitored by how the general developments in the UK will affect the "Strategy of a Digital Single Market for Europe" - and in turn, as the decisions made by the EU members will influence UK politics.


References

1.Сommunication from the Commission to the European Parliament, to the Council of Europe, the European Economic and Social Committee and the Committee of the Regions. A Digital Single Market Strategy for Europe [Електронний ресурс]. Режим доступу: <wbr>g8fip1kplyr33r3krzx5b97d1.<wbr>wpengine.netdna-cdn.com/wp-<wbr>content/uploads/2015/04/<wbr>Digital-Single-Market-<wbr>Strategy.pdf2. Digital Single Market [Електронний ресурс]. Режим доступу: ec.europa.eu/priorities<wbr>/digital-single-market/en3. Why we need a Digital Single Market // [Електронний ресурс]. Режим доступу: https://ec.europa.eu/digital-s<wbr>ingle-market/sites/digital-age<wbr>nda/files/digital_single_marke<wbr>t_factsheet_final_20150504.pdf<wbr> 4. Investir dans la créativité: célébration des 25 ans du programme MEDIA au Festival du film de Cannes // [Електронний ресурс]. Режим доступу: europa.eu/rapid/press-<wbr>release_IP-16-1708_fr.htm. Open science // [Електронний ресурс] - [Режим доступу]: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki<wbr>/Open_science6. Digital Economy and Society Index. [Електронний ресурс]. Режим доступу: https://ec.europa.eu/digital-s<wbr>ingle-market/en/desi

 

Impeachment of President of Brazil: causes and consequencesOleg Barabash

Summary

The article presents the President's of the Federative Republic of Brazil, Dilma Rousseff's, Impeachment Process chronology from the announcement to the final stage, reveals its main causes and consequences of this domestic procedure that influence the formation of the political changes, both in the country and throughout the Latin American region.

Keywords: impeachment, Coup d'état, Latin America, the Federative Republic of Brazil, BRICS, political instability, the crisis, integration, regional level, South America.
Impeachment (English impeachment) - in the constitutions of some states, the procedure for bringing senior government officials to the court of justice. As a rule, the result of impeachment is the early termination of the authority of the president or other official and his removal from office. At the impeachment of the head of state such the constitutional majority of the parliament makes a decision. Different countries individually define the procedure for impeachment in accordance with their own legislation. In democratic states, impeachment is one of the elements of control over the country's power and is necessary to maintain the stability of the social and constitutional order. Impeachment is also a means of preventing authoritarianism and a mechanism for guaranteeing national security.
The process of announcing the impeachment of the President of Brazil, Dilmi Rousseff, began at the end of 2015 and lasted until August 31, 2016. On December 2, 2015, the request to commence the impeachment procedure was approved and accepted for consideration by Eduardo Cunha, chairman of the lower house (Câmara dos Deputados do Brasil port), as the country's parliament and one of the key ideological opponents of the president. The reason for the initiation of the procedure for the removal of the president from the government was the disclosure of charges of criminal acts in the performance of the duties of the head of state, including mistakes in the management and concealment of theft of state funds, as well as allegations of violation of paragraphs V and VI of Article 85 of the Constitution of the Federal Republic of Brazil (Port of Constituição da República Federativa do Brasil) and violation of Article 36 of the Law on Fiscal Responsibility (port Lei de Responsabilidade Fiscal) [1].
According to allegations, President Rousseff resorted to unscrupulous use of political leverage for gaining economic gains while he was chairing the board of directors of Petrobras (one of the leading in Latin America) from 2003 to 2010. Also concerning D. Rousseff claims were made because it did not prevent the development of the largest corruption scandal in the latest history of the country in the Petrobras oil giant. In particular, during the investigation revealed that the top managers of this state-owned Brazilian company systematically distributed construction contracts exclusively between specific firms.
In March 2014, the Brazilian Federal Police carried out a code-named "Car Wash" (Lava Jato Port) and exposed a corrupt network. According to the findings of this operation, the main reason for the impeachment of D. Rousseff was the information that she was part of the board of directors of the oil refinery and approved the purchase by Petrobras of the oil refinery in Pasadena (Pasadena Refining System, Inc., PRSI) ) - this resulted in damages of $ 500 million. Then in 2006 D. Rousseff co-chaired the cabinet of ministers with the president of the country Lula da Silva [2].
The government of D. Rousseff was also accused of the so-called "fiscal peddling", that is, in a series of accounting fraud in the final budget appeared information that state structures attracted more money than wasting in the treasury. In other words, D. Rousseff and her supporters were charged with a systematic demonstration of a false surplus. According to the allegations, government agencies were not able to provide the necessary funds to public and private banks that allocated certain amounts to a number of programs aimed at improving the economic well-being of the poorest sections of the population, including the Bolsa Família program ( From the port. Family basket) regarding privileges for the needs of low-income families. Thus, the government led the banks to finance individual welfare programs and, at the same time, they (the banks) did not receive the expected compensation for the allocated funds [3].
In order to improve their financial position and generate profits, the government of D. Rousseff, during the period from 2012 to 2014, resorted to the above-mentioned controversial measures. The Accounting Chamber of Brazil (Port of the Tribunal de Contas da União) unanimously recognized the government's economic policy as a violation of fiscal responsibility. Statement by the Accounting Chamber on the abuse of public authority in financial activities influenced the decision of the National Congress of Brazil to launch a procedure for the removal of President D. Rousseff from power. In addition, under the Car Wash operation, it was said that, without Congress's approval, D. Rousseff signed six decrees to allocate credit funds, which contributed to an increase in federal spending in 2015, in spite of the composition of the annual budget.
The organizers of the impeachment campaign, D. Rousseff, have the same inertia as a senior official in conjunction with abuse of an administrative position as being a criminal offense. It was believed that the reelection of D. Rousseff for the second presidential term suits the most corrupt politicians from all parts of the political spectrum, as it guarantees: an extremely bloated bureaucracy, arranged friends in the government, the civil service and state-owned companies, as well as a system of prejudiced Brazilian justice, Which is available to all these ruling classes [4].
It should be noted, however, that the above facts of the corruption component of the government of D. Rousseff were not the only basis for impeachment. After her election as the head of state in the general election in 2014 (elected for the second presidential term) with a minimum separation (51.64% of the votes) and after swearing on him, on January 1, 2015, the gradual weakening of the country's economy began, which eventually led to a prolonged recession And lasted practically throughout 2015. These elections were recognized as the most scandalous in the history of the country.
The inconvenient spending of the state budget on the 2014 FIFA World Cup and the 2016 Olympics led to a sharp fall in the popularity of D. Rousseff, who was able to qualify for the second term in 2014 only in the second round. By the end of 2015, the head of state had already supported less than 8% of Brazilians. The dissatisfaction with the president was also heated by the terrible state of the economy caused by the left-wing policy of the Labor Party (Partido dos Trabalhadores port or abbreviated RT). It should be noted that one of the main sources of income for Brazil is oil, with Petrobras the same state-owned company engaged in oil production, and the second source is steel. The fall in prices for these goods caused the same problems as in Venezuela, Russia and Nigeria. In 2015, inflation in Brazil was 10%, unemployment increased to 8%, and the real (national Brazilian currency) rate in the US dollar fell almost twice [5].
In March 2015, the level of general dissatisfaction with the ineffective government economic policy and the legalization of illegally acquired funds by government officials led to the first large-scale street protests, during which around one million Brazilians called for the removal of D. Rousseff from office. According to the Brazilian Institute of Public Opinion and Statistics (Port of Instituto Brasileiro de Opinião Pública e Estatística - IBOPE), in July 2015, the personal trust rating for the head of state fell to a record low rating of the country's leader - only 10.8%. In particular, according to one of the national socialfunds agencies Datafolha, 61% of Brazilians favored the impeachment of the head of state [6].
During September-December 2015, the public movement in favor of impeachment grew in the country, the nucleus of which included such major organizations of civil activists as the Movement of Free Brazil (port Movimento Brasil Livre), standing on the positions of libertarianism, as well as the socio-political movement "Going to Street "(port Vem pra Rua, English Come to the Street). In turn, the political crisis in Brazil has caused a lot of feedback from political analysts and political observers, both in Brazil and abroad. The Brazilian public information agency (Agência do Brasil - ABR), subordinate to the Brazilian government, at the time noted that President D. Russetz was unable to maintain working and constructive contacts with the Congress. She was accused of supporting her fragmentation of the political forces, which paralyzes legislative activity and leads to a general weakening of the executive body.
On March 16, 2016, in order to obtain immunity and avoid corruption investigations at the Federal Supreme Court, D. Rousseff announced the appointment of Lula da Silva as head of his administration. However, after a few hours, this appointment was suspended by the court decision, and it did not become forceful. On April 17, 2016, the lower chamber of the Brazilian Parliament held a final vote on the initiation of the procedure of impeachment. 367 members of the lower house voted for impeachment, 137 parliamentarians opposed, while 7 were abstaining, and two deputies were absent from the sitting. According to the parliament's statute, the process of impeachment could be initiated when 342 members of the lower chamber would vote for it, with a total of 513 members of parliament sitting in the session.
The next day the impeachment case of Eduardo Cunia was handed over to the Brazilian Senate for consideration and on May 12, 2016, members of the Senate ruled by a majority of the lower house (55 votes in favor, 22 against). At a meeting that lasted more than 20 hours, it was decided that within 180 days, D. Rousseff had to hand over his presidential powers. After the completion of the stage of appraisal of the impeachment procedure, the stage of the trial began, during which there was a gathering of evidence of the power to remove the head of state from office and listening testimony.
On June 1, 2016, the twenty-day period ended, during which lawyers D. Rousseff had to complete all formal procedures for preparing her defense during the Senate trial. All documents were prepared for registration in the Senate by former Justice Minister José Eduardo Cardoso, chief defender of the president. Avoiding the detailed coverage of the trial on D. Rousseff, on August 9, 2016, during the last session in the Senate, a final decision was taken - 59 votes in favor and 21 against in respect of the accusation against Dilma Rousseff. Final sentencing sentencing was held on August 25, 2016. On August 29, 2016, D. Rousseff spoke in the Senate with a speech on his defense and acknowledged that he was forced to make difficult decisions in drawing up the state budget in the conditions of deteriorating income and the refusal of opposition parties to cooperate with her on key issues of economic planning. The Senate confessed her to blame for abuse of office and financial malpractice and declared her impeachment 61 votes in favor with 21 votes against. Obligations of the President of the country before the end of the term D. Rousseff in 2018 during the so-called The "transition period" was assigned to Vice President Michel Temer. In addition, during a separate vote, the senators voted (42 in favor and 36 against) in order not to prohibit D. Rousseff to hold office for eight years, which would allow her to again fight for the presidency in the near future.According to Anibal Perez-Lignano (port Aníbal Pérez-Linan), professor at the University of Pittsburgh USA and author of the study "Presidential Impeachment and New Forms of Political Instability in Latin America" - Latin America is experiencing A new cycle of processes of political instability, the problems of which are currently being resolved by constitutional means. President D. Rousseff's departure from power does not mean the end of the political crisis in Brazil. At the same time, the Brazilian process is potentially capable of influencing South America [7].
D. Rousseff announced impeachment in the early stages was able to inflict a serious blow to the whole external position, Brazil. Not by chance the international rating agency Fitch, the crisis is not waiting around impeachment downgraded the credit rating of Brazil to "BB +" to the level of "BB" with a negative outlook on the further development of the national economy. "The downgrade reflects Brazil's stronger than expected economic downturn, the inability of the government to stabilize public finances prospects, and elevated levels of political uncertainty", - the expert Fitch statement [8].
It should be noted that the corresponding decision was a consequence not only because of the growth of internal political instability and crisis in the leading state institutions of the country, but also due to a sharp decline in socio-economic indicators. The impeachment process of the Brazilian president would not move so forward if it could at least somehow mitigate the catastrophic economic crisis that has caused political tension: rising unemployment, lower wages, reducing investment, falling the real / dollar by more than 40%.
Despite the apparent failure of the raw material model, D. Rousseff, most Latin American left-wingers in all the troubles blamed the United States, attributing their intention to "destroy the country's economy." In particular, a number of pro-Russian mass media identifies the process of impeachment in Brazil with the typical "color revolution" that was inspired and launched by the US government. In addition, while in office, D. Rousseff is known for his anti-American views and was a supporter of close interaction with Moscow both within BRICS and at the level of the intergovernmental partnership.
The change of power in the largest and most influential country in Latin America made it apparent that the continent was divided into "the right-wing camp" and "left-wing camp". In particular, the governments of Argentina, Paraguay and Chile, led by representatives from liberal parties, first expressed support for Michel Temer. They were joined by the US Department of State and UN Secretary-General. In contrast, Venezuela, Bolivia and Ecuador called the opposition's actions a "parliamentary coup" and recalled their ambassadors, emphasizing solidarity with the outgoing president. The governments of Cuba and Nicaragua limited themselves to criticizing the impeachment procedure and the new government. Thus, the reaction of the neighbors determined the removal of Brazil from the former allies of the Bolivarian alliance and the symmetrical recall of the ambassadors of Venezuela, Bolivia and Ecuador on the first day of the presidency of M. Temera [9].
To continue anti-American rhetoric, Venezuelan President Nicholas Maduro on national television broadcast said that in the case of shifting D. Rousseff, the American trace is clearly visible: "I have no doubt that there was a business card attached to this coup d'état, with the inscription" Made in USA". According to him, "the first stage of a coup d'état aimed at dividing Brazil" was completed. "Those who pull the strands of power in the north understand clearly that Brazil, the American state, our elder sister, is important for the course of the region and the world," N. Maduro said [10].
Bolivian President Evo Morales also believes that the removal of the Brazilian president from office is the beginning of a coup d'état. The parliamentary and judicial coup, he notes, is a gangster stroke against the stability of both Brazil and the entire region. President of Ecuador, Raphael Correa, has announced the withdrawal from Brazil of a clerk of affairs. In his Twitter, he wrote: "Dilma was dropped. Praise of abuses and betrayal. We will call our attorney at the embassy. We never recognize these actions, it reminds us of the darkest hours of our America. All our solidarity with comrades Dilma, Lula and all the Brazilian people" [11].
The impeachment proclaimed by D. Rousseff as a representative of the left vector, as well as the removal of the "Workers' Party" (PT) from political power, significantly affected the change in the balance of power both in the country and in the region. In particular, Venezuela, by this time was under the protection (political and economic) of Brazil, but today it has changed. The political and economic situation in Venezuela continues to worsen. The crisis there is much more complicated than the crisis in Brazil. As a member of the Organization of American States (OAS), Venezuela is increasingly distancing itself with each passing step, opening the way for the isolation of Venezuela at the regional level and the application of the OAS of a democratic clause.
Given the domestic political changes that are currently taking place in a number of Latin American countries (Argentina, Venezuela and Brazil), it should be noted that the former popularity of the left-wing idea, when for almost a decade, the electorate has preferred left-wing parties, movements and leaders, no longer have, And the political mainstream becomes the center-right movement. The impeachment of the Brazilian president, as part of recent political changes in the countries of this region, has begun a certain general tendency that affects the axis of political life, forcing it to move towards the center, not to the right. At the same time, the two opposing flanks undergo political transformations: the rights become socially oriented, and the left - great pragmatists and supporters of greater rationality in economic policy.
The second area affected by the consequences of impeachment and aimed at foreign policy adjustments relates to Brazil's place in the BRICS organization. The available data suggest that, regardless of the decision on the figure of the next president of the country, its membership in this association will not be questioned. However, Brazil's less active engagement in BRICS political and economic projects should be expected, including through the BRICS Development Bank. The rationale for this position will be mainly economic arguments in terms of the difficult financial and economic situation in the country and the difficulty of attracting investment in a context of lowering the national rating. The decision of the country's senate, although it did not put a stop to the Brazilian political crisis for almost a year, has simplified the situation in the country, making it much more certainty. It was also quite recently in Ukraine when the issue of government change was being solved.
Another analogy of the situations in Brazil and Ukraine is the forced political coalition. The peculiarity of the political system in Brazil is the so-called "coalition presidency." Simplifying, we can say that in order to implement any reform in the country, you need a two-thirds majority of Congress of Deputies. Now the Congress party 25, and the three largest - the ruling Workers' Party, the center-right Brazilian Social Democratic Party and the Party of Democratic Movement - have even half the votes. Therefore, a coalition is always needed. Thus Democratic Movement Party, which now plays a key role in the scandal, has always advocated an ally of any ruling party. Her ideology is simple - power. If we look more closely at the situation in Brazil (and in Ukraine), then the issue is not impeachment (or change of government), but political reform, urgently needed by both countries [12].
The future of Brazil today is uncertain. Political circles are not yet visible figures that would have enjoyed the confidence of voters and had a clear program of withdrawal from the crisis. However, this is also the main difference between Brazil and today's Ukraine, the hope of a change in the country's life continues while the independence and effectiveness of the law-enforcement system remains. It was through this independence that it was possible to investigate and bring to justice the highest state leadership [13].

References

Список використаних джерел:1. Constituição da República Federativa do Brasil de outubro de 1988 : [Електронний ресурс]. - Режим доступу : www.lex.com.br /doc_82188_ CONSTITUIÇÃO_DA_REPÚBLICA_<wbr>FEDERATIVA_DO_BRASIL_DE_1988.<wbr>aspx.2. Mihir Zaveri Susan Carroll and Ben Tavener. Brazilian scandal centers on purchase of Pasadena refinery: [Електронний ресурс]. - Режим доступу: www.houstonchronicle.<wbr>com/news/houston-texas/<wbr>houston/article/Brazilian-<wbr>scandal-centers-on-purchase-<wbr>of-Pasadena-6618757.php3. Impeachment of Dilma Rusef Wikipedia.org: [The electronic resource]. - Access mode: wiki-org.ru/wiki4. Kaspruk V. Brazil needs urgent changes: [Electronic resource]. - Mode of access: gazeta.dt.ua/<wbr>international/braziliya-<wbr>potrebuye-nagalnih-zmin-_.<wbr>html5. Galkin S. Impeachment of Dilma Russef. Briefly: [Electronic resource] / Galkin S. - Access mode: http: // webcache.googleusercontent.<wbr>com/search?q=cache:<wbr>8Ug1sbIMXGYJ:https://reed.<wbr>media/bye-rousseff/+&cd=1&hl=<wbr>en&ct = Clnk.6. Results of the activities of Dilma Rousseff as president of Brazil. Dossier: [Electronic resource]. - Access mode: tass.ru/info/35807757. Presidential Impeachment and the New Political Instability in Latin America: [Електронний ресурс] / Aníbal Pérez-Linan - Режим доступу: //http:// isites.harvard.edu/fs/<wbr>docs/icb.topic925740.files/<wbr>Week%206/Perez-Linan_<wbr>Presidential.pdf8. Brazil: the political crisis is entering a crucial phase: [Electronic resource] - Access mode: newtimes.az/en/experts/<wbr>44989. Evgeny Pedanov. Foreign policy of Brazil after Dilma Russef [Electron resource] // E. Pedanov. - Access mode: https://interaffairs.ru/news/<wbr>show/1600710. Impeachment of Dilma Russef. International reaction [Electronic resource] / - Access mode: https://russian.rt.com/<wbr>article/319004-impichment-<wbr>dilmy-rusef-mezhdunarodnaya-<wbr>reakciya11. Twitter Rafael Correa: [Electronic resource] / - Access mode: https://twitter.com/<wbr>MashiRafael?ref_src=twsrc%<wbr>5Etfw12. Impeachment of the President of Brazil: causes, consequences and analogies with Ukraine: [Electronic resource]. - Access mode: www.segodnya.ua/world/<wbr>impichment-prezidenta-<wbr>brazilii-prichiny-<wbr>posledstviya-i-analogii-s-<wbr>ukrainoy-715095.html13. The experience of impeachment: how is corruption dismissed from the post of President of Brazil: [Electronic resource]. - Access mode: www.eurointegration.<wbr>com.ua/articles/2016/05/12/<wbr>7049124/

 

The main components of exogenous assistance of Russia to "DPR" and "LPR"Evgen Ryabinin

Summary

Exogenous influence of Russia on political-economic and cultural-educational sphere of Donbass, since 2014 has been analyzed. It is proved that the influence on the abovementioned spheres is quite high, since without exogenous assistance, the rebellious regions could not resist the central authorities of Ukraine. It is shown that the territories of Donbass today are in a state of gradual transition to economic, trade and educational standards of Russia, since they have closer cooperation than with the regions of Ukraine.Key words: exogenous influence, Donbass, Ukraine, Russia, politics, economy.
The Charter of the United Nations consolidated the position of the founding states of this organization on the territorial integrity or territorial integrity of the state, which is the principle of international public law, according to which the territory of the state is inviolable from encroachments by other states through the use of military force or threat of force. The principle of territorial integrity of the states was first established in Clause 4 of Art. 2 of the UN Charter and later developed in the Declaration on the Strengthening of International Security. The declaration noted the inadmissibility of military occupation as a result of the use of force, as well as the inadmissibility of force actions aimed at acquiring the territory of another state. But there is a contradiction between the principle of territorial integrity and the right to self-determination. At the same time, representatives of the central government usually indicate as an argument in defense of their position the statement about the priority of the principle of territorial integrity in relation to the right to national self-determination. A region that chooses to separate itself from the state defends its right, giving as an argument the principle of self-determination. To a certain extent, this principle is used by states that, for geopolitical reasons, support certain regions that choose to separate themselves from the state they are part of. That is, we can say that the separatist processes are not only a problem of relations between the center-region, as well as the state A-region-state B, where state A is a country in which there is a problem of separatism, and the state B- A country that supports the separatist region.
Attitude towards separatist processes in this case has only geopolitical benefits. The external factor may have different manifestations - rigid, soft, mixed (hybrid).The rigid one expression is military intervention and can be manifested as follows:- the region provides military assistance;- the introduction of peacekeepers or troop contributors to further resolve the conflict, but taking into account the interests of the region claiming to branch out or to support the central government;- conducting humanitarian intervention involving participation in hostilities on the side and / or helping the rebellious region;- direct participation in the war on the side of the region.
Soft support is divided into soft active and soft passive. Soft passive support manifests itself in the presence of a state with the population of a related ethnic group of a neighboring state, which has a desire to unite in a single state, as well as in the presence of a diaspora that can financially and politically support the state. Soft active support can take the following form: economic (financing of struggle, financing of NGOs), technical (supply of arms), humanitarian (establishing relations with ethnically related people in the field of culture, science and education, financing of educational programs, scientific projects, Internships, construction of objects of a single religion - Orthodox / Catholic churches, Muslim mosques), diplomatic (condemnation of central authority in international organizations, UN, OSCE); Information (demonization of central government). Such support can be carried out both during the latent and active phase of the conflict [1, p.264].
A mixed type means both military support and soft influence. This situation has developed in the context of the conflict in the Donbass, when Russia uses a mixed type of support for rebellious regions. According to the author, it is necessary to classify those areas of assistance that can be carried out by the State B of the region in State A in the context of mild exogenous influence, namely: economic, financial, educational, humanitarian, diplomatic assistance. So, let's analyze in detail each of these components.Economic. In the course of hostilities in any area, there are problems with the supply of essential food products, which include food and medical products. There are two ways of resolving this issue: 1) Providing humanitarian assistance to the population of the region, but in this case it will mean "feeding policy". If State B wants the economy to work in the region, it should create favorable conditions for this and this is a method 2) - economic and trade support of the region. Russian entrepreneurs are involved in export operations of coal mined by LPR and DPR mines. Observers of the OSCE mission located at the Gukovo and Donetsk (Rostov region) checkpoints recorded their export of coal to Russia from October 2014. In mid-May, the chairman of the Customs Service "LPR" Andriy Karpak stated that the volume of export of coal from "LNR" to Russia are in the range of 3 thousand tons per day [2]. In February 2015 Naftogaz of Ukraine blocked the latches on the gas pipeline in the Donbass. To prevent gas blockade, Gazprom began supplying fuel in the territory controlled by the DPR and LPR, through gas measuring stations "Prokhorivka" (border of Rostov region and "LPR") and "Platov" (border of Rostov region and "DPR" ") The press secretary of Dmitry Medvedev Natalia Timakova explained: "Gas supply in the south-east as humanitarian aid will be carried out by Gazprom on a commercial basis." Naftogaz of Ukraine, in turn, refused to pay for the gas passing through Prokhorivka and Platov. Electricity deliveries to Ukraine follow the agreement between Russian INTER RAO and Ukrinterenergo from December 2014. Also, this agreement provides for the supply of Ukrainian electricity to the Crimea. After the start of the coalition blockade in January 2017, which was announced on both sides, the "DNR" and "LNR" continue to reorient themselves to trade with Russia. According to the statement of the Council of Ministers of the DPR, "the supply of high-energy coal to Ukraine has been suspended and no longer carried out." The same information was confirmed in LPR, adding that the supply of coal instead of Ukraine now goes to Russia. Also discussed are the possibility of its transportation to the Crimean peninsula [3].
In addition, the trading company Magnit is trading in the republics. In 2016, exports of goods from the "DPR" to Russia increased by 34 million dollars. Imports to the Dnieper rose 2.5 times. At the same time, the share of Russian production was 84%. In other words, we see how territories that are not controlled by Ukraine, are establishing trade relations with Russia, moving into its economically trading space [2].
Financial. In the years 2014-2015 on the territory of the republics financial transactions were carried out in the national currency of Ukraine - hryvnia. This was due to the fact that the population of these territories had some accumulation and people received a pension and salary in UAH. Then, taking into account the act that the hryvnia mass began to end, the leadership of the "DPR" and "LPR" decided to carry out financial calculations in rubles, euros and dollars, that is, the multicurrency zone was proclaimed. But the last two types of currencies are not quite widespread, and, consequently, the ruble became a settlement currency. In addition, if in 2014-2015 the exchange of hryvnia for the ruble was disadvantageous (in the "DNR" 1 hryvnia was 2 rubles, while in the territory of Ukraine the rate was 1 to 4), then in 2016-2017 this level was equal, and Residents of "DPR" and "LPR" has no need or benefit to go to the territory of Ukraine for currency exchange. Lugansk also in its time introduced the ruble as the main currency of "LPR". The Council of Ministers of LPR said that such a step was necessary to stabilize the financial system in the region, as well as because most of the money transactions there and so is spent in Russian rubles. In addition, it should be noted that "DPR" and "LPR" have already entered the banking zone of Russia.
Given that the vast majority of military formations "DPR" and "LPR" is contracted, they need to pay salaries. Data on the cost of keeping a single soldier is different. The volume and regularity of payments depended on the unit and the phase of hostilities: when the battles intensified, diurnal growth grew, at the time of the armistice, on the contrary, declined. Payment range: from 10 thousand rubles. Per month for ordinary staff, up to 120-150 thousand for the senior officer's staff. If we proceed from the official figures on the military maintenance of the military (from 10.5 thousand rubles for ordinary to 14 thousand rubles and above for officers), then only monthly salaries of the military "DPR" and "LPR" spend at least 631 million Rub Expert assessments are usually higher: calculations by former deputy of the Verkhovna Rada Andriy Senchenko testify to 2.25 billion rubles month.
Humanitarian. This component is related to the provision of free humanitarian assistance to the inhabitants of these territories. Throughout the entire period of hostilities, Russia provided humanitarian assistance to the "DPR" and "LPR". With the onset of hostilities in the Donbass, Russia sent more than 60 humanitarian convoys with food and building materials. In addition, fuel and lubricants, crop materials and fertilizers, electrical equipment, medicines, school textbooks, newsprint are sent within the framework of humanitarian aid. The goods are selected according to the requests from the "DPR" and "LPR".
Diplomatic. This component occurs when State B recognizes the separatist region as an independent state or lobby its interests on the international arena. Russia did not recognize the "DPR" and "LPR", but on February 18, 2017, Russian President Vladimir Putin signed a decree on the recognition of documents issued to citizens of Ukraine and those who live in the territories of certain regions of Donetsk and Luhansk Oblasts.
The document has been ratified "in order to protect human and civil rights and freedoms, guided by universally accepted principles and norms of international humanitarian law". According to a decree in the Russian Federation, temporarily (for the political settlement of the situation in the "DPR" and "LPR") and on the basis of the Minsk agreements, valid "documents certifying a person, documents on education and (or) qualification, birth certificate, conclusion ( Termination of marriage, change of name, death, vehicle registration certificate, registration marks of vehicles, issued by the relevant authorities (organizations) actually operating in the territories of the said regions, citizens of Ukraine and stateless persons who are constantly passing They search in these territories". The decree also allows entry into and exit from Russia of residents of the "DPR" and "LPR" and stateless persons without visas on the basis of passports issued by the authorities in these territories [4].
A diplomatic component was also involved when Russia represented the interests of the DPR and LPR in the Normandy talks, as well as during the signing of the Minsk Agreements in 2014 and 2015. In addition, from the diplomatic point of view, senators and deputies of the State Duma of the Russian Federation, heads of the DPR and LPR, Political scientists and heads of humanitarian organizations, attended the event held on March 17 in Livadia Palace, where the constituent meeting of the Integration Committee "Russia-Donbass" was held.
The work of the forum was aimed at convergence of the laws of the "LDPR" and the Russian Federation, the development of direct economic, cultural, educational and humanitarian ties, the establishment of a direct dialogue with the regions of the Donbas Donbass. For example, the creation of the Center for Economic Interaction of the Republics, aimed at establishing interconnections between economic entities of Crimea and Donbass, shows that the work on integration has moved to a practical level. That is, we can observe how, in all directions, Donbas redirects its diverse activities to cooperation with Russia and reduces the same activity with Ukraine.
Educational. All educational institutions have switched to Russian educational programs. In addition, within the last three years, Russia provided Russian textbooks in the educational institutions of the "DPR" and "LPR" within the framework of humanitarian assistance. Russian universities began preferential admission of graduates of Donetsk and Luhansk schools (all educational budget places for students from the Southeast of Ukraine were left for the whole period of study, as well as providing a permanent scholarship, regardless of progress) in August 2014. First of all, it was about young people whose parents remained in self-proclaimed republics, or about those who lost their homes as a result of hostilities. The main expenses of universities (which were mostly educational institutions of Rostov and Belgorod regions) fell on the shoulders of local budgets. In addition to the entrants, who in 2014 took over a thousand Belgorod, they decided to take an additional 300 students who were transferred from the Donbass. The Ministry of Education and Science of Russia has created a training and methodological center in the Rostov region, which will provide assistance to the schools "DNR" and "LNR", which implement Russian educational programs. Students of higher educational institutions will be able to receive diplomas of Russian standard. For these privileges students of all universities of the "DPR" - and even private ones - will be able to count. This question has already been agreed with the Southern Federal University in Russia [5].
Consequently, it should be noted that rebellious regions would not have been able to resist so far without exogenous support from Russia. Russia, in addition to military assistance, provides the "DPR" and "LPR" with the components (financial, economic, humanitarian) that are absolutely necessary for the functioning of any territory.


References

1. Ryabinin E. Exogenous factors of ethno-separatist processes: theoretical aspect / E. Riabinin // Bulletin of the Mariupol State University. Series: History. Politology. - 2015. - No. 12. - S. 263-270.2. Golunov I., Artemiev A. Investigation of RBC: whose money lives Donbass / I. Golunov, Artemiev A. // [Electronic resource] - Access mode:Http://www.rbc.ru/<wbr>investigation/politics/15/06/<wbr>2015/5579b4b99a7947b0634402103. Zakharov I., Kirillov D. LPR and the DPR redirected coal trade from Ukraine to Russia / Zakharov I., Kirillov D. // [Electronic resource] - Access mode: https://www.gazeta.ru/<wbr>politics/2017 /03/06_a_10560857.shtml4. Putin signed a decree on the recognition of Russian passports of the People's Republic of China and the People's Republic of China [Electronic resource] - Access mode:https://www.znak.com/2017-02-<wbr>18/putin_podpisal_ukaz_o_<wbr>priznanii_rossiey_pasportov_<wbr>dnr_i_lnr5. In the schools of the People's Republic of China and the People's Republic of Germany introduce Russian programs [Electronic resource] - Access mode: zavtra.ru/events/v-<wbr>shkolah-dnr-i-lnr-vnedryat-<wbr>rossijskie-programmyi



Terrorism and security policy of EUAndrian Sabadah

 

Summary The article examines the evolution of the scale and forms of terrorism in the world and on theEuropean continent. The EU conceptual documents in the sphere of security are analyzed in the context of the strengthening of activities of extremist groups after the beginning of the "hybrid war" in the Donbas, the high-profile terrorist acts in France and Belgium, the significant problems of the member countries due to the unprecedented wave of refugees and migrants. The current trends in the strengthening of the EU's security policy and the fight against terrorism are determined. Key words: terrorism, extremism, security policy, migration crisis, the European Union, NATO

The issue of terrorism and the struggle against it has rapidly entered the scientific, political and mass media discourse of the world community at the beginning of the twenty-first century. The key event that contributed to a radical rethinking of the threat posed by terrorism was the destruction of the World Trade Center in the United States and the Pentagon's share on September 11, 2001, killing about 3000 people. It was the largest in terms of the number of victims of the terrorist attack in the history of mankind.
Such an explosion of a terrorist threat was unpredictable. In particular, at the jubilee summit of NATO member states in Washington (April 23-25, 1999), which adopted a new strategic concept for the Alliance, global terrorism was one of the last places in the context of the dangers and threats of our time. But in the US president's doctrine, Douglas Bush (September 2002), the modern threat has now been seen as an integral combination of radicalism and technology, and is determined by the aspirations of political and religious extremists to gain access to weapons of mass effect. Gradually, the conceptual framework of the fight against terrorism under the influence of new realities of international relations began to form a new composition, substantially transforming the contents of the previous principles.
In the European Union, most of whose countries are also members of NATO, they also responded to terrorist acts in America. On June 13, 2002, the EU Council adopted a decision to combat terrorism. Considerable attention was also paid to this issue in the European Security Strategy adopted on December 12, 2003, where terrorism was identified as the first of five key threats. Soon after the adoption of these conceptual documents, loud terrorist acts occurred on the territory of the Union: on March 11, 2004 in Madrid (191 were killed and 2,500 injured) and on July 7, 2005 in London (more than 50 died and more than 700 injured).
After this, a period of relative stability has come, which has replaced a new stage in the revival of the activity of extremists. While the number of terrorist acts in the EU member states decreased almost fourfold in the period of 2007-2013, the growth was recorded at 39% in 2013, and an absolute peak (1077 cases) was observed in 2015, twice the 2013 figure. Almost The number of arrests of persons involved in terrorist activities also doubled. To this should be added the Kremlin's "hybrid war" in eastern Ukraine, an integral part of which is the activities of terrorist groups.
For a long time, terrorism was seen as a phenomenon that has a cluster character and is inherent in the countries of the Middle East and South Asia. Subsequently, terrorist acts began to occur in the countries of Africa, the northern Caucasus, and other regions of the planet. At the beginning of the XXI century. Terrorism has rapidly become a global threat.
A significant proportion of experts from international, regional and national security believes that the rise of terrorism is due to two dialectically interconnected processes: the weakening of the role and security functions of states and the negative effects of globalization. According to S. Hoffmann, the verdict is that terrorism is a bloody connection between interstate relations and the global community.It should also be noted that the intensity and extent of terrorist acts are throbbing. The US Department of State, based on the generalization of a significant amount of statistical data in May 2002, noted that in the 10-12 years prior to the September events of 2001, the number of terrorist attacks decreased, while the number of their victims increased [1, p. 171]. In particular, in the late 1980's the largest number of terrorist acts was reported (more than 600 annually from 1985 to 1988). But later, with the exception of 1991, their number decreased to 450 per year. The smallest annual number of terrorist attacks was recorded in 1996-1998 (about 300 per year) [2, p. 29].
The European continent also notices the first case of revitalization of extremism. According to D. Rapoport's observations, at least four waves of terrorism can be counted for the last half century: anarchist (1880-1920's), nationalist / anti-colonial (1920-1960's), new left (1960-2000- Those years) and religious (1980s - to this day) [3]. However, current terrorist acts are different from previous extreme cruelties, barbaric methods for civilians, and geographical diversity.
Terrorism became a fact of everyday life in Europe. Evidence for this is bloody acts of January and November 2015 in Paris, March 2016 in Brussels, and so on. Under the wheels of a truck that was deliberately directed at a crowd of people on the Promenade des Anglais in Nice during the celebration of the Bastille Day taking place on July 14, 2016, about 80 people died. To this you can add a significant number of smaller incidents in France and Germany. The attention of the press should also be taken into account in order to fully understand the atmosphere of horror and the expectation of new terrorist attacks. So, according to T. Renard, a certain form of collective psychosis among Europeans is much more dangerous than terrorism itself. Recent terrorist attacks in Europe seem to be echoing each other. There is the effect of chain reaction or "contagion," as some journalists have successfully named [4].
It should also be noted that, in light of the events of recent decades, the term "Islamic extremism" and the tangible concept to it have become extremely popular. Although it should be recalled that in 1995, NATO Secretary General Willi Klaas became the first Alliance high official who publicly called "Islamic terrorism" a serious threat to the West. However, after a loud scandal initiated by the leaders of the Arab countries, he was forced to abandon his words. In the scientific literature, mass media extremist ideology and practice have received many definitions: militant Islam, Salafism, Islamism, Wahhabism, K'yubibism, Jihadism, and others like that. And US President George W. Bush succeeded in using the label "Islamic fascists" in August 2006. However, this does not close to clarifying the essence of this complex and controversial phenomenon of our time, especially in the context of the latest terrorist acts in Europe, the "hybrid war" that leads Russia in the Donbass against Ukraine, and the migration crisis in Europe.
For a long time, the EU leaders have not paid enough attention to this threatening phenomenon. The European Security Strategy (2003) reveals obvious facts: terrorism threatens people's lives, tries to undermine the openness and tolerance of societies, can apply unrestricted violence, and gain a global scale that can lead to significant casualties. The document also emphasizes that Europe has become a target and a base for terrorism at the same time. The latter is confirmed by finding logistic support for extremists in Great Britain, Italy, Germany, Spain, Belgium, and other countries.
As R. Parkes rightly points out, for a long time, the expansion and strengthening of the EU in quite comfortable foreign policy conditions has meant that Member States no longer needed to prepare for such risks as foreign invasion or nuclear attack on their homeland. Their main focus was on issues such as increasing the effectiveness of border control, protecting the population from fires, improving the performance of healthcare structures, etc. At the periphery of the urgent problems that require resolution, they were the topic of preventing terrorist acts, forest fires, other natural disasters [5, c. 1].
After the terrorist attacks in the United States on September 11, 2001, some political figures in the EU began talking about the need to create a crisis response mechanism in the Union, like Article 5 of the Treaty on NATO. However, in its most general form, it was declared only in 2009 (Article 222 of the Lisbon Treaty), which stated that the Union and its member states should act in a spirit of solidarity when a Member State is the object of a terrorist attack or victim Natural or man-made disaster. The Union must mobilize all the instruments at its disposal, including military resources, of the Member States in order to:- to prevent a terrorist threat in the territory of the member states;- to protect democratic institutions and the civilian population from any terrorist attack;- to assist a member in its territory at the request of the competent authorities in the event of a terrorist attack [6].
However, the EU's external security environment is changing rapidly. This is due not only to the scale of problems, but also to the transformation of their nature. Gradually returns the threat of external aggression. Although EU members still do not expect the risk of an inevitable attack by another state, the growing use of hybrid warfare tools in conflicts like those in Ukraine shows that third countries can mobilize non-state actors to start destabilizing actions within the EU. These threats are particularly relevant to the Baltic States. In addition, the terrorist groups of the "proto-state" of the Islamic State of Iraq and Levant (IDIL) are carrying out attacks in Europe in order to achieve extreme goals. All this blurs the distinction between state and non-state threats and, accordingly, between Articles 42.7 and 222 of the Treaty of Lisbon. Therefore, the latter became relevant to issues that were not foreseen by its developers.
Events in Syria and Ukraine show that they require EU Member States to think carefully and systematically about combinations of diplomatic pressure, massive financial investment and military support or containment. Already, some European countries have begun to use within the country funds previously directed outside. In particular, these are investments for the development of other countries, which are now used for refugees, and naval and military capabilities that increase border control. External issues are more clearly associated with the internal situation.
According to A. Smith and D. Tennesse, on the basis of the processing of significant statistical material, the recent attention of the European community to terrorism has been updated not only with the rise of terrorist acts, but due to the unprecedented wave of migrants, mainly from Muslim countries. They caution frivolous conclusions and point out the lack of serious scientific research on the intersection of two phenomena (terrorism and migration). According to the researchers, it is difficult to talk about each particular situation, to isolate the specific factors that cause migration, but its main driving force is severe state repression, which includes attacks on the civilian population, as well as civil wars, which lead to war victims and terrorism. At the same time, there is no doubt that data from Afghanistan, Iraq and Syria, to a lesser extent, from Pakistan, show that the number of those who first seek refuge in Europe correlates with the deaths from terrorism in their countries [7, c. 3].
Consequently, taking into account the above, it is necessary to look closely at the EU's response. Following intense negotiations, the European Parliament and the Commission reached a political agreement on November 17, 2016 on a proposal for the latter adopted in December 2015, the Terrorist Fighting Directive [8], which abolished the relevant document adopted in 2002. The Directive consolidates current EU legislation and international standards on the criminalization of terrorist offenses, including "new" terrorist-related actions, including terrorist financing and travel abroad in order to commit a terrorist act or participate in a training camp for extremists, and Returns from such events. This is a key element in the fight against foreign terrorist militants. The document also contains provisions aimed at addressing the specific needs of victims of terrorism in information, support and protection. The European Parliament and the Council of the EU must now adopt the official text as soon as possible and provide the opportunity for ratification by Member States within 18 months [9, c. 3].
On December 13, 2016, an agreement on the revision of the firearms directive was also reached. The previous one was put into effect in 2006 and its main provisions have long lost relevance. The new document extends the range of forbidden weapons, and on the other it imposes stricter restrictions. Particular attention is paid to automatic and semi-automatic weapons, which in the future can only be acquired by a very limited group of persons and institutions (museums, sports associations, etc.) under the close supervision of specially authorized state bodies. In addition, the fight against the supply of illegal firearms, especially in the Western Balkans, as outlined in the EU Action Plan 2015-2019, is also being intensified, measures are also foreseen for the access of potential terrorists to explosives, source materials used in their Illegal production.
The terrorist threat and migration crisis forces EU officials in the short term to reform the Schengen Borders Code with the mandatory systematic screening of EU citizens for database compliance. In addition, representatives of third countries should also be systematically checked at the departure of the Schengen Information System (SIS) as well as through the database of Interpol's stolen (lost) documents.
In February 2016, the Commission adopted the Action Plan to Combat Terrorist Financing [10]. The measures envisaged therein are aimed at addressing the issue of combating money laundering and the illicit movement of cash associated with terrorism and crime through the freezing and confiscation of assets, as well as by improving the mechanisms for detecting and tracking terrorist financing flows.
These measures are an effective tool aimed at preventing terrorists from using funds and their ability to manipulate them. Effective confiscation terminates sources of terrorist organizations' replenishment over the long term and deprives criminals of the profits from their illegally obtained assets.
However, in order to make these mechanisms really work, much effort and time are needed, in particular - bringing the EU Member States into a single national legislation in this area. To this end, differences should be added in understanding the priority of the tasks of combating terrorism not only at the level of states, but also among political forces within countries.
Consequently, an analysis of the latest European Union conceptual documents on the strengthening of regional security, the organic part of which is the systematic fight against terrorism, indicates a significant shift in approaches to this important issue. To a large extent this contributed to a new wave of terrorist acts in Europe, the migration crisis, Russia's hybrid war against Ukraine in the Donbass, and other factors. However, practical implementation of new legislative acts, coordination of efforts of departments and security structures has significant disadvantages. The possibility of new modifications to the terrorist threat has grown incredibly, requiring constant monitoring and analysis.

References:

1. US Department of State. Patterns of Global Terrorism 2001. - Washington: GPO. - May 2002. - 257 pp.2. Morgan M. The Origins of the New Terrorism / M. Morgan // Parameters. - Spring 2004. - P. 29 - 43.3. Rapoport D.C. "Modern Terror: The Four Waves" In A. Cronin and J. Ludes (eds), Attacking Terrorism: Elements of a Grand Strategy. - Washington, D.C.: Georgetown University Press, 2004. - P. 46 - 73.4. Renard T. Fear Not: A Critical Perspective on the Terrorist Threat in Europe. / Thomas Renard // Security Policy Brief. - September 2016. - No 77. - 8 pp.5. Parkes R. Migration and terrorism: the new frontiers for European solidarity / Roderick Parkes - European Union Institute for Security Studies, Brief Issue 37, December 2015. - 4 pp.6. The Lisbon Treaty. - 2009. - [Електронний ресурс] - Режим доступу URL: en.euabc.com/upload/boo<wbr>ks/lisbon-treaty-3edition.pdf7. Schmid A. P., Tennes J. Terrorism and Migration: An Exploration. / Alex P. Schmid and Dr. Judith Tennes. - The Hague: International Centre for Counter Terrorism (ICCT), 2016. - 63 pp.8. Proposal for a Directive of the European Parliament and of the Council on combating terrorism and replacing Council Framework Decision 2002/475/JHA on combating terrorism. - Brussels, 2.12.2015 COM (2015) 625 final - 36 pp.9. Сommunication from the Сommission to the European Parliament, the European Council and the Council. Third progress report towards an effective and genuine Security Union. - Brussels, 21.12.2016. - 10 pp.10. Сommunication from the Сommission to the European Parliament and the Council on an Action Plan for strengthening the fight against terrorist financing COM(2016)050 final, Strasbourg, 2.2.2016. - [Електронний ресурс] - Режим доступу URL: eur-lex.europa.eu/<wbr>legal-content/EN/TXT/



Sanctions: yesterday, today, tomorrowLyudmyla Chekalenko

Summary

The author provides information on a phenomenon like sanctions. There are parallels from the historical past regarding their application. The modern mechanism of their implementation against the aggressor is explained.

Key words: sanctions, crusades, coercion to peace.
Sanctions, as an instrument of influence and punishment, have become particularly popular with the end of the Second World War and the adoption of the Charter of the United Nations, and in the 21st century they have particular significance, in particular in connection with events around Ukraine. Society is already accustomed to the often used term and represents its essence. What does this mean? The Ukrainian encyclopedic dictionary provides the following definition of this term: "... sanction is an element of the legal norm, which indicates measures of state coercion in the event of non-compliance, violation of the principles of international law" [1]. Consequently, as it follows from the definition, the task of the sanction - to ensure the implementation of the requirements of the law. We are looking for this concept in Latin: "sanctio" - "strict regulation, means of coercive action for violation of the established order". That is, the strict coercion for violation of the order. Oxford Dictionary defines "sanctions" as an official order (decision) to restrict trade, various contacts with one or another country in order to comply with the principles of international law. At the same time, and as a direction of action that is used when necessary, in order to force anyone to comply with the law or to behave in an appropriate manner [2].
Here is the formula of the leading analyst of international law V. Vasylenko on sanctions. According to a well-known scholar, "the realization of international legal responsibility is always connected with the obligations of the offender, and the application of international legal sanctions - with the right of victims of the subjects", "sanctions are the result of the refusal of the offender to voluntarily carry out obligations" Liability. "Responsibility is primary, sanctions are secondary" [3]. Consequently, sanctions are a means of forcing anyone to act in accordance with international legal standards.
Where does this concept and phenomenon come from? It is possible that we will be able to find the answer to these questions, as well as the various ways of applying sanctions and the effectiveness of sanctioning. The search for the roots of the origin of sanctions leads us to a deep past. As the story proves, the phenomenon of sanctions arose as a result of the Crusades. How are the Crusades related to sanctions? What were they and what was done for? Do they have a single origin "sanctions" and "sanction"? We find out that these concepts come from the same root. The notion of "sanction" (Latin Sanctus) is interpreted as "holy". During the Crusades, it was also used to explain the essence and intentions of the spread of Christianity.
Crusades were carried out under the banner of religious holiness, which was later used to form and interpret sanctions. In this case, the sanctions were seen as punishment for the sins committed by others. As the inspiration for the Crusades explained: church bosses for the sake of becoming a European Christian civilization sanctioned the non-Christian behavior of their members. Such an interpretation appears to be a rather serious blame for accusations of cruelty, even in the face of holiness. In this case, we recall that any formation of a new human society did not occur without violence and bloodshed. Specifies that such means were typical for early Christianity, which became on the feet through pressure, coercion, destruction of the disobedient.
Analyzing the current situation with the aggravation of manifestations of terrorism, the definition defines a number of researchers of the Crusades, which consists in the fact that modern terrorism is the result of the Crusades of the Middle Ages. With such a position you can agree, but you can also object. Perhaps, therefore, the young creative substance of the transitional stage at the turn of the 20th-21st centuries - Islamic civilization - also regains its right to exist, the right to strengthen and the right to proliferation - to cover its own influence of the largest possible range of territories and population. However, this is another topic of the study.
It is known that the Crusades, carried out as military expeditions to liberate the Holy Land, collapsed. They caused considerable human losses both among the population of the East and among the participants themselves. During the trips destroyed cultural monuments, libraries, palaces ... As a result of the Fourth Crusade, Constantinople, the center of Eastern Christian culture, was destroyed. Crusades caused the deterioration of relations between Europe and the countries of the East, the Christian and Islamic worlds. At the same time, another opinion draws attention: Buddhism was spread without battles, the siege of cities and Crusades [4].
In scientific historical literature you can find different views on authorized Crusades. Some researchers negatively characterize their results. At the same time, others argue that hikes were an important impetus for the development of Europe. Among the positive effects of foreign authors are: the strengthening of power and wealth of the Catholic Church; Political pluses, which consisted in the breakdown of the stagnant power of the feudal aristocracy, plus the attraction of attention to the needs of the population. Political dividends were received by cities that became transit trade centers (Venice, Pisa, Genoa); The burghers, who received additional wealth as a result of the buried riches, arose. The political consequences also include the fact of a three-century withdrawal of the fall of Constantinople under the blows of the Ottoman Empire; The strengthening of Germany, which opposed the regular wave of the Muslim invasion, which stalled on the European continent in the fifteenth century [5].
Positively characterized by the influence of the Crusades not only on the development of commercial, commercial ties, as well as on the social, spiritual, intellectual development of society. Among the social consequences of the Crusades, a legend is drawn about the romance of these adventures, which gave impetus to the spread of chivalry, as well as the spread of contacts with the culture of the East. There is "the awakening of Europe", its intellectual development. Europe was able to draw the civilization benefits of the East, to develop science, technology, art, education, which eventually contributed to the intellectual explosion known as the Renaissance. In addition, the West was enriched with trophies from the East, the time has come for new geographic discoveries. Negative assessment of campaigns is a significant loss of human population, bloodshed; Strengthening and spreading anti-Semitism, which was manifested in the destruction of synagogues, sacred books, the persecution of Jews, the creation of a ghetto, etc. [6].
The arguments for the negative assessment of the Crusades, both religious and geopolitical, are also the motivational component of this phenomenon. In the Christian East, researchers say, there has never been a romanticization of the profession of warrior, knight's courage - that which was cultivated in the young Christian states of the West, who inherited the cult of war from their pagan ancestors. The young blood was boiling. Wars in Europe have been taking place continuously. The Byzantines, however, perceived the war as a strict necessity and tried in every way to prevent it, choosing between tribute and bloodshed - a tribute to the barbarians. Yes, and the costs of the war were much larger. Thanks to constant pay, he managed to master whole tribes and peoples, encourage them to serve the metropolis. The war, however, seemed a shameful thing - the result of a losing, that is, the failure of all politics. And the most shameful was the war between Christians [7]. Consequently, the Crusades had rather negative consequences for the entire Christian world. Was conquered Byzantium. It was she who held back the Islamic offensive to the West, took the blow to himself. Crusades destroyed a delicate geopolitical balance. They gave birth to Islamic fanaticism, intolerance of the "infidels", called for the consolidation of Islam. After the Crusades, the attitude towards Christians in the Islamic states sharply deteriorated.
Why in the notion of "sanctions" we hear the voice of holiness? In fact, the term "sanctions" means "holy right" or "consecrated cause". One can also agree with the idea that in case of impossibility to stop the war, this means tried to direct it in another way - the flow of money. The first mention of the holy war, according to analysts, began with the Christian monarchs of Spain, who fought with the Moors. It was then that the idea of the "holy war" was tested. It was there that the full remission of sins was promised to all those who perished for the liberation of the earth from the infidels. We also note that the remission of sins was not promised to all, but only to those who perish during the battle or on the road. The Crusaders in their majority perceived passages, as approaching Paradise [7]. Consequently, the "holy war" and defined the "sanctions". "Authorize the war for a holy cause!" - the credo of the war of the Middle Ages. Whether or not this holiday is holy, is it not so holy - it does not matter. The main thing is the result.
With the completion of the Second World War, the winners introduced the methods of sanctioning the UN Charter. Turning to the present-day sanctions, we note that, in accordance with Chapter 7 of the Charter, the Security Council may decide on measures to restore international peace and security. These measures can be applied in the form of economic sanctions or international military actions. The Council applies economic sanctions and embargoes as a means of pressure if the world faces a threat and all the opportunities to settle and resolve the conflict are exhausted. Sanctions were introduced in 1977 against apartheid in South Africa and were gradually abolished in 1994. Sanctions were imposed against Iraq, the former Yugoslavia, Libya, Haiti, Liberia, Rwanda, Somalia, UNITA forces in Angola, and also against Sudan and Sierra Leone. Currently, sanctions have been imposed against Russia as an aggressor.
One can agree that sanctions are divided into political, economic, informational, and military. However, the most frequently used are multi-dimensional sanctions, which can combine a number of directions at once. In the history of international relations, the most effective form of sanction was the embargo: an economic restriction of trade and finance. The universal sanctions appear to be a blockade: measures of one or several countries against the violator of peace and stability. The aggressor blocks all communication and other ties with the world - air, sea and land, as well as information. That is, the full isolation of the aggressor country is being implemented.
At the UN level, economic sanctions, which in one way or another relate to political sanctions, are commonly used. Economic sanctions are of a diverse nature: from special prohibitions to full embargo. The imposition of sanctions leads to pressure on a particular state, compelling to take into account the requirements of the UN Security Council, the world community without the use of force. These issues are designed to take care of a special UN structure - a subgroup of sanctions. In order to implement the "Agenda for Peace", developed by the concept of UN Secretary General Kofi Annan, a special working group of the UN General Assembly has been established to consider the positions of UN members in relation to countries against which sanctions have been applied. This was done in order to protect the most vulnerable groups of the population, as well as to solve economic problems that were directly related to the consequences of such sanctions. Thus, according to the decision of the commission in Iraq, the sanction scheme "oil in exchange for food" was introduced in Iraq [8].
International sanctions against Russia. On the aggressive actions of Russia against Ukraine, the international community responded to the political and economic sanctions imposed after Russia seized part of Ukraine's territory - the Crimea. The sanctions were introduced gradually, probably on the basis of the possibility of the Russian side blocking the aggressive actions and the return of the annexed Crimea. The first stage of sanctions was commenced on March 6, 2014, during which the negotiation process of the European Union with Russia was suspended and sanctions were imposed on some Russian leaders and oligarchs. On March 17, 2014, the EU banned entry and froze assets for 21 officials from Russia and the Crimea. The number of authorized persons increased to 33, among whom were the former first persons of the Ukrainian authorities.
The United States has joined to the sanctions of the European Union. March 18 - Japan. March 19 - Australia. March 20, the United States expanded the list of Russian authorities. The United Kingdom, Canada, New Zealand joined the measures. In April, the US froze accounts of 17 Russian companies close to the Russian president. In July 2014, sanctions were handed over to the company's military-industrial complex of the Russian Federation: Almaz-Antey Corporation and Kalashnikov Concern, NGO Izhmash and Basalt, Uralvagonzavod NPC, Instrument-Making KB. The companies of the oil and gas sector were also subject to sanctions: Novatek, Rosneft, Vnesheconombank, Gazprombank. The Feodosia Oil Supply Company (AR Crimea) is included in the list.The EU also considered blocking investment in the Crimean economy and called on all financial institutions to refrain from financing projects that directly or indirectly recognize the inclusion of Crimea in the Russian Federation. On July 29, 2014, the European Union introduced large-scale sanctions against the energy and financial sectors, military and dual-use products. Financial sanctions stipulate restrictions for Russian banks regarding their entry into the credit market and the use of financial instruments with a validity period of more than 90 days. Also, the issue of state-owned Eurobonds and the issue of shares in favor of European owners are prohibited. The restrictions relate to state institutions of the Russian Federation, corporations and agencies with a share of state ownership of more than 50%. In the energy sector, exports and re-exports to Russia of high-tech equipment are prohibited; the United States imposed restrictions on the export of goods and technology to Russian oil projects. The Council of the European Union has officially adopted additional restrictive measures, increasing the list of sanctions to 95 natural persons and 23 legal entities. Germany suspended the operation of an arms deal for a military training camp in Russia. Japan has extended sanctions to several Russian companies and 40 people, while Switzerland has 18 Russian companies and 26 people. The Government of Canada has added to the list of VTB's banks, Rosselhozbank, Bank of Moscow and the Russian National Commercial Bank (RNCB). Sanctions were also applied against the United Shipbuilding Corporation and Low Booster Dobrolet, a number of Crimean companies: New World and Massandra, as well as owners of commercial port facilities in Kerch and Sevastopol. Australia has also introduced additional sanctions.
July 30, 2015 candidate countries for accession to the EU: Montenegro and Albania; Countries in the European Free Trade Area: Iceland, Norway and Liechtenstein, as well as Ukraine and Georgia, joined the EU Council declaration of June 19 on extending the EU's prohibitive measures against the Crimea and Sevastopol for another year until June 23, 2016 Ukraine Has also lifted sanctions against Russia, which concern almost 400 physical and more than 100 legal entities, banned the flights of Russian airlines to Ukraine, among them Aeroflot and Transaero. Also prohibited transit flights through the Ukrainian airspace of Russian airlines with military goods, Russian military and unknown goods. This list can be continued and continued.
The implications of a common defense policy were given in the form of information provided by Internet resources. The domestic and external debt of Russia, the inability to access external sources of borrowing and the fall in oil prices led to the collapse of the Russian ruble, the reduction of economic indicators of individual companies, etc.Among the most widespread forms of sanction, the European Union applies selective, clearly directed ("point") forms against specific individuals, groups and organizations. Although there may be other options within the Common Foreign and Security Policy (CFSP). For example, a ban on exports and a ban on imports, even for individual goods: oil, timber or diamonds; Prohibition on providing brokerage, financial services, technical assistance; Prohibition of investments, other financial restrictions, etc.
Unfortunately, not all countries supported sanctions. Among them - Slovakia, Czech Republic, Hungary, Serbia, Finland, Italy, Cyprus, Greece, Austria. It is hard to believe that these countries, rather, their leaders quickly rather forgot all historical (territorial, political, economic, humanitarian) humiliation of their own peoples' dignity in the notorious past by both Russian and Soviet empires, ignored the opinion of their own citizens, who acted with protests against the government's policy of supporting Russian leadership. Some countries in this part of the policy are trying to take into account the interests of their own citizens, such as the United Kingdom, which is an attractive target for the constant interest of Russian oligarchs who are buying property in London itself and in the suburbs of the British capital. Thus, 2% of home buyers in London are Russian wealthy citizens, and 9.1% of sales per year are carried out again by citizens from Russia and the CIS [9].
The corresponding decision on the need to support Ukraine by prolonging anti-Russian sanctions in 2017 is enshrined in the documents of the European Union. The EU leadership stressed that until all the provisions of the Minsk agreement are met, the restrictive measures will remain in force. Consequently, the lifting of sanctions against Russia will only take place after the Minsk agreements have been fulfilled. This was stated by European Council chairman Donald Tusk and European Commission President Jean-Claude Juncker at the G20 summit [9].
A special manifestation of solidarity in the fight against the aggressor was the policy of the Baltic States, Poland and Bulgaria, because these states were most severely affected by the Russian embargo, in particular, Estonia and Lithuania consistently insist within the EU and NATO to provide Ukraine with weapons. "The choice is simple," says Estonian President Toomas Hendrik Ilves, "either Ukraine's arms, or Russia's victory." The Baltic States defended and advocated for the preservation of the territorial integrity of Ukraine, condemn Russian interference in the internal affairs of the Ukrainian state, call for a peaceful settlement of political disputes, and provide appropriate assistance. Lithuanian President Dalia Grybauskaitė emphasizes: "Today, the Ukrainian people are betraying the fact that we are betraying ourselves, because after Ukraine we will be the next" [10]. Warsaw also offered to disconnect Russia from the international payment system SWIFT and introduce an embargo on the purchase of Russian coal. According to George Soros, an American financier and investor, "If the European Union does not support Ukraine and it loses in its struggle, Europe will have to defend itself." And the price of such protection - in the financial and human terms will be much more significant than the price of assistance to Ukraine" [11].
The Russian Foreign Ministry is committed to not only justify aggressive policy, but also to justify the "illegality" of sanctions. Leave a matter of political and diplomatic decency to the judgment of history. However, remember that all Soviet and consecutive Russian school of international law in terms of sanctions and mechanisms of their implementation based on the work it is Ukrainian researchers: V. Vasilenko and I. Lukashuk - giants of the national school of international law and the founding Chair of International Law of Kyiv National University Named after Taras Shevchenko. Returning to their opinion, we note: the use of international sanctions and the result is caused by the violation of the rights of victims of subjects [3].
Instead of concluding. In connection with the Russian cyber attacks, it would be possible to introduce, together with the world's analytical security centers, appropriate sanctions against the eastern neighbor's cybercenter.

References

1. Ukrainian Wikipedia - Wikipedia. - https://uk.wikipedia.org/wiki/<wbr>%D0%A1%2. Definition of sanction noun from the Oxford Advanced Learner's Dictionary. - www.<wbr>oxfordlearnersdictionaries.<wbr>com/definition/english/<wbr>sanction_1.2. [countable, usually plural] sanction (against somebody) an official order that limits trade, contact, etc. with a particular country, in order to make it do something, such as obeying international law. - Режим доступу: https://www.google.com.ua/<wbr>webhp?sourceid=chrome-instant&<wbr>ion=1&espv=2&ie=UTF-8#q=<wbr>sanctions.+oksford+vocabulary;www.<wbr>oxfordlearnersdictionaries.<wbr>com/definition/english/<wbr>sanction_13. V.A. Vasilenko. International legal sanctions. Kiev: Vishcha school, 1982. - P. 48. - www.law.edu.ru/article/<wbr>article.asp.4. No battles were fought, no cities besieged and no crusades commenced to further the expansion of Buddhism. - The Crusades were a series of religious wars fought between Christians and Muslims over control of the Holy Land. Traditionally, they took place between 1095 and 1291. - https://simple.wikipedia.org/<wbr>wiki/Crusades.5. Historians now, however, tend to view the Crusades as only one, albeit significant, factor in Europe's development / Britannica Lists & Quizzes. - https://www.britannica.com/<wbr>event/Crusades/The-results-of-<wbr>the-Crusades; Effects of the Crusades. - www.lordsandladies.org/<wbr>effects-of-crusades.htm6. Author: Linda Alchin Name of Website: The Middle Ages Retrieved : e.g. March 2015 from <www.lordsandladies.org>Name of page: The Middle Ages. -www.lordsandladies.org<wbr>;Positive/Negative Effects of the Crusades. - https://quizlet.com/61718011/<wbr>positivenegative-effects-of-<wbr>the-crusades-flash-cards/; Vidya Sapthotharan. What were some negative outcomes of the Crusades? - https://www.quora.com/What-<wbr>were-some-negative-outcomes-<wbr>of-the-Crusades.7.What were the negative effects of the Crusades? - https://www.reference.com/<wbr>history/were-negative-effects-<wbr>crusades-36f9ca70a03b328d; Див.: Ловушка "Святой войны" Журнал: № 9 (41) сентябрь 2006: foma.ru/lovushka-<wbr>svyatoj-vojnyi.html. Якою є правда про хрестові походи? Джерело: CREDO: credo.pro/2014/09/<wbr>123328.8. Аннан, Кофи Атта. - https://lenta.ru/lib/14163373/<wbr>full/9. EU sanctions against Russia over Ukraine crisis. - https://europa.eu/newsroom/<wbr>highlights/special-coverage/<wbr>eu-sanctions-against-russia-<wbr>over-ukraine-crisis_en.tyzhden.ua/News/15448810. Estonia. Neighbor of my neighbor ... - International politics - https://dt.ua/international/<wbr>estoniya-sosed-moego-soseda-_<wbr>html; Lyudmila D. Chekalenko. Strategic partnership: lessons learned, realities of the present (summary review). - UA Foreign Affairs. February 29, 2016 -https: //www.facebook.com/<wbr>112392788872170/photos/pb.<wbr>112392788872170.-2207520000.<wbr>1457288933./801455816632527/? Type = 3. L. D. Chekalenko. Changing the Paradigm of Strategic Partnership. - elibrary.ivinas.gov.ua/<wbr>57/1.pdf11. The Cabinet of Ministers of Ukraine issued two sanctions resolutions in response to Russia's suspension of the CIS Free Trade Area Agreement with Ukraine from January 1, 2016.Http://tyzhden.ua/News/155265; Read more on UNIAN: https://www.unian.ua/world/<wbr>1092256-soros-sanktsiji-dayut-<wbr>mojlivist-putinu-grati-jertvu-<wbr>anglo-saksonskogo-svitu-ta-<wbr>naroschuvati-sili-rivni-ssha.<wbr>html.

Humanitarian Diplomacy: institutional and international-political aspects of human rights protection in the 21st centuryVyacheslav Tsivatyy

Review of the monograph: Belova-Ganeva G. Actual trends in the protection of the human right / Gabriela Belova-Ganeva-Sofia: CLASSIC DESIGN EOOD, 2013. - 268 p. ISBN 978-954-91109-8-2 (language edition - Bulgarian).
Professor Gabriela Belova-Ganeva's monograph is an original, up-to-date and relevant scientific research that analyzes the international-political, international legal, institutional and historical peculiarities of the formation of the development and implementation of mechanisms for the protection of human rights in foreign countries in the conditions of the polycentric world. The main conclusions of the work were made by a Bulgarian scholar as a result of the involvement in the scientific analysis of new legal acts, documents of Bulgarian, Ukrainian and foreign archives, materials of domestic and foreign periodicals, European and world court practice.
Reviewers of this work are well-known Bulgarian diplomats and international lawyers: Ambassador Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary, Doctor of Law, Professor Milan Milanov and Doctor of Law, Associate Professor Nikolai Marin.
Gabriela Belova-Ganeva - Professor, Doctor of Law, Dean of the Legal (Legal) -Historical Faculty of the Southwestern University "Neophyte Rilski" (Blagoevgrad, Bulgaria), where he works with prospective international lawyers, historians, journalists, lawyers Rights and European law. In the scientific work of Gabriel Belova-Ganeva, six monographs, three textbooks and more than 300 scientific articles on European law, European integration, international public law and trade law. Many issues raised in the monograph have become the subject of discussion at classes with students from different countries: Bulgaria, Ukraine, Kazakhstan, the USA, Romania, Macedonia, etc.
Significance of the reviewed monograph adds to the relevance of the study. For Bulgaria, Ukraine and the world community of peoples, the period from the twentieth to the first quarter of the twenty-first century turned out to be rich in defining events, which drastically changed their further historical development on the European continent under the conditions of the polycentric world and in the system of international legal coordinates. The reviewed topics include the following thematic sections (chapters): Section I "Concept and historical development of human rights"; Section ІІ "Mechanisms of human rights protection"; Section III "New Trends in the Sphere of Human Rights in Europe" and Section IV "Human Rights in the European Union". The monograph ends with a bibliography and documentary applications (pp. 213-266).
The chapter (chapter IV) "Human rights in the European Union" (pp. 163-208) deserves special attention, in which the author analyzes the current state of affairs in relation to the protection of human rights in the European Union, outlines their prospects for development, and focuses on institutional And procedural problems of the application of international legal mechanisms for the realization of the protection of human rights in the polycentric world and in certain states of the globalized world.
The processes of universalization in the field of law and state are one of the important aspects of globalization in the modern world. Globalization has a significant impact on the transformation, change and modernization of state-legal and international-legal institutions, norms and relations at the world, macro-regional and intraregional levels. Stimulates, accelerates and updates the processes of universalization in the field of law, organization and functioning of the state. All this determines the relevance of the legal analysis of the content and meaning of the main directions of the general processes of globalization for today and the prospects for the development of European law and the European Union, taking into account global trends, foreign experience and peculiarities of the formation and development of the Bulgarian state legal system in the period prior to joining the European Union of this state. And already in the European Union.
The scientific and practical significance of the study of the legal aspects of globalization is exacerbated by the fact that this problem remains insufficiently researched in the European, in particular, Bulgarian legal literature.The subject of legal (legal) globalization is complex, multifaceted. Positive and negative processes of globalization are said and written quite a lot. Basically, one thing is that the modern state should not be left out of the globalization processes, since neither can we abolish or suspend these objective processes is impossible. It is important to define the principles and conditions under which the positive effects of globalization would be increased and diminished, would minimize its negative consequences for the international community. For this purpose one should proceed from one fundamental principle - the personal (human) dimension of globalization, which should show the whole spectrum of the impact of globalization on man, peoples, their interests, way of life. Human rights and the rights of peoples as the main value characteristics of those conditions of their life that are recognized to ensure freedom, justice, dignity, and identity of the nation are the instrument of such a humanitarian dimension. If individual aspects of globalization do not stand up to the verification of human rights, they must be recognized as inhumane.
In the system of processes of globalization, which are objectively defined social development, it is worthwhile to highlight the universalization of human rights, the creation of international legal mechanisms for their protection, a certain narrowing of the sovereignty of national states as a condition for global action of human rights standards developed by the international community, the effectiveness of their control mechanisms protection.
Today in the European and post-Soviet space, new humanitarian problems are being implicated. Every state, including Ukraine, needs its own humanitarian policy and humanitarian diplomacy, capable of solving existing problems and preventing new humanitarian catastrophes, providing humanitarian security and humanitarian sovereignty, providing the necessary diplomatic protection to victims of war conflicts and hybrid wars; Neutralize global threats and challenges of post-conflict development of the modern polycentric world of the twenty-first century; To enhance the humanitarian effectiveness of the interaction of humanitarian diplomacy with human rights diplomacy, diplomacy of development and diplomacy of mercy, etc.
In the world today, as a result of the development of international humanitarian law, the humanization of war and peace, culture and the democratization of international relations, there are significant institutional, political and diplomatic changes. In this context, humanitarian diplomacy is of great significance, primarily in terms of preserving the necessary balance between civilization and socioculture, power and peaceful methods of conflict resolution in the 21st century.
Like any scientific, methodological and creative work, the monograph is not without some disadvantages. In particular, I would like to express my remarks and wishes to the author for his subsequent reprints, namely, to include in the book in a greater extent materials on the effectiveness of the application of mechanisms for the protection of human rights with the use of comparative analysis on the example of the states of other international political regions, which will undoubtedly provide the publication more Deeper insight and introduce an element of comparative (comparative) analysis of the peculiarities and national treasures of international legal, political diplomatic practices and diplomatic models.
In general, we received a benign, meaningful, well-balanced scientific-theoretical and methodological plan at our disposal and published a monograph at the most modern printing level. We recommend our readers this new edition and we hope that this book will interest them, and international students and students of the Diplomatic Academy of Ukraine under the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Ukraine will help in mastering the initial courses "Composite History, Theory and Practice of Diplomacy", "World Diplomacy", "Diplomacy of foreign states", "Political science of international relations", "Foreign regional studies, regional studies and intercultural political-diplomatic communication", "International law", "European law", "International legal mechanisms of protection of human rights" and others.
It would be desirable to hope that this monograph will become a useful find for lawyers, political scientists, future diplomats and modern diplomats-practitioners, which it is addressed first. As well as those who are interested in modern approaches to the study of international law, the definition of the place of personality in the international legal coordinates, the actual questions of the theory, history and practice of diplomacy in its institutional and global dimension.
The reviewed work, written at a sufficiently high theoretical and methodological level, will be of interest to scholars, international lawyers, professional politicians, diplomats, analysts in the field of foreign relations, teachers, postgraduate students, and students.
National and international security: essence, typology, priorities.Sergiy Shergin
SummaryThe article is devoted to the consideration of politological aspects of national security in the context of contemporary Ukrainian studies. The special attention is given to the structural and functional characteristics and elements of the national security as a factor of state and social development. The issue of international dimension of national security is also considered.Keywords: security, national security, international security, national interest, international system, foreign policy.
At the beginning of the XXI century some countries are on the brink of survival precisely because of the turbulent development of the post-bipolar international system. Accordingly, the number of countries with a state of the economy and social system characterized by extremely negative indicators has increased, which gave reason to call them "failed countries". The growth of internal and external threats to the stability of national development has become a reality for many countries of the world. For Ukraine, whose sovereignty, territorial integrity and independence are subjected to devastating influence on the part of the former strategic partner of Russia, the importance of protecting national interests in the form of security has become existential.
The concept of "national security" is extremely used, and its meaning is interpreted depending on the cognitive traditions of each individual state. However, the role and organizational forms of national security are determined by the historical and socio-political conditions of the state in which it is born, evolves and functions. An important aspect of determining the essence of national security is its external dimension, that is, the state and conditions of development of the state and society in the international environment. In the context of world history, the origin of the term "security" does not have a clear chronology. Thus, in ancient times, the concept of "safety" used by Plato was interpreted as the absence of danger or evil for a person. Philosopher and writer Cicero, who was a supporter of the republican system of ancient Rome, considered the main function of security through the prism of human desire "to protect his own life ... to avoid all the harmful and to extract everything necessary for life" [1, c. 138]. During the Middle Ages, under security, they understood the calm condition of the human spirit, which made it possible to feel protected from any danger. In this sense, in this sense, this term in the vocabulary of the peoples of Europe until the beginning of New History was used extremely rarely.
Only in the XVII-XVIII centuries thanks to the philosophical concepts of T. Hobbes, J. Locke, J-J. Russo and B. Spinoza the use of the concept and the term "security" has considerably expanded. In the generalized sense, the meaning of this notion was identified with the state of rest arising as a result of the absence of real danger, both physical and moral. It was during this period that the first attempts at theoretical elaboration of this concept were made. Austrian lawyer and public figure J. Sonnenfels (1732-1817), who believed that the state of security is a prerequisite for the free existence of a private individual and the development of society, presented the most interesting version. Moreover, the population growth, he considered as one of the main factors in ensuring the internal and external security of the state. Thus, from the nineteenth century. In European countries, the state of security began to be regarded as a scientific category in the context of the safety of the individual, society and the state. It is characteristic that in the Russian Empire, this concept began to be used only in the late nineteenth century. In a rather specific sense - as the protection of public danger and activities aimed at combating state crimes [2, c. 17].
The concept of "international security" is somewhat more complex in the epistemological dimension, and its genesis is due to the violent and contradictory development of interstate political and economic relations in the twentieth century. In its historical evolution, the concept of "international security" is closely linked to the term "national security", which entered into the political vocabulary in 1904, thanks to the American Republican president T. Roosevelt (1901-1909). After World War II, the term "national security" began to be interpreted as the state's ability to preserve sovereignty and territorial integrity, to maintain political and economic relations with other countries, to protect its institutions from external influences at various levels, with the adoption in the United States of the National Security Act (1947) And management system, as well as control their borders. As a result, national security, having transformed itself into a state strategy and a leading direction of foreign policy of the bipolar era, has become an international security.
Almost until the late 90's XX century the state of security in the world was determined by the formula "International security of the end of the Cold War". Such an epistemological "tightening" of its formulation reflects the specifics of the post-bipolar period, in which the security processes have other, that is, different from the previous one. Geopolitical scales and functional parameters of development. During this period, the security space changes its format from national and international to global, under the influence of military-political, economic, socio-cultural, environmental and other factors and related problems. By its content and structure, security is a multi-faceted and complex social phenomenon. In the system of "nature-man-society", the main factor that ensures its stability is safety. It is proved that all elements of the hierarchical world society - individuals, groups, classes, nation-states and their various associations - are all under constant influence of factors of internal and external order. In the social plane, the imperative of security extends over an entire range of objects - from small communities to global systems or global societies.
As a subject of socio-political analysis, the concept of "security" is often interpreted as an antithesis of danger, the concrete expression of which is the concept of threat. The most widespread way of interpreting this term in Ukrainian and Russian scientific literature. Thus, in the collective work of Ukrainian scientists, "Globalization and Security of Development", security is defined as the basis of statehood: "The security of the state is the ability to counteract the realization of the threats to its existence and the values of civil society. This is the degree of protection of the interests and rights of the citizen, the people, the state from external and internal threats "[3, p. 89]. For example, in the Law of Ukraine "On Fundamentals of National Security of Ukraine" of 2003, the main objects of protection (objects of national security) are defined as a triad consisting of the following components: a person-society-state [4, c. 50].
Content of national security is provided through the safety of its components. However, such a simplified, "instrumental-operational" approach to defining the content of security impedes its serious methodological analysis in the context of political science theories and political practices. First, the definition of security through the safety of its components is built on the tautological principle and does not answer the question of its epistemological and social content. Secondly, the reduction of security to the protection of society and its structural elements has a subjective-psychological character and deprives the opportunity to find out its transcendental nature. In addition, the definition of civilization (sociocultural dimension) and the specific-subjective nature of security activities (subjects of safety / danger) is required. Therefore, there are every reason to believe that the concept of security, as a derivative of the category of "danger/threat", is false, and hidden interdependence of these concepts "leads to the fact that the definitions carried out on the specified principle" [5, c. 13].
Without defining the epistemological and epistemological nature of national security and clearly identifying its philosophical, sociological and political entities, the definition of "security" is a subjective description of its antipodes, such as threat, danger, risks, etc. The substitution of the objective subjective, as well as the lack of an empirically verified base of the concept of security, has affected, first and foremost, the methodology and categorical apparatus of security science as one of the branches of social sciences and discipline.
In the national educational and academic literature, the category of national security is considered in a conceptually-ideologically abstract format and reflects the dominant influence of Western political rhetoric and western liberal-democratic tradition. In particular, this approach, which considers the people as the bearer of sovereignty, is equated with the American political vision of national security, which is to ensure the security, prosperity and freedom of the American people. It should be noted that the influence of American and Russian security concepts also affected the culture of political thinking in Ukraine, where people also appear as the main subject of the security policy of the state and the carrier of the idea of sovereignty.
The transformational processes in the world and Ukraine set the task of researchers not only to define the doctrinal foundations of national security, but also the priority directions of security policy that would meet new international and political realities. Based on the general theory of security and hierarchical interdependence of normative legal acts in the field of national security, a triad of principles was formulated: the concept-doctrine-strategy. The elements of this hierarchy are structural and functional factors that underlie logically constructed construction: "the concept of national security, the doctrine of national security, the strategy of national security" [6, 7].
Analyzing the legislative acts of Ukraine and various administrative and political documents containing the formulation of national security, the researchers drew attention to their inconsistency both with each other, and with the system of valid normative legal acts in the field of national security management. Such a divergence in the wording of the content of security and inadequate reflection of it in relevant documents complicates the implementation of the National Security Concept in concrete terms. In view of this, some scholars have proposed their own methodology for formalizing ideological, conceptual and doctrinal approaches to the definition of the content of national security. Its essence is to combine the three components of security: "national values-national interests-national goals" into a single functional system.
The key concept in this triad is "national interest", the definition of which in the context of national and international security becomes of particular importance. In addition to the general epistemological status, the concepts of "national security" and "national interest" are combined functionally as they become effective through political legitimization in the structures of state power. Having a legitimate status in the form of official doctrine, they become suitable for practical implementation in the political sphere. Since these concepts are very close in the epistemological sense, they can be regarded as synonyms. In addition to the general epistemological status of these two concepts, they share a common functional feature that contains a certain ideological component, that is, the legitimization of the political, economic and socio-cultural interests of the ruling elite, which is presented as a phenomenon of state freedom or state ideology. The power interests of the elite extend both to the sphere of internal and to the sphere of international politics. Moreover, the latter plays a dominant role in the activities of the ruling circles, which form the content of the national interests of any state. The presence of an ideological component is necessary for the formation of ideologized ideas about the role of the state in the field of international relations. In defining the functional content of these concepts, Ukrainian scientist-political scientist O. Andreeva emphasizes: "National interest" is to maintain the level of perceptions of "national security" in the international sphere, control over the situation in this area" [5, c. 39].
Note that understanding the semantic concept of national interest is due to the cognitive tradition and political culture inherent in scientific communities within national states. The content of interest has a dualistic nature: objective - in the form of need and subjective - in the form of awareness of this need. Formalization of the concept of interest defines its category (real, conscious, imaginary) and rank (vital, basic, secondary, etc.). Subjects (media) of interest appear in the personalized form: an individual, a state, a society. Objects of interest are different spheres of social life: domestic and foreign policy, economy, socio-cultural industry, etc. [8, p. 34-35].
In the political discourse associated with international relations and foreign policy, the category of interest is interpreted from the standpoint of methodological pluralism. For example, in western political science, there are three major versions of this category: 1) elitist; 2) realistic; 3) Valuable. The first is based on the assumption that the definition of national interest relies on those senior officials (elites) who are officially responsible for making decisions in the field of foreign policy. The second is based on the assumption of the anarchic nature of international relations, which forces the state to constantly take care of security through the rational use of force. The third is based on the assumption that only a political process based on the principles of a democratic procedure and the corresponding normative values determines the content of national interest. Moreover, the third approach is counter-inferior to the two previous ones, since it gives the state exclusive right to determine the content of interest in accordance with the values of the nation's standards [9, p. 203-205].
In national science, the qualification of national interest is carried out on various grounds. Typically, researchers determine their nature (national, coalition); The degree of reciprocity (one-sided, multilateral); Degree of priority (priority, secondary); Scale (local, regional, global); The degree of importance (important, essential, vital); The degree of urgency (current, constant, medium, long-term) [10, 7]. Ukrainian researchers are paying attention to the dominant role of international relations among other spheres of socio-political existence in the formation of national interest. There is also an ideological component of national interest and its role in ensuring the functioning of the power and social needs. According to O. Andreeva, in the general architecture of the security science paradigm "national interest - is to maintain the level of perceptions about national security in the international sphere, control over the situation in this area" [5, c. 39].
Scientific discussions on national interests between representatives of political realism and idealism in the context of the basic postulates of the theory of international relations began in the United States in the 1950's. If "idealists" argued that in defining national interests the main role belongs to moral and ethical factors, then "realists" considered it absolutely inadmissible to build foreign policy on the so-called "universal norms of morality". Their position on national interest as the cornerstone of foreign policy of any state, "realists", was formulated in terms of power and power. They believed that the very concept of "national interest" only makes sense in the context of interstate relations, and its real existence is the product of interactions between the actors of international politics. During the discussions attempts were made to combine both concepts into a single paradigm of national interests, but their results proved to be unconstructive. The result of numerous interparadigmatic studies within both international organizations and research centers (UN, NATO, OSCE, SIPRI, REND Corporation) was the development of concepts of "collective", "general" and "comprehensive" security. The theoretical basis for these types of security was the concept of "balance of power" and "balance of threats", which occupied a dominant position in the bipolar period. The notion of "balance of interests" appeared later, due to the completion of inter-system confrontation and formation in the 90's of the twentieth century post-bipolar system of international relations.
Observing the objectivity and consistency of the key notion of "interest", one can not fail to mention a certain volatility of forms and, in particular, the means of realizing national interests, due to their dependence on the domestic political and foreign policy context. Changes that are constantly occurring in the system of state power and the international environment, have a comprehensive impact on the socio-political and mental aspects of national interest. Obviously, the formation of the conceptual foundations of national interest is a complex and lengthy process influenced by geopolitical, economic, socio-cultural and psychological factors corrected by the system of social values and reflected in the scientific views and manifestations of mass consciousness.
Against this backdrop, more or less consistent within the social sciences is the awareness of the structure of national security in its epistemological sense. Among the content components of national security are the following: 1) political security; 2) state security; 3) military security; 4) economic security; 5) social security; 6) humanitarian security; 7) scientific and technological safety; 8) environmental safety; 9) information security.The content of these components of national security has the following characteristics:Political security is characterized by the ability and opportunity of the nation and its institutes to independently elucidate and resolve issues of the state system, independently to carry out internal and external policies in the interests of individuals and society.State security is characterized by the ability of the state to provide national security by means of armed violence.Military security is characterized by the possibility of securing the interests of national security by military means, which involves the presence of modern armed forces, the formation of a system of collective or general security, membership in certain military-political alliances.Economic security is characterized by the general state of the economy, the level of development of productive forces and international economic relations (the degree of integration), the availability of developed infrastructure, which provides for the implementation and guaranteed protection of national economic interests, progressive socio-economic development of the state and sufficient defense potential.Social security is characterized by a state of human and social security, based on the psychological state of the population, which depends primarily on the economic, political and informational components of security, as well as the level of social stability that changes significantly during internal conflicts and external threats.Scientific and technological security is characterized by a state of fundamental and applied scientific research, capable of ensuring the stable development of the scientific, technological, innovative, technological and socio-economic potential of the state in accordance with the world level.Environmental security is characterized as a system of "nature-technology-man", which allows providing balanced interaction of natural, technical and social systems, the formation of natural and cultural environment that meets sanitary and hygienic, aesthetic and material needs of the inhabitants of the Earth while preserving natural resources and environmental The potential of natural systems and the ability of the biosphere in general to reproduce and self-regulate.Information security is characterized as protection of society and within it the psyche and consciousness of the dangerous effects of information: manipulation, misinformation, a call to action directed at overthrowing the state system, suicide, injury, etc. [2, p. 20-23].
Typology and functional areas of security and can complement other characteristics, the content of which is influenced by the transformation of internal and external environment, which are and which nation-states interact in the process of safeguarding its vital interests. Changes systematic and unsystematic origin of modern international relations and processes significantly affect the concept and structure "security paradigm", forcing politicians and scientists search for answers to eternal questions of peace and war, World Equilibrium and world order in terms of non-traditional threats and challenges of individual states And the international community as a whole.
The international political component plays an important role in the structure of national security. As noted above, the social-security nature of the nature of the organization is considered to be due to the state of the security of the "human-society-state" system not only from internal but also external threats. The external component of national security is connected with geopolitical factors (geographic location, size of the territory, availability of natural resources, transit opportunities, number and quality of the population), as well as with the strategic goals that the state intends to achieve in the international environment.Modern scientific interpretation of national security involves consideration of its essence in relation to the state of international security, which is a system of international relations, based on the observance of all international law by all its subjects, which excludes the resolution of disputes and disputes between them by force or threat its use. It is clear that Western scientific literature has not lost its position idealistic postulates of I. Kant, according to which "there is no international law justifying the war" that "the eternal peace, which will be enshrined in peace treaties ... is not an empty idea, but the problem , Which will be gradually implemented "[12, c. 302-303, 309].
At present, in a non-stationary system of international relations, ensuring global security is one of the most important tasks for the world community. In modern interpretation, international security is a state of international relations, in which the external component of the national security of each country is guaranteed, and at the same time, the threat of wars and military conflicts is eliminated in the process of resolving acute international contradictions at bilateral, multilateral and regional levels. The external component of national security is connected with geopolitical factors (geographic location, size of the territory, availability of natural resources, transit opportunities, number and quality of the population), as well as with the strategic goals that the state intends to achieve in the international environment.
In a broad sense, international security consists of a set of political, economic, environmental, information, humanitarian and other security aspects. International security in the narrow sense consists only of its military-political aspects. Depending on the scale of the measure, the national, regional and global levels of international security are distinguished. This typology is associated with the most important spatial categories of geopolitical theory, which include state territory, geostrategic region, geopolitical region and world geopolitical space.
In conditions of international security, each state has better opportunities for policy aimed at improving the material standard of living of people and the free development of the individual, ensuring the full rights and freedoms of man and citizen. The modern interpretation of the concept of "international security" is identified with this type of world order, in which comfortable international conditions for the free development of states and other subjects of international law are created. The defining principle of international security is the principle of non-use of military force to resolve inter-state conflicts.
In this context, the question of why in the new national security strategy of the Russian Federation Ukraine is seen as "a long-term source of instability in Europe, directly at the borders of Russia", and which is the cause of an armed conflict on the Ukrainian-Russian border [13], does not seem rhetorical. The answer is obvious: the Russian leadership's power factor is the ideological basis and the driving force behind its foreign policy, which it directs to realize its geopolitical interests and to solve complex problems of international relations. However, the use of the principles of "political realism" and the geopolitics of the Cold War completely proves that this historical anachronism is contrary to the norms of international law and the aspiration of democratic countries to build "eternal and permanent peace" on the basis of the alliance of peace-loving states.
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Why not a professor work in Odessa?(Archival documents to the biography of Minister G.O. Afanas'ev)Sergiy Berezin
SummaryThe article provides documental confirmation of the little-known facts regards the biography of the Minister of Foreign Affairs of the Ukrainian State (Hetmanate) George (Gеоrgii) Omelyanovich Afanas'ev (1848-1925). Archival materials refine and add new facts to the information presented in historiography about his scientific and teaching activities in Odessa. The sources allow to establish the causes and course of events related to the moving the scientist to Kiev and his further work in the financial and diplomatic spheres.Keywords: George O. Afanas'ev, history of the Ukrainian diplomacy, history of science and education, Novorossiyskiy University, Odessa
The celebration of the jubilee of the Ukrainian Revolution objectively requires a comprehensive study of the state-building process, one of the most important components of which, of course, is the formation of a system of diplomatic service. In this sense, the actual task is to find information for biographies of diplomats - after all, many of them still need to be properly illuminated. Among such names, Georgiy Omelyanovich Afanas'ev (1848-1925) is a scholar and a teacher, a publicist and financier, philanthropist and public figure, who served as the State Controller (since May 1918) and Minister of Foreign Affairs (14.11-14.12.1918) of Ukrainian state.
The future minister was born in Ufa on February 28, 1848 in the family of Colonel Omelian Yegorovich Afanas'ev and daughter of Lieutenant-General Gladyshev. After the death of his father, the young man moved to Odessa (1865), where he studied at the Faculty of History and Philology of the University of Novorossiysk, who graduated with a candidate's diploma (dissertation "On the administrative activity of Turgot during the intensive training", 1869). G.O. Afanasyev was a scholarship at the Department of World History (1870-1872), worked in secondary schools, engaged in educational and journalistic activities. His main scientific work was embodied in two fundamental works - the master's thesis ("The main moments of the Turgot ministerial activities and their significance", 1884) and the doctoral dissertation ("The conditions of bread trade in France in the eighteenth century", 1892). He had a private-patronage (1885/90, 1892/95), but "in circumstances not entirely dependent on him" [1, ark. 205] left the university.
Appointed by the Director of the Kiev Office of the State Bank (1895), G.O. Afanas'ev received the authority of a recognized expert in the financial sphere and community respect for charity and participation in public life, but did not stop the scientific studies, spoke public lectures and collaborated with periodicals. Not surprisingly, this name was included in the "Kyiv Agricultural and Industrial Group" at the elections to the Constituent Assembly; to this list also included P.P. Skoropadsky, who subsequently attracted a "worthy man" to his government. Contemporaries accused G.O. Afanas'ev in the "Russian origin" and "anti-Ukrainian position" in the language issue, in that he tried to establish a "friendly relations" with the states of the Entente and the leadership of the White Movement, and even insisted on "federation with Russia", but ... these his undertakings, on it was a pity not to be realized, and the minister himself was forced to spend his last years in exile, teaching at the University of Belgrade (died 15.12.1925).
The analysis of historiography makes it possible to conclude that at least two moments in biographies require clarification: the establishment of the course of events that led to the transfer of G.O. Afanas'ev to Kiev, and confirmation of his stay in Odessa after the overthrow of the Hetmanate.
In the Soviet publications, the reason for the dismissal of a scientist from the university was the "political unreliability" - in fact, during his studies, the "liberal circle of Afanas'ev" met in the student's kitchenstore, together with representatives of the first "political group" A.I. Zhelyabova [2, p. 47; 10, p. 17-18, 27]. Moreover, it is he who "clarified the social significance" of the forced resignation of the director of the Risheliev Gymnasium V.I. Stratonova after a conflict with the trustee S.P. Golubtsov (1870): a young man's speech during a banquet in honor of the disgraced teacher was widely publicized and, with all the details, was brought to the notice of the head of the educational district [3, p. V].
According to archival documents, before that S.P. Golubtsov has already learned about the existence of the "student's cashier" at the university, whose head was ... the same Afanas'ev! The materials of the investigation (20.12.1869-03.03.1870) pointed to his outstanding talent of financier and organizational skills (the sum was more than 3000 rubles), but the consideration of this case had for the officials the importance of establishing the limits of the court jurisdiction of the university - that is why the "treasurer" did not immediately Direct sanctions were applied [4].
Left at the University for two years with a fellowship (from 1.01.1870) [13; 24], G.O. Afanas'ev successfully passed master's exams (21.12.1871, 29.03.1872) and was recommended by Professor O.G. Brykner on "performing the duties of assistant professor" (04.04.1872) [18, ark. 16-20, 56, 58]. In addition, the board of the University approved the trip of a young scientist for two years abroad (07.04.1872), but the Ministry of Public Education "did not find it possible" to allow it (24.05.1872). Moreover, the repeated petition (May 29, 1987) was also rejected (June 28, 1987), and the proceedings initiated by the council for the "debate" on this matter were terminated by rector F.I. Leontovich (18.08.1872) [4, ark. 9-16].
The secret documents show that the rector "completely secretly" informed the dean (05.07.1872) about the guardian's letter stating his confidential correspondence with the minister (June 28, 1987): "... taking into account that Afanas'ev did not most actively participate in the formation of a student Cashier, posing for himself in honor of being its cashier, his zealousness, for such content of the views of Afanas'ev, found it completely impossible for Afanas'ev to be given a teaching position at the university" [4, ark. 36-36 pp.]. Under these circumstances, he continued to teach at the Mariinsky Women's Gymnasium, where he worked previously (from 17.06.1870). From there, "on his own request" was transferred to the Commercial College (June 28, 1987) and received a post at the Real School (August 24, 1874), but "for health reasons" left the work in these institutions (08.05, May 16, 1987) [4 , Arch 53 zv.-56; 4, arc 13 zv.-14].
As it turned out later, the trustee "contributed" to his release from the gymnasium, and then, referring allegedly to the disposal of the Governor-General E.I. Totleben, proposed by G.O. Afanas'ev to resign for 24 hours. The latter also did, but "proved" that there was no such indication, so in October 1879 S.P. Golubtsov was forced to return him the right to teach. While the situation was clarified, G.O. Afanas'ev received support from the community who chose the historian (!) as head of the Odessa Mutual Credit Society. All of the above and work on a dissertation in the archives of France at their own expense G.O. Afanas'ev gave an explanation to the next guardian - P.A. Lavrovsky (19.12.1880), who broke the petition (January 20, 1881), and the new Minister A.O. Saburov allowed the scientist to return to the university (06.02.1881) [4]. In subsequent years he worked at the women's gymnasium O.V. Piller (01.09.1882 / 22.08.1883) and was awarded the Serbian Order of the Tok IV. (1883) [4, ark. 53 zv.-56]. After reading the "trial" lectures, the faculty found it worthy to be a priest-assistant professor (08.02.1885) [4, ark. 77-82]; Already after the "official enrollment" (13.02.1885) a scientist received a Master's degree from the University of St. Vladimir (15.03.1885) [4, ark. 53 zv.-56].
When the university instituted a petition for the travel of G.O. Afanasyev abroad for a year, on the proposal of the new Minister I.D. Delyanov received the highest order of his scientist (1.05.1888); By monarchy, it was even extended (until 1.09.1890) [4, ark. 257-299]. However, even before its completion, the minister sent to the next head of the educational district, Kh.P. Solsky, a letter about the "doubtful trustworthiness" of the private-assistant professor (November 30, 1889) and shortly thereafter - a telegram with an order to dismiss (25/01/1890) [4, ark. 2-3]. Later, G.O. Afanas'ev recalled: when he learned that the "Parisian agent" P.I. Rachkovsky informed about the "habit" of the private associate "to communicate with the emigrants" (which allegedly gave the reason for the order), he decided to personally find out the circumstances of the case - he had conversations with the "agent", with the minister's figure M.M. Anichkov and even "found the move" to the Minister of Internal Affairs P.M. Durnovo [4, ark. 7-9 p.]. Receiving a certificate from this department and taking into account the special appeal of the former Governor-General H. H. Roopa, I.D. Delyanov considered it possible to again admit the private associate professor to pedagogical activity (March 25, 1892) [4, ark. 58-62].
For six months, the St. Petersburg University has given a doctorate degree (12.09.1892) [4, ark. 56-58 pp.], and so he met all the formal requirements for a professorship. Such an opportunity appeared after the death of Professor V.K. Nadler (31.03.1894), but the desire to take a vacant position was also revealed by "Moscow Master" R.Yu. Whipper (April 22, 1894), who soon received his doctoral dissertation for his master's thesis (May 31, 1894) [4, pp. 405 pt.-411 p.m.]. Stating that the interests of teaching at the department would satisfy the appointment of one of the candidates, Dean F.I. Uspensky told the rector that G.O. Afanas'ev "combines pedagogical activity with a service in a financial institution" and, accordingly, "has no opportunity to devote a lot of time to science". So, I recommended for this position the younger by age R.Yu. Vipper, and the minister agreed with this (June 27, 1894), which the trustee told the rector (July 7, 1894) [4, pp. 83-84 pp., 138]. Upon learning of such a decision, the scientist stated: "After twenty years of persistent pursuit of a professorship, I decided to surrender ... I went there, where many years I was dragging fate so persistently and gently" [4, p. VIII].
That is, archival sources indicate that it was the "image of a professorship" for G.O. Afanas'ev's main factor in the decision to dismiss, and after the report of the Minister of Finance S.Yu.Witte emperor, the historian was appointed to the post of manager of the Kiev office of the State Bank (10.02.1895) [4, ark. 14-26, 47, 53, 57-58 pp.]. Such "patronage" was not coincidental: S.Yu.Witte studied at the university with G.O. Afanas'ev and was well aware of the abilities of the former "student treasure hunter" (besides adding that it was because of their friendly relations that the issue of building a new building for the State Bank was decided).
The next period of biography of G.O. Afanas'ev needs careful study of the materials in the funds of the Kyiv archives and will probably be the basis for another study. The documents found in Odessa and Moscow allow us to confirm the "historiographical assumptions" about the place of the former minister after the overthrow of the Hetmanate. This fact is reflected in the letters of G.O. Afanas'eva to V.G. Korolenko [5]. In the first of them (24.04 / 07.05.1919) it is noted that "... escaping from the arrest, which Vinnichenko and the Directorate decided to carry out", the scientist "went to Odessa in the middle of January", leaving relatives in Kiev. "The Bolsheviks slept three guests to my apartment and took five rooms for them, left my relatives three ... I took my typewriter, and my son had a desk and table for drawings <...> and part of his clothes. Now threaten my daughter-in-law to evict them completely and to fix clothes again. " Knowing about the acquaintance of the addressee with Kh.G. Rakovsky, a scientist asked for protection, but it was too late - in the following letter (22.07 / 9.08.1919) G.O. Afanas'ev said that "... the daughters with their grandchildren threw away. <...> Due to the limited time available for eviction and the lack of means of transportation, only a part of the things took place and my books were left to the left "(probably there was also a personal archive, some of which is now stored at the Institute of Manuscripts [6]).
After the capture of Odessa troops of the armed forces of southern Russia (Aug. 23, 1919) G.O. Afanas'ev once again returned to his Alma Mater: the council of the University of Novorossiysk has approved the "involvement" of him as a private assistant lecturer in the spring semester (19.12.1919) [4, ark. 18-20]. Documentary confirmation of the presence of a scientist at a meeting of the faculty (20.01.1920) [4, ark. 106], but after that he only had two weeks to escape from the "final" establishment of Soviet power in the city (7.02.1920).
Thus, documentary sources allowed clarifying and even supplementing the historiographic evidence of "Odessa periods" in the biography of Georgiy Omelyanovich Afanas'v; In turn, the results of the conducted intelligence give an opportunity to assert about the prospect of further search in the archival institutions' funds about life and activity of one of the prominent representatives of the domestic intelligentsia.


References

1. Markevich A.I. The twenty-fifth anniversary of the Novorossiysk University: a historical note and academic lists / A.I. Markevich. - Odessa, 1890. - P. 199, 204-206.2. History of the Odessa University for 100 years / Отп. Ed. OI Yurzhenko - Kyiv: View of the University of Kiev, 1968. - 422 p.3. [B. Instead of the preface, G.E. Afanasyev. Historical and economic articles. Publication of admirers and friends. - T. I. - Kiev, 1908. - S. III-XII.4. State Archives of Odesa Oblast, f. 42 (Office of the Trustee of the Odessa Academic District), op. 35, sp. 70, 20 arcs., F. 42 op. 35, sp. 227, 6 arcs f. 45 (Novorossiysk University) op. 4, pp. 1837, 79 arcs. F. 45, op. 4, pp. 2547, 84 arcs. F. 45, op. 4, pp. 2560, 132 arcs. F. 45, op. 4, pp. 2562, 69 arcs. F. 45, op. 7 (1887), sp. 29, 299 arcs. F. 45, op. 8 (1892), p. 10, 173 arcs. F. 45, op. 8 (1894), p. 16, 308 arcs. , F. 45, op. 8 (1895), p. 10, 185 arcs. F. 45, op. 8 (1897), p. 16, 477 arcs. F. 45, op. 11 (1869), sp. 27, 14 arcs. F. 45, op. 8 (1897), p. 16, 477 arcs. F. 45, op. 11 (1869), sp. 27, 14 arcs. F. 45, op. 11 (1869), sp. 54, 39 arcs. F. 45, op. 11 (1890), p. 5, 6 arcs. F. 45, op. 11 (1919), p. 16, 24 arcs. Ibid., F. 47 (Odessa Mariinsky Women's Gymnasium), op. 1, sp. 5821, 407 arcs. F. 153 (Lynnychenko I.A., personal fund), op. 1, sp. 245, 9 arcs.5. Department of Manuscripts of the Russian State Library (Moscow), f. 135 (Korolenko VG, private fund), pp. II, k. 18, units. 23, 4 l.6. Zubkova N.M. Afanasyev G.O. / N.M. Zubkova // Personal archival funds of the Institute of Manuscripts: Guide / Rep. Ed. O.S. Onishchenko - K .: NAS of Ukraine; National Library of Ukraine named after V.I. Vernadsky, 2002. - pp. 25-26.


Culture and politics of the family relationships, upbringing and protection minors as mechanisms of Stakeholder relations in societyVladyslav Akulov-Muratov, Olga Budko
Part II.
In Norway, there are very long-lasting marriages, and in many families the spouses know each other since their childhood - their parents were friends or communicated with each other before the birth of children. In a country, marriage occurs in two ways: either state registration, or church marriage (wedding). At the same time, both are forbidden (the church was separated from the state only in 2012). In addition, it is characterized by the existence of a large number of large families in which the parents did not legitimize their civil relations: the registration in Norway is optional, and children born in a civil marriage have the same rights as children from legal marriage.
In Norwegian families, as a rule, children appear when the parents reach the age of 30 and their financial situation is stable, and the relationship between the spouses is stable. Traditionally, in Norwegian families, up to four children. The birth of a child is supported by the state's one-time material remuneration of the mother (she is given three weeks before childbirth and six weeks of leave after). Then the mother or dad can arrange paid maternity leave for 11 months (but not more than 57 weeks). Moreover, if it is a parent, his salary (which, on average, 15% higher than that of the mother) is kept at a rate of 80-100% depending on the period of such leave. From the first month of life and after reaching 18 years of age, a child is given a separate allowance of 150 euros, regardless of the financial situation of the family.
Either after this period the child is sent to a nursery, or one of the parents, perhaps in turn, cares for him. There are many kindergartens in Norway - they take kids from four months of age, providing them with a huge amount of all kinds of toys, entertainment and educational games. Moreover, men often have men who have the privileges of finding a job for this job. However, visiting a child in a kindergarten does not cost the Norwegian family cheaply.
In state secondary schools everything from school supplies and textbooks ending, free, and no uniforms - parents need only buy baby portfolio and shape. Even first-graders give special orange rucksacks that drivers could see them from afar. If a child attends a private school, then the state pays for 80% of the tuition fee. In schools, already from the first class, there is a profile education, so the parents themselves choose the items for their children. However, parents can call the school and threatened punishment (removal of censure to termination of parental rights) refuse to make additional training for their child, arguing that, according to teachers, they do not like it. Children in the school do not have hot meals (this is the responsibility of parents), and at their breaks in any weather, they send a walk to the street. They study until the end of June, do not have diaries and assessments (each teacher at the beginning of the school year signs a document on the non-disclosure of personal information about the development of the child), the study of religion is optional. Parents' meetings are held in the beginning and at the end of the school year exclusively as organizational measures, and all problematic issues are solved only at a personal meeting between the teacher and the parents. Upon graduation from school, graduates are given the opportunity to feel "freedom" for a few days - all their backstage and antics in society are looked "through their fingers." Therefore, in school, as in another Norwegian society, there is a mass of problems of ethical and criminal nature - public scandals, conflicts and cases of persecution of students are becoming public domain [16]. The problem of low knowledge and motivation of students in many schools in Norway is well-known, and the quality of teachers' work is low - it is easier for them to send a child to the child protection service, causing her and her parents a psychological trauma than actually helping to resolve a conflict. Therefore, a standard Norwegian general school has become just a place for children to spend their time while their parents are making a living.
In the process of bringing up the younger generation in Norwegian families there is no division of responsibilities between parents on a gender basis: both go (in turn) to school fees and try to know the lives of their children. Weekends, holidays, trips to the city are held in the family circle. Law prohibits the punishment of children. Therefore, they are brought up so that they are not too imposed, and the child has a little freedom for himself. However, traditionally, the Norwegians believe that children need not only trust and support, but also constant control over their actions - this is supported by a constant discourse between the authorities and the population regarding the limits and possibilities of parental influence on children. In the case of divorce, 18% of children in Norway live alternately with a father, then with a mother.
In Norway, the older generation does not participate in the education of grandchildren - they are raised by parents (in turn, so that there were no conflicts with employees and employers). Some relief in this is given to them by a ban on advertising aimed at children under the age of 11 years. The younger generation in Norway is very early accustomed to work, cultivating their independence - parents encourage children to look for work at their own pace for earning little money on pocket spending. Young people start an independent life from the age of 18, and parents do not participate in their formation - teens are given full freedom in choosing their profession and social status. Most Norwegians live in installments. However, almost every family has its own home, car, and sometimes a yacht. For the child necessarily arranged private space, up to the outer courtyard: in many families near the house are small houses for games or built cozy corners, where the child feels himself a full-fledged master. In the family, both spouses always work (housewives - a rarity), because you need to pay for loans.
Often the spouses have separate bank accounts, the status of which is not accepted to be interested. Typically, a person pays for all the high costs associated with loans, utilities, and various types of repairs. A woman spends her money on products, buying clothes, paying for a kindergarten or school (quite often, Norwegian families in a coffee shop or restaurant are calculated separately). If in the family each spouse has a car, then all expenses associated with it, pays for themselves. For a child, parents pay the bill equally. At the same time, there are a considerable number of families with a general account in the bank and all expenses are paid equally.Norway occupies an intermediate kind, is yet to be determined, the position between Denmark and Sweden for stakeholder relations system built - a country in Northern Europe with the least developed national system of social relations. The reason for this is the path to its cultural and historical development. Norwegians are people of habits and clan-tribal thinking, whose possibilities are sharply limited by the environment. First, a long alliance with Denmark (which began with the joint Viking campaigns and ended with the Kiel Treaty of 1814), based on general trade and aggression interests. Then - a century ideological confrontation with Sweden, a country of farmers, which was the only union in Norway from them, though their enemies through common land borders, Norwegians quickly adopted many social and psychological features of its national character. And all this time did not stop the struggle for their liberties and their own independence. After all, for the first time and for a long time, the Norwegians had only two, not three social strata - their interaction and gave birth to such national traits as freedom of love and democracy. In addition, according to tradition, Norwegian young people have long left their home in search of fame and wealth in predatory campaigns.
In this aspect, Norway very much reminds Ukraine of its historical development. However, the Norwegians managed better than Ukrainians to dispose of their national resources, including a huge hydrocarbon rents. Therefore, they expect much less difficulty in finding a place in the new world order than the Danes and Swedes: the Norwegians managed to save the family as the main link of society and the full cycle of processes of the Institute of Childhood. It protects them equally from both the cosmopolitanism of the Swedes and the hereditary oligarchy of the Danes. And it guarantees a certain independence of the national economy at the expense of the sustainability of the internal stakholder relations on which it is under construction.
Finland is the first country in the world where women have the same rights with men, and even one of them became her president. But the head of the family, the main breadwinner and support society still remains a man, and women traditionally differ innate patience. However, nowadays, due to the influence of globalization processes, national family traditions are changing rapidly: modern finns, especially in cities, are more concerned with career and socio-financial independence than with the creation of families and the birth of children. Therefore, the average age of brides has risen in the country to 30 years for men and 27 years for women. A civil marriage is gaining in popularity (already every fifth family), and only 30% of families have two or three children, although traditionally Finnish families have always been much bigger.
And if in the public life of the country, the changes that are taking place are not so noticeable (as if the national media had a steady trend of capping over men), then the change in social roles appears very much in the home. Especially when the spouses remain alone: wives who are more in the society and higher salaries for their husbands, actively show their significance in the family. The witnesses of such social and emotional surges are children. And what they see strongly affects their upbringing and character. Therefore, in order to strengthen internal relationships, many Finnish families are trying to spend more free time together - go outdoors on weekends, arrange various joint activities or family-based movie reviews at home. Moreover, the Finns prefer to have their homes, because renting a home in the country, because of the prolonged increase in the cost of living, is profitable only for a short time.
However, such basic socio-psychological changes in the main branches of society do not pass without a trace. Every fifth Finn or Fynk live alone. More than half of Finnish families do not have children, and about 13% have incomplete composition. In the case of divorce due to aggravation of interpersonal relationships, an "prohibition on approaching" is increasingly being imposed. Naturally, in Finnish society, the growth of extremist sentiments in the form of hatred and intolerance, including on religious grounds, is observed replicative. There are various forms of racism at the domestic level, and discrimination in the workplace. Significantly growing negative on the part of Finnish teenagers (especially the age of second degree) in relation to immigrants. Therefore, the Government of Finland, wishing to knock down the growing wave of aggression, has introduced a veiled ban on entering the country (for learning) from young people from a number of developing countries since 2012. And since 2013, it has undertaken to employ or provide places for training for all young people under the age of 25.
Families of Finnish farmers (about 30% of the population) live according to other rules - this is another world in the same country. They have more children, the mentality of which is simpler and more rigorous, the psyche is less traumatized, and health and physical strength are stronger. Early childhood education is taught to work and the simple joy of life, in contrast to urban teenagers, in which behavioral accents are shifted to the least costly material wealth and entertainment. In the farmers' environment, the attitude towards cultural traditions, official marriage and religion (state churches in Finland - Lutheran and Orthodox - have the right to a special church tax collected by the state) are much more serious. Therefore, the farmers' circles were not so ambiguously perceived the entry into force (from 01.03.2017) of the law that legalizes same-sex marriage and represents the right of such married couples to joint adoption of children.
Hidden discrimination on various grounds in Finnish society is confirmed by a large difference in the number of unemployed among autochthonous population and immigrants. The Finnish government is still trying to fight this phenomenon with appeals to Finnish men to actively develop traditional women's professions in the social sphere, education and medicine. However, the stage of strict division of the country's population into social and cultural executions (which gave rise to gender changes and Finnish society) has already ended, and ahead of them there are various forms of confrontation and unwillingness to mix. Thus, among the inhabitants of Finland, especially the newcomers, appeared "diversification". This is also confirmed by the difference in salaries between Finnish men and women, which is increasing in the country with age (up to 40 years of life - up to 15-40%).
In such a state of affairs, Finland is obliged not only to the natural environment of its existence and to various internal socio-economic and political factors and problems, but also to the Neighborhood with the Russian Federation (hereinafter - the Russian Federation), which creates favorable conditions for the poorly controlled by the Finnish government of the processes of cross-border and cross-cultural The transfer of traditions and socio-psychological behavioral attitudes. The basis of such negative processes for Finland was the flow of oligarchic capital into the country with the aim of their legitimization and accumulation. Therefore, even national programs for indexing social benefits and tax cuts have not helped the Finnish government to reduce the difference in the incomes of its citizens, which began to increase sharply in the mid-1990s (with peak in 2007) and is growing again due to sanctions, Imposed by the international community on the Russian Federation. Cross-border corruption-oligarchic paternal JV destroys Finnish society, economy and state.
Today in Finland there is a certain surge in fertility associated with changes in the economic conditions for parents by the state. Therefore, now this country is considered to be one of the best in the world for mother and child. However, many Finnish children live in low income families, which sharply limits the possibilities for their comprehensive development. Mum in the maternity home receives everything you need to care for the newborn. A parent has the right to leave for child care (10 months if he receives 80% of his salary). In case of need, maternity leave can be extended to three years, while living modestly to help with unemployment. There are other programs for young parents. In addition, ramps for wheelchairs are built everywhere and the width of the doors in public transport is increased, which, incidentally, in the cities the mother or father with the child in the carriage goes for free. All public places have children's cots, cafes and restaurants - high chairs for babies, in women's rooms - tables for babies. Almost all expenses for the treatment of the population are offset from the state budget, and medicine itself is only proving. A serious fight against tobacco smoking is being carried out. Finland - the world's first country where the concept of "patient's right" was introduced: concealing a diagnosis from a patient is considered a crime.
One more example of the failure of the most successful cross-cultural and cross-border transfer and the introduction of the experience of public administration in Finland (this time from Sweden) can be the response of the government to the aging population. Under the existing tradition of living together with the older generation's family, a state housing development program for the elderly has been developed and implemented in the country, which must live separately when receiving services at home. With the fact that with such changes, the retirement provision of the Finns becomes one of the best in the world (the average retirement age is about 61 years with a life expectancy of pensioners at least another 15-20 years), and the release of time in the productive part of the population gives impetus to the growth of the national economy , These actions caused a drop in the market of various services in homes and boarding houses for the elderly, the loss of jobs associated with them. Although only every twentieth old cares for a relative or guardian, and in 2016 all long-term unemployed older than 60 years old who have been in this status for more than five years have been sent to retirement. In addition, despite the plans of the Finnish government to bring the age-old barrier to retirement to 65 years, there is a tendency in society to reduce the total length of service. And this will lead in the near future to the presence in the country of about half a million pensioners with a minimum pension, providing a separate housing which will be a heavy burden on the working segment of the population.The knowledge gained by Finns is very selective: they are very high in mathematics and the ability to use a computer, and sharply decrease in humanitarian disciplines. General secondary education is free. The training begins at the age of seven and lasts for nine years. However, every child has the right to a pre-primary education one year before the start of compulsory education and the opportunity to study at home. The school year lasts 188 days (from August to the end of May), but the municipalities independently distribute study days between autumn and spring semesters. Children are required to go to the nearest school, but parents prefer to send them to more establishments that are prestigious. If the school is more than two and a half miles, then pupils up to the 6th grade are required to bring there and back by taxi at the expense of the municipalities. A lot of attention is paid to the safety of children in schools, but every tenth Finnish schoolboy experiences bullying at the place of study.
Textbooks, notebooks, stationery and school meals are free. Shelves with library books are freely standing in corridors. In the junior classes, they teach Finnish, mathematics, natural science and home-grooming (teaching the basics of religion only with the consent of the parents). Grades begin to be displayed only from the 4th grade, including marks for behavior (from 4 to 10 points) - this is used verbal gradation: "excellent", "good", "change" and "necessary training." From the 3rd grade English is taught, from the 5th - German or French, with the 7th - Swedish. Immigrant children from the first class study their mother tongue. At the Finnish school, many are written to teach children to have their own opinions on various issues and express their literary language.
Upon graduation from secondary school, a teenager can continue free education at the Lyceum to obtain a certificate of maturity and preparation for further education at an institution of higher education (and entrance examinations are submitted to lyceum students before the end of the course). On the other hand, to go to a vocational school to receive the chosen profession and further work in the specialty (and you can study both in college and in the production by contract).
Higher education in Finland is free for Finns, visitors from EU countries and the European Economic Area, students for exchange (only tuition fees and annual contributions for compulsory membership in student unions are paid). In order to enter the university, unlike most other Nordic countries, successful entrance examinations are required. The learning process is in Finnish, but there are universities where you can learn English or Swedish. The national system of higher education is divided into universities providing academic knowledge (undergraduate, postgraduate, postgraduate), and specialized polytechnic institutes and schools that teach students practical skills in the fields of economics, business, technology and the arts. Higher education institutions are distributed by region of the country, which could be studied without leaving far from home. At the same time, their location strongly influences the choice of specialties among students, since they are practiced in different, mainly local, enterprises, with which the higher education establishments have established close contact.
The index of education in Finland is one of the highest in the world, but the average IQ in the country does not grow since 1997. It is not surprising, because with the increase of the quota of full-time training places at universities, their funding was reduced, which led to the dismissal of 5200 teachers. In addition, the number and differentiated specialization of secondary schools, the length of the school day and the restructured disciplines studied were cut. As a result, the unemployment rate among people with higher education, especially in the field of natural sciences and technology, has grown by about a third. All this, in combination with other markers, speaks of the processes of deteriorating quality of training and strengthening the outflow of "brain" due to changes in social conditions and living standards in the country.
In Finland, there are new types of family-social JIs that divide the nation, 70% of which now reside in cities or their surrounding municipalities. Postindustrial social relations based on modern technology and cultural effects of globalization create "new" paradigm fetish for Finnish parents their child should get a great education, a family, get a high position in society and become a respected man. Therefore, Finnish parents do not seek to have a great offspring - to raise one child in the spirit of "modern" requirements and so much money and resources are coming. In addition, the growth of the population is hampered by the overall steady decline in incomes and gaps in education (with the state also plans to raise fees for kindergarten services). Such a number of internal problems and contradictions that have come to the patriarchal Suomi through the processes of globalization and an adaptation of foreign experience, forcibly change the traditional system of social and stakeholder relations, destroying the national identity, increasing psychological stress and cause discontent still hidden population.
To be continued...