Головні статті

№6 / 2016
23.11.2016, 13:00

PARLIAMENTARY ELECTIONS 2015 AND IMPACT OF NEW MEDIA AS A TOOL OF INTERACTIVE POLITICAL COMMUNICATION OF SWITZERLAND: HISTORICAL EXPERIENCE AND LESSONS FOR THE FUTURE

Iolanta-Anna de Vris

Summary

The 18th of October 2015 the Swiss accomplished their civil duty. How the new political spectrum of the country did influence the dialogue of Switzerland with the EU? Is the Swiss democracy mechanism as exactly as in the past? The new media as the effective communication method gradually take their position in the information strategy of the Swiss political actors.

Keywords: new media, election campaign, parliamentary elections 2015, Swiss Confederation, political communication.

Every four years, the citizens of Switzerland update parliament, which has two chambers - the National Council and the Council of Cantons. The main outcome of the elections to the legislature in 2015 was the shift of the Swiss political landscape to the right, and the theme of migration, as expected, caused the biggest stir in Swiss society. The overall age lawmakers significantly increased, except this time the Parliament gets more women. Certain public sentiment indicator was the turnout that does not exceed 50%. In this connection, the question arises whether the mechanism of Swiss democracy exactly the same as in the historical past? The former head of the Federal Department of the Interior Pascal Kushpen so commented: "Our system was on the crisis ..." [1].

This time the political party of the right direction wan - the Swiss People's Party (SNP) - 29.4% of the vote was given to it by members of the party, which in the early 80s had only 10% support. Currently with 246 seats in the National Council took representatives of 65 SNP, which is nine more seats than in the previous parliament.

To the leaders of the race in 2015 we should include the following political parties: Swiss Socialist Party - 18.8% of the vote and 43 seats (-3), the Liberal Radical Party - 16.4% of the vote and 33 seats (3) a democratic Christian Party - 11.6% of the vote and 27 seats (-1), Swiss environmental Party - The Greens - 7.1% of the vote and 11 seats (-4). Strengthening the position of the Liberal Radical Party was quite predictable phenomenon Swiss political landscape, while the Socialist Party is still the second most important political force in Bern.

Political columnist of the influential publication Le Temps Iv Petinyan noted that "... Switzerland, which is likely just want smaller, less foreigners, fewer refugees fewer passengers in trains, less speed changes less conflict, less taxes, less Europe ..." [2 ].

Political expert of Geneva University Pascal Skyarnini comments on the election results: "Switzerland should not expect a reversal in the political elections. However, small changes can lead to significant differences. If the center of gravity moves to the right of the Parliament, it must have consequences for domestic policy, particularly in the energy, economic, fiscal and immigration in the area." Therefore, according to Pascal Skyarini additional votes collected by the Swiss People's Party will not have a significant impact on the foreign policy of the country and its diplomatic tools.

It should be stressed that all the trends of previous years - consolidate the position of the Swiss People's Party and the increased attention of voters to the Liberal Radical Party - remained within the established electoral base. The general trend of the election campaign in 2015 was an increase in the advertising budget - 12.5 million Swiss francs, which indicates increased competition among political parties, although the campaign itself can not be called on rich media drives.

It must be emphasized that the election results showed a feature of the Swiss political system (the system balances) continues to work effectively. Thus, the National Council received the most right-wing parties, and the Council cantons - the center-left party. It is indisputable that the historical and political landscape of Switzerland is increasingly becoming the division inherent model state for the majority and the opposition.

Continuity in political circles did not pass Switzerland. This time, the parliament passed a daughter many years the leader of the Swiss People's Party, big businessman Christoph Blohera - Magdalena Martullo Bloher.

Since the theme of migration at the center of the electoral discourse elections in 2015, we must consider the context of migration issues in Switzerland. In February 2014, Switzerland voted by referendum for establishing immigration quotas, which conflicted with the principle of free movement. Meanwhile, the Swiss do not tend to substantial removal of the country in the historical existence of the European Community, so under pressure from Brussels of the new law was under threat.

Traditionally, after the parliamentary elections Swiss Confederation elect the members of the Federal Council - the cabinet of the state. Under the new government must seek a way out of the deadlock historical and political angle, when the company seeks to strengthen immigration control, and depending on the decisions of the European Commission does not leave enough space for the realization of such aspirations. In February, the Federal Council has identified four priorities of Swiss foreign policy for 2019, which are generally continues the previous year State.

Political and diplomatic dialogue with Brussels makes Swiss diplomacy to seek institutional conditions for entering the EU internal market and strengthening legal security. An important role in the efficient conduct of the dialogue played bilateral relations with Switzerland and its historically important traditional economic partners - Germany, Austria, France and Italy.

It should be noted a general tendency that the arrival of storytelling to the Swiss political communication, and communication in the form of new media occurred with some delay and does not become similar to other European countries scale. The reason - the sustainability of historical and political landscape of the state and especially the perception of political actors of society. In particular, traditional Swiss voters are not inclined to support very strong and dominant personalities.

Eve of federal election in 2011 marked a turning point in recognizing the potential of new media of the Swiss political actors. The question that the online campaign of the Swiss People's Party and campaign against online initiatives of the same party, aimed at significantly limiting migration contributed to raising tensions in the Swiss policy that indicates some strengthening of online political communication format of the country. Resonance caused this initiative can only be compared to the scale discussions on the European Economic Area in 1992.

The team with the communication of the Federal Council of Switzerland also began to take the first steps towards the formation of its digital strategy. Yes, Andre Simonatstsi, spokesman for the Federal Council opened an account in Twitter in December 2015 "On the way to elections in the Federal Council" - the debut message of Simonatstsi in the space of social media, which had a link to the website of the Confederation, where there was live broadcast of the course of elections. Send photos complement of seven members of the Federal Council, had the honor to give Eveline Widmer-Shlumpf, Federal Advisor and Representative Citizens Democratic Party, whose mandate ends. A few hours after the election of Guy Parmelana (Swiss People's Party), Andre Simonatstsi a classic case reported on the press conference adviser of the Canton of Vaud Parmelana and placed in your account representative picture of the newly elected executive. It should be noted that twittersphere actively reacted to the election results and range of comments ranged from enthusiastic to very negative.

However, the newly elected federal advisor in no hurry to start the online chat with the public. Information on his activities as leader of the Federal Department of Defence, public safety and sports can only be obtained from the official website of the Federal Council. In fact, the government of Switzerland in the late twentieth century. did not have a web property. Under his work was covered with some delay, typical for classic media. However, the new media is a platform for communication with instant feedback. Information space significantly influenced the voter who expects politicians to easy communication online. National adviser of the canton of Fribourg, Jean-Francois Shteyyert rose from the Spokesman for the Secretary General of the Swiss Socialist Party. It adheres to the idea of ​​increasing political communication formats.

Clearly, the broad information field influences the development of the competitive environment, which leads to the need for correct accents. Urgent development is focused personal marketing through which political actors representing the public their achievements and their consequences is a new phenomenon for Swiss politics. Much attention in the course of working out the strategy of building a personal marketing presence provided visualization and tracking policy community response. The speed of information exchange leaves no room for error.

The greatest risk includes online policy response to certain events that may go counter to its communication strategy. Thus, the most famous cases of failure to use Twitter is the reaction of the federal councilor Doris Loythard terrorist attack on Charlie Hebdo - "Satire does not allow it, but no picture or publication does not justify violence, which should be condemned, not retreating" [3]. Under public pressure, it was forced to admit that it "partly misunderstood" and that "freedom of the press (was) a fundamental right."

It is also worth noting the increasing level of demand for communications teams as global trend. To counter the challenges modern information necessary to respond quickly and thoroughly because the player needs political support and information protection. Jean-Francois Shteyyert stresses that federal departments have strengthened their communication. He explains that this process should be seen as a response to the growing needs of the media who need to file messages or adapted as a mechanism of self-protection information extinction. Swiss experts predict that the future political activity in the new media will tend substantially increase. However, there is some skepticism about the place of social media in political communication strategies as entertaining elements accompanying online communication and more common opposition forces are not always popular in a country where decisions are taken collectively by direct democracy.

However, a bright example of the potential of new technologies to communicate information strategy serves as the deputy of South Hiltpold, representative of the Liberal Radical Party. The politician has long experience of communication over the Internet, so in 2001 during the first campaign with the Geneva council he was one of the first discovered a website that is updated on a regular basis. In 2007, the politician has successfully participated in the campaign for elections to the National Council and in his definition of the Internet was "more professional with greater ease of reading." Also one of the first he opened a Twitter-Account in April 2009. Hiltpold emphasized that this social network is seen and better than Facebook. Traced pattern that successful political career Hiltpold accompanied by an information strategy with the extensive use of online communication.

At the same time when new media gradually began to receive recognition in Swiss politics, especially during federal elections in 2015, South Hiltpold defines the place of social media in political communication: "...Their widespread use does not guarantee the election because they rather about ' unites friends or opponents; this is not a basis by which to convince new voters." The representative of the Liberal Radical Party acknowledges that social networking has become more restrained. Hiltpold account serves "only to highlight its political and social activities," unlike other politicians, he does not provide personal information messages - reports from holiday or family photo. Remove part of the online strategy deputy of the National Council is the fact that it does not use Twitter-account to attack opponents.

It should be noted that political officials have assumed errors using social networks as a space exclusively for philosophical, historical and associative thinking and citing its agenda. Voter seeks primarily to learn about the results of policy or political party in a comprehensible form, i.e. in that when the gains are calculated not political slogans and talking about specific opportunities created for voters during the political activities of the authorities historically.

In the evolution of political communication, Switzerland has several major movements. One of them, of course, was to increase the digital presence of politicians belonging to other growth information exchange in general, and the share of online media accounts for over 90% of communications, which is a worldwide trend. As a result, competition for presence information increases significantly and takes on new forms and methods; special place belongs to the formation of personal marketing strategy. However, the voter can be held hostage to uncontrolled information flow and able to rely solely on their own media literacy.

New tool of straight democracy in Switzerland was the initiative to create a platform left centrists wecollect.ch, a web resource for gathering signatures for referendums. This practice has become entrenched in the political communications of other countries, in turn Bern no hurry with the introduction of resource mobilization of society at any time. Judge Daniel Graf of communication appreciates the work platform and said that he personally is working to "catapult democracy in the network." Slogan of wecollect.ch web resource, designed to make the political life inseparable from the new technologies of communication, was phrase: "For a more balanced and thought-out policy."

Mechanism of action of this platform, signing the initiative over the Internet, the citizen has received a completed official pdf-form, which need to sign and send it by mail. Internet platform for collecting online signatures for a particular initiative has effectively operate in the EU. In Iceland, 30 thousand. People demanded the resignation of Prime Minister through Panama gates, which is 10% of the population in France, opponents of the law on labor mobilized 1.3 million by creating a reference platform change.org.

However, the question whether the mobilization of citizens through the Internet does not affect the reduction of confidence in the political sphere in general? Additional access to information promotes only the best coverage of certain issues. Since Switzerland resonant important for society issue raised in referendums - it is helps you have a broad discussion of certain issues, and social networks become another platform for gathering and sharing information.

Historic sustainability of the Swiss political system also affects the development of an information strategy and the use of new media because social networks are very effective in a crisis communication, enabling politicians to immediately declare his actions or his reaction to a specific event. For straight democracy, voters need to have full information about the positive and negative consequences of their choices. This is different Swiss political system of French voters support the political personalities, which are already outstanding political action. At the same time, policies must constantly vie for voter attention, effectively ensuring a place in the media, contributing to the polarization of electoral space. Fixed a tendency, when successful information strategy protected the absence of meaningful political action. To be elected means that you clearly define your position. The process also contributes to the polarization that politicians are under the influence of their powerful political forces. The main advantages that political communication provide new media include your own resource, creating a close connection and communication with the politician direction, humanization of politics.

However, Switzerland does not require political personalities approach to society as one of the main functions of the new media. Their role is significantly increased when necessary to overcome great distances countries, and to promote dialogue between government and society. In the classic tool of public initiatives, the Confederation has small cantons, under these conditions is a close relationship legislative and executive authorities with voters. Therefore, in the near future is unlikely to arise Swiss political climate "storm" in social networks.

During parliamentary elections in 2015 is not a proliferation of cases where online active candidates gained the most support. The reasons should be called to the fact that positioning in the canton is much more important than media campaign.

Thus, the experience of Switzerland confirmed that the new media as a tool to promote interactive political communication personalization election campaigns and focus around target groups, which makes the classic mass media lose their positions. Note that the new media contribute to the growth of the public to the political life of the country is likely in future initiatives to approach Swiss democracy and new media development will be based on historically established traditionally Swiss own experience.

References

1.​ www.tdg.ch/suisse/<wbr>couchepin-systeme-connait-<wbr>debut-crise/story/121421

2.​ www.letemps.ch/<wbr>opinions/2015/09/18/suisse-ne-<wbr>se-passe-rien

3.​www.laliberte.ch/<wbr>news/suisse/la-maladresse-de-<wbr>doris-leuthard-269831

Swiss "march to Canossa": economic and social conditions the restoration of diplomatic relations between Switzerland and the USSR

Viktoriya Perchyborsh

Summary

The article comprises a summary of the reasons of the breach of diplomatic relations between the Swiss Confederation and the Soviet Union in 1923, submitted the analysis of social and economic conditions of their renewal through an exchange of notes in Belgrade March 18, 1946.

Keywords: the Swiss Confederation, the Soviet Union, the diplomatic mission, the Federal Council, economic diplomacy, military internees.

The expression "to go to Canossa" ("nach Canossa gehen"), associated with an episode in the history of medieval Europe, when in 1077 the Holy Roman Emperor Henry IV was forced through humiliation seek mercy of Pope Gregory VII, who won the war, is often used in the European scientific community to describe the act of penance, often - against the will or forced. That is how Swiss researchers describe the exchange of notes in Belgrade March 18, 1946, which marked the resumption of diplomatic relations between Switzerland and the Soviet Union.

First, we need to turn briefly to describe the events of 1917-1923, causing the gap between countries and complicate the dialogue between them during the Second World War. "Decree on Land", which was issued by the Bolsheviks shortly after the October Revolution proclaimed and all the land of the former Russian empire owned by the state violated the rights of private property about 8 thousand. Swiss who lived and worked in these areas. Furthermore, Switzerland does not recognize the new Soviet government, and a permanent diplomatic mission Ian Berzin was sent from Bern via accusations of revolutionary propaganda. A short recession tension in bilateral relations of Switzerland and the Soviet Union early 1920s. was interrupted of murder in Lozano on 10 May 1923 the Soviet plenipotentiary Vatslava Vorovskogo. However, the last straw in bilateral relations was the justification November 14 of that year murderers thieves, Maurice Conradi, the son of a Swiss entrepreneur - the owner of the chocolate factory in St. Petersburg, which went bankrupt after the events of 1917. Official diplomatic relations between the two countries was terminated on June 20, 1923 by issuing the RSFSR "Decree on the boycott against Switzerland" [1].

The process of gradual search capabilities restoration of diplomatic relations between Switzerland and the Soviet Union, according to the overwhelming majority of scientists, was launched "compromise Berlin" in 1934, appeared as a result of the adoption of the USSR to the League of Nations. After a preliminary analysis of the sources of Swiss diplomatic history of the first half of the twentieth century, we can conclude that the process was due to complex factors of social and economic nature.

Although the economic factor in the restoration of diplomatic relations between the USSR and the Swiss Confederation is not given paramount importance in the present study, we have reason to believe that its role in this process also deserves attention.

Exhaustion of war, as Allied and Axis countries, affected their trade capacity. And before the Swiss Confederation again faced the problem of finding alternative partners. In early 1944 vector Swiss economic diplomacy was returned to the east, there was a review of economic relations with the USSR. Signed, despite the absence of diplomatic relations between the two countries in Moscow on 24 February 1941 agreement "On trade between the Swiss Confederation and the Soviet Union" opened the country's prospects for effective implementation of trade totaling CHF 100 million. Franks. However, due to the beginning of the Soviet-German war of June 22, 1941 (a previous agreement provided for the use of German resources, German territory for transit) Switzerland was forced to June 25, 1941 a ban on Soviet assets, reporting official Moscow that such measures are extremely preventive character. However, in late 1942 the Treaty of 24 February 1941 was eliminated. However, in early 1944 at the highest central authorities have decided to prepare new negotiations with the Soviet leadership [2, c.181-184].

Swiss diplomats came to prepare talks in Moscow with extreme caution. At the proposal of the Department of National Economy V. Shtampfli the Federal Council, which are classified "top secret, do not press" on August 14, 1944 are grounds on which Moscow was to leave for Switzerland unofficial mission composed of representatives had come industrial and commercial circles. Among other tasks, envisaged mission measures aimed to analyze the needs of the Soviet market and verify information on the extent of commodity famine in the USSR, and was establishing direct contact with senior party leadership. Therefore, mission head Hans Ebraru was charged informally convey a telegram with the Swiss proposals to the People's Commissars of the USSR Foreign Trade Anastasiy Mikoyan [3, c. 538-541].

No response to this telegram from the Soviet leadership was not. Unable to find a logical explanation for this, the Head of Delegation G. Ebrar concluded what should be "the result of a bad mood or negative attitude in particular Asian way" [4, c. 874]. So, try adjusting the Swiss-Soviet relations once again encountered on the ground. The solution to this situation G. Ebrar in his letter to the heads of federal departments that have relevance to the case, calls rapprochement by facilitating governments of third countries, and to try new direct contacts proposes to wait for thorough preparation and conveniently. In addition, the cornerstone of the case, according to G. Ebrara, was to be the problems that arose after the start of the German-Soviet war, particularly concerned opposed the decision of 25 June 1941 on the Prohibition of Soviet assets in Switzerland. In support of these words by the letter gives assurances fact that this decision will be canceled, which is already contained in the above telegram to A. Mikoyan. Now, not to be unfounded, the Federal Council would issue a formal communique. However, G. Ebrar not rule out the possibility that such an initiative could again be left without attention Stalinist leadership [4, c. 874-876].

Social issues, which was the key to the process of restoring the Swiss-Soviet diplomatic relations can be called the problem of repatriation of Soviet military internees. It is complete accept the Soviet leadership and failure in this case to take a tough stance in protection of their interests (which Switzerland tried to make the vast majority of international conflicts from the time of formation of the New Covenant in 1848) and have been identified by researchers as a "march to Canossa."

As of summer 1945, issue of repatriation of Soviet military in Switzerland and Swiss citizens from Western European countries that belonged to the Soviet occupation zone was essential in the context of the restoration of diplomatic relations between Switzerland and the USSR.

For the initial phase of the relevant negotiations in June 1945 was sent to the Swiss diplomatic mission headed by General O. Vikhorev. The negotiations were successful, why do strongly believe that Swiss historiography contributed many senior Swiss diplomat Raymond Probst, who spoke Russian, as raised in Riga. In turn, the memoirs of Soviet diplomat Andrei Gromyko, Soviet permanent representative to the UN (1946-1948) Minister of Foreign Affairs of the USSR (1957-1985) there is the assurance that it was his willingness to immediately inform Moscow about the readiness of the Swiss side to start negotiations, which he expressed during an informal dinner with US Vice President Henry Wallace, played a crucial role in the negotiations [5, c. 120-121].

In his first visit, O. Vikhorev visited camps where Soviet citizens interned held and personally convinced that the Moscow accusations of official propaganda that the Swiss side prevents Soviet interned return home, is unfounded.

The issue of return of Swiss citizens from the occupied European countries should have discussed with General O. Vikhorev during the next visit of his delegation in August 1945. However, soon after the start of Major General Herman Flyukiher, who represented Switzerland in the negotiations with the Soviet delegation (after the rapprochement was appointed the first Ambassador of Switzerland to the USSR), concluded that "the Russian delegation was sent to Switzerland is not in order to check the behavior of Russian refugees and resolve the issue of repatriation. This problem is not too worried about the Russians. In fact, they are primarily engaged in direct contacts with Switzerland and collecting information on the attitude of the Swiss authorities to the Soviet Union"[6]. Thus, during the talks with the delegation of the Soviet Union failed to raise the issue of repatriation of Swiss citizens and reach clear agreements.

After all, October 1, 1945 was signed by the Soviet-Swiss communiqué by which this month has been made about the return of 100 Soviet soldiers, mostly from the Caucasus republics that had previously refused to turn. In turn, the permission of Moscow to Switzerland back its citizens from the occupied Western Europe.

However, O.Vikhorev had to stay in Bern to address contentious cases of repatriation of military engineer Vladimir Novikov (in 1942 fell into German captivity and fled to Switzerland) and pilot Gennady Kochetkov (immediately after the war in August 1945 kidnapped and put on Swiss territory Soviet fighter). Requirements Soviet side pretend these people did not find understanding the Federal Council. Then the Soviet Union resorted to pressure on Switzerland, including Swiss arrested five diplomats in East Prussia, Manchuria and Budapest. Realizing that the other out of the situation was, Confederation was forced to issue O. Vikhorev both Soviet citizens and thus acknowledge their willingness to make concessions, as reflected in the preparation of the text of the agreement. Thus, the first version of the text of the agreement on restoring diplomatic relations between the countries contained a clause that it was the fault of the Swiss diplomatic relations between the two countries has not been able to recover, but in the final version of this remark was replaced by expressing regret over the fact that before diplomatic relations was not [1]. Thus, March 18, 1946 the Soviet Union and Switzerland have resumed diplomatic relations, and the next month, was the appointment of ambassadors.

Therefore, we can conclude that among the main prerequisites for the restoration of diplomatic relations between Switzerland and the USSR are social and economic. The main prerequisite was economic necessity Swiss authorities to seek alternative trade links, as traditional partners were exhausted long warfare. In addressing the main issues in international relations social issues - military internee's repatriation - Soviet methods applied pressure (arrest diplomats). However, in terms of post-war system of international relations Switzerland did not have enough strength and international support for an open confrontation, and therefore had to go to all the conditions of the Soviet side. It is under such circumstances 18 March 1946 in Belgrade there was an exchange of notes between the Swiss and the Soviet diplomatic missions, which marked a new stage of bilateral relations between these countries.

References

1. Petrov I.A. Diplomatic relations Russia-Switzerland: from the break to restore / I.A. Petrov [Electron resource] - Access mode: www.swiss-ce.rsuh.ru/news/<wbr>detail.php

2. Proposition du Chef du Département del'Economie publique, W. Stampßi, au Conseil federal: 10.01.1944 [Електронний ресурс] - Режим доступу:db.dodis.ch/<wbr>document/47671 − С. 181-184.

3. Proposition du Chef du Département del'Economie publique, W. Stampßi, au Conseil federal:14.08.1944 [Електронний ресурс] - Режим доступу: db.dodis.ch/document/<wbr>47802 - С. 538-541.

4. Le Délégué du Conseil fédéral aux Accords commerciaux, H. Ebrard, au Chef du Département de l'Economie publique, W. Stampfli, au Chef du Département politique, M. Petitpierre, au Directeur de la Division du Commerce du Département de l'Economie publique, J. Hotz, au Chef de la Division des Affaires étrangères du Département politique, W. Stucki: 31.01.1945 [Електронний ресурс] - Режим доступу: db.dodis.ch/document/<wbr>47956 - С. 873-876.

5. A.A. Gromyko Memorial Book / A.A. Gromyko. - M .: Publishing House of Political Literature, 1990. - 512 p.

6. Besprechung mit Oberstdivisionär Flückiger überdie Behandlung der Frage der Heimschaffung unserer Landsleute aus russisch besetzten Gebieten bei Anlass der gegenwärtig in unserm Land anwesenden russischen Delegation: 14.08.1945 [Електронний ресурс] - Режим доступу: db.dodis.ch/document/<wbr>1744 − 2 c.

Ukraine - US: Dilemmas of strategic partnership

Lyudmyla Chekalenko

Summary

The article is devoted to the complex US-Ukraine bilateral relations. The author reflects on the causes questions about situational US attitude to Ukraine in the recent past, about the origins of the strategic partnership, the US support of our country in the confrontation with Russia.

Key words: USA, US-Ukraine bilateral relations, situational attitude, origins of the strategic partnership, the confrontation with Russia.

Cooperation Ukraine and United States is the determining factor in preserving the sovereignty of Ukraine, sustainable global and regional situation and its development. US defend Ukraine in its opposition to Russian aggressors not only through international legal mechanisms, but also through the introduction of unilateral economic sanctions. Thus, September 12, 2014 the United States added to the list authorized by Sberbank of Russia, Transneft, Surgutneftegaz, Gazprom Neft, Lukoil, Gazprom, and five high-tech defense and public corporations, including Rostehnolohyy [1].

Here is a brief information about the level of bilateral cooperation, recognition of Ukraine - December 25, 1991. Establishing Diplomatic Relations was on January 3, 1992. Diplomatic missions Embassy of Ukraine to the United States, Consulate General of Ukraine in New York, San Francisco and Chicago, the US Embassy in Ukraine. Number of valid documents - 137. In fact, with the establishment of diplomatic relations between States relations have developed quite actively, albeit contradictory. Launching the Ukrainian-American relations contributed to the official visit of President of Ukraine to the United States in May 1992, which initiated the creation of the legal framework for cooperation.

Despite the intensive bilateral contacts during 1992, the United States revealed a lack of understanding and awareness of new political realities that have emerged in Europe with the collapse of the Soviet Union. The American administration was characterized by inertia perception of relations with Ukraine mainly through the prism of relations with Russia. Meanwhile, pro-Russian circles in Washington perceived Ukraine, its nuclear weapon as a potential threat to Russia itself, what convinced the US considering Ukrainian state is temporary and transitional.

The United States openly blocked the political and economic contacts with Ukraine for ratification of the Treaty on the START-1, the Lisbon Protocol and the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons.

Certain changes in the perception of Ukraine did not make American politicians, but lawmakers - Congress House of Representatives, where the visit to Ukraine took place in April 1993. In their opinion, our country should be regarded as a separate sovereign state, whose aspirations for independence should be supported by Washington. One of the first American supporters watching on the concept of Ukraine became special adviser to Secretary of State Relations NIS S. Talbott. He believed that relations with Ukraine should shift the center of gravity of the problems of nuclear disarmament on a range of issues of cooperation and development of relations between the US - Ukraine irrespective of relations with Russia.

During the visit(1993) next US Secretary of State W. Christopher invited Ukraine to join the NATO program "Partnership for Peace", which can be considered a tactical means to ensure the security of Central and Eastern Europe. Overcoming the crisis of relations were the results of the meeting in Moscow January 14, 1994 the Presidents of the United States, Russia and Ukraine on nuclear disarmament, which culminated in the signing of the tripartite declaration. After ratification by the Verkhovna Rada Ukraine NPT increased cooperation with the IMF, IFC, EBRD and the EU. Thus, the positive result of global solutions Ukraine on nuclear weapons development of Ukrainian-American relations.

An important political result of the visit of President of Ukraine to the USA (19-23 November 1994) was the signing of the Charter of Ukrainian-American partnership, friendship and cooperation, and the conclusion of the 14 documents. Significant political success of diplomacy was to create a Ukrainian-American intergovernmental commission headed by the President of Ukraine Leonid Kuchma and US Vice President A. Gor in September 1996. The Commission has established a practical mechanism to implement the principles of strategic partnership and ongoing dialogue on a wide range of bilateral and multilateral issues of mutual interest.

So in the Ukrainian-American relations during the 1990-2010 observed as the stages of convergence (when it came to possible strategic partnerships) and periods of estrangement (when in Washington discussed the possibility of sanctions against Ukraine). Although Washington has provided political support to the movement for independence and democracy in Ukraine, but the leading partner of the United States in the region remained Russia. This is what determines the policies of other post-Soviet countries. Of course, the United States and other Western countries feared that the Soviet Union's collapse would lead to destabilization in the region. This position is clearly outlined US President George. W. Bush in early August 1991 during his visit to Kyiv, when he said that the United States would support freedom in Ukraine, but not independence from the Soviet Union. Separatist tendencies in the USSR then US president described as "suicidal nationalism." In just three weeks after Ukraine declared its independence.

The most important areas of cooperation of the two states at the beginning of the millennium focused on stabilizing Iraq and transparent parliamentary elections in 2006, support from Washington Ukraine's accession to NATO and the WTO Enlargement democratic reforms in Ukraine and others. In the economic sphere Protocol on access to goods and services, Ukraine was granted the status of a market economy, the US Congress canceled amendment "Jackson-Venik" and so on.

One of the priorities of the United States in cooperation with Ukraine is to support Ukrainian efforts to achieve energy independence. US companies ExxonMobil and Chevron are very interested in the Ukrainian energy market and, according to US Ambassador to Ukraine have to bring the latest technology, know-how and American money in the Ukrainian energy sector.

Ukraine and the US agreed to supply nuclear fuel for nuclear power plants the US Company Westinghouse, which in Ukraine successfully passed examination. Rosatom now lost the monopoly on the Ukrainian fuel market, but so far, unlike Russia's Gazprom, is the supplier. Later issues of delivery and loading of the fuel deal with the operating organization of all operating nuclear power plants - the company "Energoatom". The current contract between Energoatom and the Swedish division of Westinghouse ElectricSweden AB to supply nuclear fuel for Ukrainian nuclear power plant April 11, 2014 the parties agreed to extend for 5 years - until 2020. However, cooperation with Westinghouse allow the continued use of Russian gas, as given under that contract, American fuel assemblies are loaded only two units of the South-Ukrainian NPP and one unit of the Zaporizhzhya NPP. The remaining 12 reactors still operate on Russian fuel.

A special event in the Ukrainian-American relations arrangements were enshrined in the Charter Ukraine - US Strategic Partnership of 20 December 2008. Recognizing the importance of well-functioning energy sector, the parties intend to work closely together on rehabilitating and modernizing the capacity of Ukrainian gas transport infrastructure, diversify and secure sources of Ukrainian nuclear fuel that will reduce Ukraine's dependence on other foreign suppliers. The American side is interested in issues of shale gas in Ukraine.

The development of the Roadmap priorities of Ukrainian-American cooperation Ukraine and the United States launched a bilateral group on energy. According to the Declaration of the Summit USA - EC of 10 June 2008 the country's deepening trilateral dialogue with the European Union on enhanced energy security. Issues discussed during the official visit of the President of Ukraine to the United States in April 2010, concerning cooperation in the field of nuclear energy, nuclear security, in trade and investment, joint action to combat the economic crisis. One of the important areas of cooperation is the creation of the interstate high-level body that defined the proposal of Ukraine Commission on Strategic Partnership.

Active dialogue Ukraine - US confirmed a number of contacts in the coming years, including the recall visit to Ukraine November 4, 2013 Assistant Secretary of State for European and Eurasian Affairs B. Nuland; 5 December 2013 - visit to Ukraine B. Nuland to attend the OSCE Ministerial meeting in Kiev. On February 1, 2014 - Meeting of the Munich Security Conference and others.There are also bilateral high-level structure. The main Ukrainian-American intergovernmental body, which aims to implement the Strategic Partnership Charter, is a bilateral Strategic Partnership Commission (SPC), which co-chaired by Ukraine's Foreign Minister and US Secretary of State. PCB coordinates the activities of six inter-sectoral mechanisms, which include the responsibility of political dialogue and the rule of law, non-proliferation and export control, energy and nuclear safety, science and technology, trade and investment, and defense. Dialogue on trade and economic sphere institutionally organized in the form of bilateral Council on Trade and Investment.

Regarding trade and economic cooperation, we should note that in 2013 the trade turnover between Ukraine and the United States amounted to 2.7528 billion dollars. The deficit of the balance of bilateral trade amounted to 814.8 million dollars. This was the fall of Ukrainian exports to the US by 20.8% by the end of November 2013 amounted to 969 million dollars. At the same time, imports of US production in Ukraine grew by 3.5% (or 60.7 million dollars.) and amounted to 1.7838 billion dollars. Share of Ukrainian exports are following commodity groups: №28 (inorganic chemistry), №72 (iron and steel), №73 (articles of iron and steel) and №27 (energy materials). In terms of direct investments in Ukraine's economy, the US occupied the twelfth place. As of October 1, 2013 in the economy of our country attracted US $ 985.8 million. US investments, representing 1.7% of total FDI.

US President Barack Obama and other politicians actively supported Ukraine in its struggle for national sovereignty, independence and territorial integrity. It is the United States launched a campaign introducing political and economic sanctions against Russia, which is an undeclared war against a sovereign State Ukraine (2014). That the United States started a dialogue with the Russian leadership to the peaceful solution of problems and crisis. US Secretary of State assured the Ukrainian side that the president understands the consequences of such actions. This would, according to the American side, not only a violation of all international laws, but also extremely dangerous actions that will lead to international isolation and sanctions strengthened. Germany, France and other countries in Europe will no doubt react to it. Secretary of State also said that Washington and Kyiv are partners and strategic allies [2].

US sanctions against Russia spread to The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) [3], although this prohibition does not apply to the operation of the International Space Station (ISS). The US space agency NASA announced that the cease cooperation with Russia in protest against the policy of Russia on Crimea. Washington also stopped issuing licenses for the export and re-export of military products in Russia (in 2013 the US exported explosives and laser devices $ 1.5 billion.) [4]. US President Obama called on the world to protect Ukraine [5].

Thus, Ukraine considers the partnership with the United States as a strategic and believe that USA will have the same position.

References

1. The United States applied new sanctions against Russia. - 17:51 12/09/2014 [Electron resource]. - Access mode: www.business.ua/<wbr>articles/companies/SShA_<wbr>primenili_novye_ sankcii_protiv_Rossii-74809 /

2. Kerry is confident that Russia will not invade in Ukraine [electronic resource]. - Access: www.unian.ua/politics/<wbr>945254-kerri-ne-virit-scho-<wbr>rosiya-vtorgnetsya-v-ukrajinu.<wbr>html

3. See: [electronic resource]. - Access:nr2.com.ua/News/<wbr>economy_and_business/SSHA-<wbr>oficialno-vveli-novye-sankcii-<wbr>protiv-Rossii-79906.html/

4. The US space agency NASA has suspended cooperation with Russia [electronic resource]. - Access: ua.interfax.com.ua/<wbr>news/general/198943.html/

5. See: [electronic resource]. - Access mode:gordonua.com/news/<wbr>worldnews/Obama-prizval-mir-<wbr>zashchitit-Ukrainu-i-poborot-<wbr>Islamskoe-gosudarstvo- 42917.html/

Asian Infrastructure Investment Bank in the system of foreign policy priorities of China

Igor Gorobets, Andrii Martynov

Summary

The article deals with issues related to the start of the Asian Infrastructure Investment Bank (AIIB) in the context of modern China's foreign policy priorities. The said financial institution is an important tool for strengthening global Chinese influence. This Chinese status is determined by the interest in the AIIB development from the part of other influential shareholders. This makes it possible to minimize lending and social innovation risks. The above aspect of AIIB activities is of interest to Ukraine.

Key words: Asian Infrastructure Investment Bank, China, USA, European Union, global financial market, Ukraine.

It is impossible to understand the logic of rapid changes in the global financial market without the implementation of the foreign policy interests of the dynamics of key world powers. In this respect, particular interest is the Republic of China which, after the global economic crisis in 2008 trying to find new opportunities to promote Chinese products and services in the world. The value of the Chinese experience is due to the fact that Beijing achieves high rates of their exports under conditions of complicated balance of power in the world.

In early January 2016 the presidential election in Taiwan. This country is officially referred to as the Republic of China, as opposed to the People's Republic. "Two" China emerged on the political map of the world in the autumn of 1949, when the island of Taiwan have landed in mainland China defeated the communists supporters of the former leader of the "People's party - the Kuomintang" Chiang Kai-shek. Since then, Taiwanese society was in fact divided into two uneven parts - the indigenous local population and "homindanivtsi." Last consistently advocated decommunization China, considered a prerequisite for the reintegration of Taiwan and China.

By the end of 1980 in Taiwan actually was a one-party system. Only in the early 1990s after the death of all direct relatives of Chiang Kai-shek launched democratization, the result of which was a return to a multiparty system. This is very painful China responded that Taiwan offers to solve the problem of national unity on the model of "one country, two political systems." An example of such a system is the return of China in 1997-1999 Hong Kong and Macau, which has since received 50 years guarantee constancy of their political systems. But the restoration of multi-party system in Taiwan have become sharper political conflict between supporters of the Party "Kuomintang", which in principle does not deny the possibility of reintegration with China, and adherents of the independence of Taiwan. In response, Beijing in 1996, said that any attempt by an official declaration of Taiwan independence will mean a declaration of war in China.

In the elections of 2016 Tsai Inven, 59-year-old candidate of "Democratic Progressive Party" candidate won the party "Kuomintang" Eric Chu. Note that Tsai Inven as the new President of the Republic of China opposed to political rapprochement with mainland China. It supports the continuation of the current state of actual independence of Taiwan, but against drastic steps to independence. Inven Tsai insists on joining Taiwan to set up the Americans "Trans-Pacific free trade zone", which is seen as a counterbalance to Chinese influence in the region. Overall, Taiwan issues, along with North Korean thermonuclear tests was the main topic of talks in Beijing with the participation of US Secretary of State John Kerry. After Taiwan, issue is one of the main problems in Sino-US relations. The Obama administration tried to not unnecessarily aggravate relations with Beijing, especially in terms of exchange crisis any confrontation would mean additional risks deepening economic crisis.

So, on January 27, 2016 Beijing visited US Secretary of State John Kerry. International observers believe that the main purpose of his visit is connected with attempts to appease the Chinese leadership, which is particularly concerned about the result of the recent presidential election in Taiwan. The first female president of Taiwan Tsai Inven repeatedly stressed he did not intend to immediately declare formal independence of Taiwan from China. After all, in 1949, when Taiwan settled troops defeated Chiang Kai-shek, both sides recognized the de facto national unity. Chinese Communists hoped to fully restore control over Taiwan, while Chiang Kai-shek bounced decommunization China. Since last officially recorded in military doctrine that Taiwan independence is a declaration of war against China. Of course, the US is interested in reducing tensions in the region of Asia, especially as Taiwan problem - not the only factor of destabilization. Directly security interests of China and the US are facing at least two conflict zones. The first concerns the delimitation of exclusive economic zones of Japan and China near disputed islands in the East China Sea Daoyudao. The second problem is even more confusing and concerning control of the Pacific archipelago Spratly, which along with China claiming all the countries of Southeast Asia. After archipelago is very important for the implementation of China's strategy to promote its interests in Asia.

At the same time, the US worried about big Chinese activity in other regions of the world. In early January 2016, the Chinese General Secretary Si Tszinpin visited Iran, Saudi Arabia and Egypt. And China is quite effectively "hinted" Tehran and Riyadh that their armed confrontation is not a priority of the Chinese business strategy in the Gulf. Not bypassed attention in Washington and strengthen Sino-Egyptian relations, considered as a base for promoting Chinese interests in Africa, and the global Chinese ambitions are supported by appropriate "ammunition."

In early January 2016 in Beijing inaugurated the central office of "Asian Infrastructure Investment Bank", whose share capital is 100 billion dollars. The main projects mentioned bank financing program initiatives are considered in the "Silk Road". The largest shareholders - China and India, followed by Russia and Germany. The leading EU countries are ready to join the Asian Bank of infrastructure investments to attract Chinese investment to their economies. This caused concern US Treasury Jacob Lew, who urged Beijing to abandon control of the yuan. It calls for Washington to follow the traditional allies of global financial institutions such as the World Bank or the IMF, the encounter misunderstanding. US gradually lose their monopoly position in world financial markets. In particular, the International Monetary Fund is considering the use of the Chinese yuan, along with the dollar, the pound sterling and the euro as a reserve currency. Many experts believe that the Asian Bank for infrastructure investments could become a competitor to the IMF, especially if not associate loans with stringent political requirements.

In early 2016 Si Tszinpin held on the island of Hainan Boao Economic Forum, which has become a Chinese alternative to Davos. There's a Chinese leader proposed a new strategy for sustainable development that provides funding for the construction of ports in Sri Lanka and Myanmar, the creation of high-speed rail lines from China to Europe and the Middle East. Shanghai and other Chinese and Asian exchanges have become competitors in the City and Wall Street. The Americans did not hide the fact that Congress would not approve US cooperation with the Asian Bank of infrastructure investments. After the creation of the Bank of Beijing got their hands on an effective tool to compete with the US on a global scale. In Asia, the United States rely on military force, but the strategic perspective economy takes precedence over power. All starting to scare each other so that instead of coming Chinese American world 1.

The desire to participate in the bank's Asian infrastructure investments expressed 52 countries. Refusal got DPRK, not for ideological or terrorist financing problems and the reluctance to provide reliable information about the state of the economy and finance. Interestingly, the application filed even Taiwan. Instead, Japan, despite the difficult relationship with China also abstained from participating in the project of Asian Bank of infrastructure investments 2. It's no secret, including to the banking house of Rothschild, the bank indicated that it will promote Chinese interests 3. It inspires and Russian supporters of the idea of ​​a multipolar world that meticulously record every fact of China-American differences 4.

We must pay attention to the fact that the economy of China's situation is not too good. The growth of Chinese GDP in 2015 slowed to a record 6.9%. National currency was devalued by 2%. Chinese economists suggest using Asian Bank of infrastructure investments for the treatment of Chinese economy. After all, such treatment also concerned the US who are affected by fluctuations in the Chinese yuan. So the visit of US Secretary of State John Kerry to Beijing showed that the administration of President Barack Obama is ready to fix a relatively normal state of US-China relations and pass the next American president the whole range of controversial issues, which are also lacking between the United States and the People's Republic.

Chinese February 8, 2016 in its traditional calendar across a new "year of the monkey." The most unpleasant surprise came on the eve of celebrations of North Korea successfully tested a ballistic missile that brought the space satellite. This technological achievement showed that the DPRK regime has not only nuclear weapons but also the delivery. These events triggered a lively reaction of the international community. The test rocket condemned all UN Member States. On the face of Beijing is quite advantageous that neighboring Korea divided into two states, one of which focused on it though. But in fact the North Korean nuclear and missile tests, which took place during the month showed that Pyongyang intends to blackmail the international community to the presence of weapons of mass destruction. However, even this is not so worried virtually the entire world community. Experience shows that the government of the DPRK in search of foreign exchange earnings rather actively cooperated in missile and nuclear technology not only with Pakistan but also with Iran. It is possible that in the corresponding reward North Korea is able to transfer these technologies, or at least a "dirty bomb" militants, such as "Islamic state." In this case, you can not deny how fantastic the most incredible scenarios. Of course, creating a North Korean "nuclear missile shield" is the first self-defense of this totalitarian regime of the country. There is no doubt the willingness of Kim Jong INA, unfavorable for its power circumstances, use weapons of mass destruction. It is not surprising that news of Pyongyang's most troubled Republic of Korea and Japan, and the United States. They initiated the introduction of more stringent sanctions against North Korea. However, this strategy only "freezes" confrontation on the Korean peninsula, creating additional risks to international security.

Chine is in a particularly awkward position due to result of these tests, despite the sanctions remain the only strategic partner of Pyongyang. Moreover, Beijing can not really close door and break ties with North Korea, because it will inevitably lead to destabilization of the regime of Kim Jong-ying and could trigger a wave of millions of refugees into China and will have unintended consequences, not only for regional but also for global security. It is not surprising that the North Korean issue China demonstrates full readiness to cooperate with both the United States and the Republic of Korea and Japan. So far in this sense is not only the best option for Beijing is an attempt to pull the brakes acute phase of confrontation and try not to stir passions further. Moreover, in recent years, due to actions of the US and Japan, Beijing uncomfortable in Asia. In particular, China has remained outside the established Americans and twelve Pacific countries deal of the world's largest free trade zone.

Growing competition in Asia, China encourages others to enhance trade relations. First, pay attention to the further rapprochement of China and Russia. Interestingly, this trend in Moscow are trying to give as the creation of "Russian-Chinese political union", while in Beijing often talk about the strategic relationship with Russia, but without formal registration of the union of two states. It is necessary to recall the diplomatic nuance, which is the condemnation of Chinese diplomacy actions of Russia's annexation of Crimea and the destabilization of the situation in Ukraine. Not surprisingly, Beijing praised Ukrainian initiative on the development of trade routes to China by rail via Batumi and further to Central Asia, which should be an alternative to Russian trade route from China. Chinese astrologers believe that "monkey year" promises to be unpredictable and extremely rich in surprise, but the surprise is an open opportunity to benefit from the good chances that they carry. At least the Chinese market has become strategically important for Ukraine.

In early April 2016 the Chinese leader Si Tszinpin visited the United States. The immediate reason for his visit was to participate in a summit on nuclear security. Attendance at this event Xi was particularly resonant given the boycott of the summit Putin. Thus, China has once again proved that for a normal relationship with the United States is more important than formal "union" with Russia, as the Chinese are concerned about the difficult relationship with Washington.

Recently, an important factor for their complexity have become controversial issues with Japan in the East China Sea islands. The United States strongly opposed the attempt to maximize their Chinese naval presence in the area as disputed Spratly islands. Si Tszinpin called for mutual respect of interests of the United States. It also demonstrated the willingness to recognize the victory of democratic forces in Taiwan, but warned Washington of official support for the independence of Taiwan. The sides have found common ground on the issue of human rights in China. In particular, we are talking about the situation in Tibet and Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region of China.

Beijing continues to insist on separating human rights from concrete business cooperation with Washington. However, it was not easy to do with the administration of Barack Obama, but the greatest concern in Beijing is the course of this year's presidential campaign in the US. Leading candidates for the nomination of the Democratic Party (Hillary Clinton) and Republican Party (Donald Trump) are sharp criticism from China. So far sharper anti-Chinese position is Hillary Clinton, however, not far from her and Donald Trump. Beijing worried that the American elite is increasingly "prescribed" China as the main rival to America. The Chinese, as they can from this honor refuse. However, the more intense is the US-Chinese relations in all fields, the more objective problems arise. The latest Chinese historical experience convinces us that all newly elected American presidents started with a rather harsh anti-Chinese rhetoric. But very quickly pragmatics of everyday practice requires normalization of cooperation and constructive. There is no reason, at least for now, assume that will be different after Barack Obama at the White House will change the new US President.

The nearest future of Asian Bank of infrastructure investments depends on many countervailing factors. Key among them - the trend of the world economy, which is still controversial, global military-political instability and consequent risks to sustainable economic development, possible domestic upheavals in China. However, in any scenario it is clear that in the modern history of the world financial system was an influential player, the position of which will have to consider everything.

References

1 Obama did not understand Asia //

www.contextop.ru/comm/<wbr>150402091559.html

2 Krylov O. Washington predict the financial impact of the loss //

www.vz.ru/economy/2015/<wbr>4/2/737779.html

3 Granovsky G. Rothschilds put on Chinese bank // www.topwar.ru/72318-<wbr>rotshildy-postavili-na-<wbr>kitayskiy-bank.html

4 Kulikov V. ABII - who wins? // www.ru.journal.-neo.<wbr>org/2015/04/10

The problem of environmental refugees in international relations

Tetyana Perga

Summary

Main factors of appearing the environmental migration and the impact of climate change on this process are investigated. Regions of potential danger in the context of formation flows of environmental refugees are defined. The gaps in international law and states' experiences in providing status of environmental migrants are found. The evolution of international relations in solving problems of population displacement for reasons of environmental and its place during the talks on migration, climate change and global development are analyzed. The essence and potential Nansen initiative in solving the problem of environmental refugees is researched.

Keywords: environmental refugees, migration, climate change, international relations, Nansen Initiative.

Population movements associated with natural disasters is one of the biggest humanitarian problems facing states and international society at the beginning of the XXI century. During the 2008-2014 because of floods, tropical storms, earthquakes, landslides, droughts and environmental degradation 184.4 million people (An average of 26.4 million people per year) have been temporarily or permanently leave the residence. This figure is much higher than the number of refugees who in 2015 went to the European Union (about 1.3 million people.). According to forecasts, in 2050 the number of environmental refugees could reach 200 mln., The reason for this will become not only the negative effects of climate change, but also the expansion of military conflicts, poverty, inability to obtain decent jobs and education, human rights violations. [1] These factors increase vulnerability to environmental disasters and force people to seek a better life elsewhere. However, the potential threat of the growing number of environmental refugees currently underestimated. Migration crisis in Europe has demonstrated the relevance of a visionary approach to the problem of environmental migration, which could destabilize regional, and eventually - and global development.

The term "environmental refugees" was introduced in the public discourse in the 1985 employee UNEP El Hinnaui who proposed to define them as people who have temporarily or permanently leave home because of significant environmental disturbances (natural or caused by humans) that threaten their existence and seriously affect their quality of life [2]. The development of this concept has led to the emergence of terms such as "climate refugees", "Temperature refugees", "environmental migrants", which, although used depending on the context, essentially identical and characterize important trend movement of the world at the beginning of the third millennium.

We can conclude that environmental migration process increasingly takes the form of a global movement that has its own laws. Scientists produce internal (within a country) and external (cross-border, or intercontinental) movement.

Scientific interest to the problems of environmental migration has increased in the early 1990s. when there was a series of works that demonstrated the impact of population growth and socio-economic factors on migration (A. Vestinh, N. Islam, A. Otannu, John. Troldalen). An important contribution to the development of this hypothesis did Norman Myers, who systematized environmental factors of migration and established their influence on the movement of people from dangerous or sensitive areas. According to scientists, a violation of the water cycle due to climate change causes soil erosion, which reduces the efficiency of agriculture and decrease crop yields and food shortages, forcing residents of these areas to move to other places. To this urge and changes in rainfall regime due to violation of water balance, which is the cause of frequent droughts. Thus, environmental migration appears the decline in agricultural production, reducing the availability of water and damage to infrastructure. Another factor in this process, Myers believes the melting of glaciers, leading to sea level rise, flooding low-lying islands and coastal areas, resulting in the relocation of residents to safer areas. [3]

Obviously, none of the world is immune from man-made disasters and natural disasters, but the analysis makes it possible to identify the most vulnerable regions of the world. For example, the share of Asia, which is home to 60% of the world's population, accounts for 87% of the people displaced by natural disasters. In 2008-2014 the highest level of migration was in China, India and the Philippines. Floods, storms and volcanic eruptions in these countries resulted in 15 of the 20 largest movements of the time.

In Africa, the cause is vital floods, droughts and volcanic eruptions; Central and South America - hurricanes, floods, landslides and earthquakes; Pacific Coast suffers from tsunamis and floods, although cross-border movement of people in these regions have not yet become a significant reality. The effects of rising sea levels and coastal flooding and coastal erosion seriously affect the territorial integrity of small island states in the near future may get most of the population to move inland, in the absence of such a possibility - and abroad. For example, in 2015 residents of Carteret Islands (Kilinayilau) Papua New Guinea became the world's first "official" environmental migrants, as were forced to leave the island because of flooding due to climate change. Pretty complicated is the situation in Tuvalu, Kiribati, and the Republic of Maldives, threatened with gradual flooding.

There is a false idea that the effects of climate change hardly touched developed countries. Recall even hurricanes "Katarina" (2005) and "Sandy" (2012) in the United States. For example, losses from the latter exceeded 125 billion dollars. 430 thousand people were homeless. At the beginning of 2015 over 100 thousand people has not been able to return to their homes. [1]

In the European region forced environmental migration is rare now, but there is a high likelihood that changes in the environment will significantly affect the human traffic in the future. The growth of one meter sea level rise will affect the lives of 6 million. People. Southern Mediterranean and the Nile Delta because of the loss of 10% of arable land. Potentially, these people can join the ranks of environmental migrants.

However, in Europe itself there are some areas of high vulnerability. For example, despite the flood protection system is a significant risk of flooding of the North Sea coast. Thus, the flood in Hamburg in 1943 caused more damage than military action. There is also the threat of flooding of some areas of the northern Mediterranean (Venice) coastal and Great Britain and the Netherlands. These factors cause internal migration in the European region, as residents of vulnerable areas will be looking for a new residence with a favorable climate.

Analyzing the effects of environmental disasters in the European region, it is appropriate to recall the floods in the Balkans in the spring of 2014. She left homeless more than 90 thousand. Residents of Serbia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, many of which have had tragic experiences of displacement, because during the war the early 1990s were forced to leave their homes. Flooding worsened the ecological and sanitary situation and created a number of dangers, because 70% of the territory that was under water, in the past was a place of fighting, which left mines corpses of animals and heavy metals from the destroyed industrial objects contaminated water supply in the region [1].

Roma have the most tragic fate. Many of them do not have birth certificates and other documents of identity; a military conflict they lived in informal settlements and had no proof of ownership of real estate necessary for the reconstruction or restitution of property. Therefore, after the military conflict had to settle in low-lying areas near the river banks prone to flooding, and on hillsides prone to landslides. Because of the floods Roma are again left without homes still have no legal basis for state aid.

In this context, it should be emphasized that the current status of environmental refugees is not settled either national or international law, which is the main problem in this area. The UN Convention on the Status of Refugees, opened for signature in early 1950's., Initiated the settlement movement of people associated with war and violence, but expansion causes of migration at the beginning of the XXI century, especially due to environmental factors, not found his reflection in international law.

International convention regulating some important aspects regarding the forced displacement groups associated with natural disasters. This includes entering into a new country, the conditions and length of stay there, right internally displaced new state responsibilities on them and finally Mutual neighboring states and the international community. One example of the imperfections of international law is the situation with the citizens of Haiti who, after the earthquake in 2010 failed to get protection High Commissariat for Refugees in the Dominican Republic since not subjected to political persecution. This indicates the violation of human rights in the case of environmental migration.

Recently attention to this problem began to grow. In 2015 the UN Council on Human Rights held two high-level meeting, which resulted in Geneva were accepted commitments on human rights and climate change. They focused on the importance of international cooperation and the impact of climate change on the realization of the right to food, which is evidence of the understanding of causality of environmental migration, which defends Myers.

The development of approaches to defining and solving the problem of environmental refugees over the past three decades has evolved significantly. If at the end of the twentieth century the main focus was on fighting the effects of natural disasters at the beginning of the XXI century he moved on to mitigate and adapt to them. 1990-1999's. were proclaimed the International Decade for Natural Disaster Reduction; in 1994, the first World Conference on Disaster Reduction adopted Iokohamska strategy to ensure a safer world, which laid the guidelines for disaster prevention, preparedness and mitigation. Additional impetus to this process provided Hiohska Framework Programme of Action (HFA) in 2005-2015 [2] and the Framework Programme on disaster risk limitation 2015-2030, adopted at the Third UN World Conference in Sendai.

The impact of climate change on the movement of people constantly discussed at meetings of the parties of the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change. For example, after 16 meetings, which took place in 2010, the international community adopted Kankunsk framework program on adaptation, which offered States to take measures to improve the "understanding, coordination and cooperation in relation to climate change and displacement, migration and planned relocation ". Adopted in 2012 at the 18th meeting of parties to the UNFCCC in Doha decision encouraged further intensify work in this direction in order to deepen understanding of how climate change impacts affect migration patterns, movement and mobility of people, can cause economic losses. UN Agenda 2030 in the interests of sustainable development recognizes that global challenges threaten substantial review of development progress achieved over the past decades as a result of frequent and intensifying natural disasters, as well as "forced displacement of people. Negotiations being conducted in preparation for the World Humanitarian Summit to be held in spring 2016, focus on the fact that the movement as a result of natural disasters may become current and future humanitarian problem. However, while these steps the international community demonstrate an understanding of the growing threat of environmental migration, the elaboration and adoption of an international convention on population movements associated with environmental disasters, is not yet on the agenda.

It can be noted only a few attempts to countries directly faced with ecological migrants address the issue of their temporary stay in its territory. For example, the earthquake in Haiti in 2010 caused a powerful stream of refugees to Brazil, prompting the government to legalize their stay by taking a special decree, the validity of which is confined to 5 years. After the expiry of this document in the country was raised about the need for a special law that would create grounds for staying in Brazil people seeking refuge across a wide range of humanities (including environmental) threat. In 2012 Australia, which arrived many refugees by the tsunami in 2004 in the Indian Ocean and other natural disasters that have occurred over the last decade in the Asia-Pacific region, was forced to introduce a special category visa ( "for environmental migrants") by analogy for visas for students and tourists.

Among European countries, the first step in granting the status of environmental refugees were made by Sweden and Finland, which in 2011 allowed persons who already live in these countries and can not return to their countries of origin due to environmental disasters, to get the status of workers. Canada has also legalized the status of refugees as a result of the tsunami in 2004 and the Haitian earthquake in 2010, giving them a formal interim relief.

On the agenda of EU environmental migration is not seen as a potential threat coming years, although the migration crisis in 2015 can facilitate viewing of this approach. Instead, community focused on internal preventive measures, including the adoption and implementation of pan-European and national adaptation strategies to climate change. Working Paper adopted in 2013 as part of the process - "Climate change, environmental degradation and migration" said only that the future of EU industrial policy can lead to rapid changes in the environment [4].

These facts actualize study best practices address the situation of environmental refugees and the search for consensus on the key principles of activity in this area. This task is designed to solve the public in October 2012 the governments of Switzerland and Norway's Nansen Initiative, named after the polar explorer of the century and the first League of Nations High Commissioner for Refugees. The agenda proposed it, was adopted during the global intergovernmental consultations, held 12-13 October 2015 in Geneva with representatives of civil society. It includes:

- Conceptualization of an integrated approach to population movement due to natural disasters, focusing both on environmental protection of migrants and the management of risks that may lead to displacement;

- Study positive experience and critical rethinking of the most effective methods approved by States and other subjects of international relations and regional organizations;

- Prioritizing the following activities: data collection, increased use of humanitarian protection measures for victims, including mechanisms for implementing durable solutions and strengthen risk management of natural disasters in their country of origin.

The first stage of the Nansen Initiative is consulting in the field in order to clarify the basic needs of displaced persons and related main objectives of the host countries. Next steps include the expansion of cooperation between the countries in which there are environmental refugees and the countries to which they come; developing standards for receiving internally displaced persons; assist these people. In the future Nansen Initiative plans to begin development of preventive measures, including the creation of an international general scheme of action to help victims of natural disasters [5]. Considering the lack of a single institutional center for environmental refugees, this initiative fills a gap and the potential to take part in its creation.

How does the issue of environmental migration could affect Ukraine? If living conditions in the most vulnerable countries in Asia and Africa will become unbearable, then it can apply the representatives of other countries with a request to relocate part of their population; we should not forget about the high probability of environmental illegal migrants. Therefore, an urgent task coming years is appropriate taking into account the imperatives of long-term plans for national economic and social development and study of advanced international practices address the issue of environmental migration.

References

1. Global Estimates 2015. People displaced by disasters [Електронний ресурс]: IDMC / Режим доступу:

www.internal-<wbr>displacement.org/publications/<wbr>2015/global-estimates-2015-<wbr>people-displaced-by-disasters/

2. Morrisey J. Rethinking the debate on environmental refugees: from maximilists and minimalists to proponents and critics [Електронний ресурс]: Journal of Political Ecology / Режим доступу: jpe.library.arizona.<wbr>edu/volume_19/Morrissey.pdf

3. Myers Norman. Environmental refugees: a crisis in the making. People & the Planet, No.4/1994 [Електронний ресурс]. − Режим доступу: www.oneworld.org/patp/pp_eco_<wbr>refugees.html

4. Science for Environment Policy. Thematic issue. Migration in response to environmental change. September 2015. Issue 51 [Електронний ресурс]: European Comission / Режим доступу:ec.europa.eu/<wbr>environment/integration/<wbr>research/newsalert/pdf/<wbr>migration_in_response_to_<wbr>environmental_change_51si_en.<wbr>pdf

5. Towards a protection agenda for people displaced across borders in the context of disasters and the effects of climate change 2030 [Електронний ресурс]: Nansen Initiative / Режим доступу: https://www.nanseninitiative.<wbr>org/secretariat/

"The population of Sevastopol in 1856-1917 years. (Profession, nationality, religion, social status)"

Alla Lykova

Summary

The article discusses the importance of the social history of Sevastopol in XIX - the beginning of XX century: ethnicity, social class, demographic and confessional components of this important city of the region in the formation of foreign policy of the Russian Empire in the period from 1956 to 1917 years.

Keywords: Russia, Crimea, history, people, profession, social status, ethnicity, class.

Sevastopol and its history has always aroused interest, became the subject of a number of special studies. Carefully studied during the defense of the city during the Crimean War and World Wars, reviewed the history of its creation. On the composition of Sevastopol in the XIX century little is known, while the socio-demographic factor plays a significant importance in the history of the city as a military base and port, its role in the foreign policy of the Russian Empire. The special status of Sevastopol, his living conditions had affected the demographic behavior of the population, to create features of the social structure, uncharacteristic for the Russian capital, provincial and district towns of the empire. The study of these differences should contribute to a better understanding of the historical context as being Sevastopol Black Sea Fleet base in the XIX century.

It was founded in 1783, and during some time population was sparse. It lived mostly military personnel and their families, and the indigenous population actually was. In 1897 held the first general census that had valuable information about the social structure and demographic characteristics of Sevastopol. During the Crimean War (1854-1856) in the study was not considered because of the demographic behavior of population in its class, confessional, ethnic composition in these years, based on known sources, draw conclusions is difficult.

The most significant studies of pre-revolutionary researchers on population Tauride province covering the period of the late XVIII - early XIX century, i.e. the period of settlement Crimea residents of other provinces. These are works by Sumarokova containing information on the status of Crimea at the end of the XVIII century [1]. He left a fascinating description of Sevastopol early XIX century. Of particular interest is the study of A. Skalkovsky Tatar-nahay regarding emigration from Tauris in 1860-1863 [2]. D.I. Bagaliy in its work concerning the settlement of New Russia in XVIII - first half of XIX century focused attention on socio-origin immigrants Estates briefly analyzing their ethnicity. [3] The settlement of Crimea also dedicated their work and other researchers.

According to the philosophical and ideological assumptions that existed in the XIX century. Economic development of the empire was considered dominant and most important factor. Yes, B.N. Mironov in his work on the social structure of urban population (research data church, census and administrative records from 1737 to 1870) identifies three areas of the Russian Empire, where there were weak, moderate and strong changes in the social structure. Taurian province B.N. Mironov considers a group with strong changes in the structure: Moving south trade routes has transformed the old city of the South Steppe of military and administrative centers and agricultural trade, which resulted in significant changes in the social composition of residents. [4]

In 1874, according to data mayor in Sevastopol Orthodox population share was 80.54% of the total, but later it was at least 77%. The highest figure recorded in 1895 - 84.6%. In 1890 and in 1892 this value was slightly below 80%. The second number of religious groups were Roman Catholics, whose numbers ranged from 5.06% (1887) to 9.59% (1874) of the total population. Then followed the Jewish faith groups - from 4.02% (1895) to 6.81% (1890), Muslim - from 1.44% (1874) to 3.9% (1886), Karaims - from 0.72% (1895) to 6.3% (1892).

Despite on territorial belonging to a multinational region, Sevastopol did not happen multinational diaspora in practically no local population and living conditions were not conducive to long migrations of Muslims, Jews and Karaims. Among other facts that influenced the way in existence, was the decree of 1829 Nicholas I, who forbade stay in Sevastopol and Nikolayev Jewish who was no statesmen because they were forced to leave the city in 1832. This restriction was lifted only in 1859.

Numerous enough in Sevastopol was Greek diaspora due to the proximity of Balaklava. Most Greeks - Orthodox. This complicates their selection in a separate group, the more that mixed marriages in Sevastopol were not uncommon. In addition to the impact of migration of non-representatives of confessions, which could be significant ethnic and religious composition of residents formed under the influence of its main determining factor - the military. After the end of the life of representatives of different faiths could stay and live in Sebastopol, thus creating and changing its ethnic composition. The influence of this factor can not be underestimated, for example according to the Marine assembly on November 1, 1850 the Black Sea Fleet served 1,040 Jews "lower ranks". Over time, the city gradually formed a group of representatives of different nationalities.

Indicators show that the number of non-Orthodox population in each group changed quite dramatically and significantly, which usually indicates a high degree of migration, but in our case - the presence of representatives of the Navy of the same denominations and their mobility. This ratio and the prevalence of the Orthodox population during the last quarter of the XIX century confirm information about Sevastopol recruits. The most numerous diasporas locals were Greek, Hebrew and Karaims, Tatar (Muslim religion), Polish (Catholic religion), German and Estonian (Protestant religion), Armenian (Armenian-Gregorian faith). So population is largely determined by the crew stationed in Sevastopol. By the end of the century the city's population relatively small (about 3.3%) of the foreign population, that nationals of other states.

The stuff of Sevastopol has undergone some changes because of migration, increase, decrease or withdrawal of troops from the city, a gradual increase in the local population - the middle class and retired military. In the middle of the XIX century. Sevastopol population consisted mainly of the military stationed in spite of the increase in the middle class and the emergence of peasants who came here to work. After the Crimean War and the withdrawal occurred a sharp change in the ratio of caste groups - are now dominated by petty people. At the end of the century the number of military remained fairly high, but the influx of residents inland provinces was quite significant, so townspeople and peasants were not smaller in size group.

Recruits stuff from Sevastopol confirms the fact that the peasant population was not dominant. According to the report the mayor, most of the period from 1874 to 1896 were taken recruits from the estate of burghers and craftsmen, although there were also representatives of other states, including noble. Quite regularly caught in a set of honorable citizens and children of merchants. Commoner considered as a separate state rather vague - a group called "other" also has some more detailed reports called "other persons removed from the tenth entry in the national census and those that came after the revision of the state tax."

In Sevastopol, in the second half of the XIX century there was a high birth rate, as well as throughout the Russian Empire, but it was accompanied by a sufficiently high level of infant mortality. The number of illegitimate children was quite high and fell only after the withdrawal of troops. Basically, due to various circumstances, the percentage of illegitimate Sevastopol was about 6.5-7.5%.

A small percentage of the female population the number of marriages that fit even in the most favorable periods for the city was quite small. For this reason, Sevastopol percentage of women who married for the second time, was much higher than the average in the empire. The low rate of remarriage among men was linked to the difficult conditions of service and a high death rate among soldiers. Although over time the number of second marriages for women and men in the middle of the XIX century sharing, and in the last decade the number of women who entered into marriage for the second time and a third time, again increased.

Analysis of metric books shows that during the XIX century gradually but significantly changed the marriage age of brides and grooms. If early age girls are married at 16-17 years old, married and boys aged 26-35 years, with an average difference in age was approximately 10 years, at the end of the XIX century increased the number of brides over 20 years, the average age difference couple decreased almost by half. This suggests some changes in the mentality of the population of Sevastopol during the XIX century and, possibly, his value orientations. Exploring changes in the spectrum of names, birth seasonality and number of weddings, you can make some assumptions about the religiosity of the population of Sevastopol in the XIX century. In particular, we note that not all parishioners strictly adhere to Lent. Regarding the choice of the name is generally sharp deviations from the guidelines for the calendar period that we are considering, found not so much. However, we can talk about the popularity of a name, choice of name, which like the term up to seven days in the calendar. Judging by the day of baptism of the child, the interval from birth to the day of baptism in the early centuries was lower than at the end of the XIX century. We can conclude that the religiosity of the population of Sevastopol was high enough, but do not represent all aspects of his life and living. At the beginning of the XX century religious awareness component weakened slightly, but very slightly and softly.

The mortality rate in the city was high due to the infant and the military, for other groups it depended on the situation. Among the aspects of mortality in Sevastopol are three basic: seasonal variations in mortality, the age of the deceased and cause of death. The relationship of these aspects consider this: seasonal distribution ratio of mortality and causes of death, then - the cause of death and age of the deceased and, finally, a seasonal age distribution of deaths. If the seasonal distribution of birth and weddings influenced system of posts and circumstances of life and service, the seasonal distribution of mortality, primarily dependent on the activation of relevant infectious diseases.

Sevastopol living entirely dependent on the mode of naval service. In addition to a sharp change in population in the aftermath of the Crimean War, when the city lay in ruins, and life was very difficult, there are certain conditions the demographic behavior of the population of the city. An analysis of the sources, during the XIX century. the number of female population was much less than men in the last quarter century, not only military, but not engaged in military service. This affected a relatively small number of weddings in Sevastopol and the meaning of its key indicators, which created the demographic situation, not typical for most cities in the county and provincial imperial Russia. The number of illegitimate Sevastopol remained high even before the beginning of the XX century, which was not typical for relatively small-largest city. Seasonality birth different from the seasonal distribution in other cities and rural areas of the empire because of differences in life male population. This shows the relationship of dependence and demographic behavior and living conditions of the military town.

Despite on the fact that Crimea was multi-ethnic region and remained so after joining the Russian Empire, the population of Sevastopol was mainly (4/5) of the Orthodox faith, and if you rely on the information sources used in its ethnic structure dominated by representatives of the three branches of the eastern Slavs Russian, Ukrainian and Belarusian. This phenomenon arose because of the circumstances of the creation of the city and the specifics of its structure: there was virtually no indigenous Muslim population. Of course, multinational environment surrounding territory in which it was created, greatly influenced his denominational structure, but most of its residents were born in the European provinces of. The economic development of Sevastopol entirely (late XIX - largely) determined by the needs of the fleet in the city was more difficult to exist the local population, Muslims, Karaims, who do not have the necessary professions. Therefore, mass settlement of Sevastopol representatives of non-Christian faiths have occurred.

The status of the city and the living conditions of its population in the XIX century repeatedly changed, but it can be argued that within a century it is nothing of the urban population had instead of the population living in a military town or village. This is confirmed information about the class structure of the population of Sevastopol, where townspeople were more than peasants, while the ratio of these caste groups has changed in the late XIX century. The level of urban population also confirms its relatively high level of literacy. Changes in public perceived that inherently more urban than rural population can be seen the evolution of marriageable age brides and grooms, the popularity of a name, a gradual increase in the time interval between birth and christening baby on irregular fasting in families throughout the XIX century.

The gradual secularization of consciousness urban and rural population was widespread in the Russian Empire in the late XIX century. But in the urban environment, it held a much more dynamic. The latter fact of life in the city, confirming its status - it control over the epidemiological situation held fairly tightly. At the end of the century the number of cured infectious diseases at several times the number of deaths.

These are the main conclusions of the study is, religious structures and demographic behavior of the population of Sevastopol during the XIX century based metric books and their relationship with the sources of a more general nature. Changes in socio-demographic structure of the population in the city reflect general trends in the modernization of post-reform. Demographic assessment of the nature and evolution of the social structure of the population of Sevastopol can be used for a reasoned analysis of the situation in certain periods of the city.

References

1. P. Sumarokov "Journey across Crimea and Bessarabia in 1799 year." - M., 1800.

2. Skalkovsky A.A. Chronological review Novoros history. The edges of 1730-1823. CH.I-II. - Odessa, 1836-1836.

3. Bagaley D.I. Colonization of the Novorossiysk Territory and its first steps by way of culture. - K., 1889.

4. B.Mironov The social structure of Russia's urban population // Problems of national and world history. - L., 1988. Vol. II.

Charles Maurice de Talleyrand-Périgord (1754-1838) - Virtuoso diplomat, wise politician or evil genius of modern times?

(Institutional and Social portrait of XXI century)

Vyacheslav Tsivatyy

Summary

At the article is analyzed the political and diplomatic activities of Charles Maurice Talleyrand-Perigord (1754-1838) - French politician, diplomat and statesman who played a key role in the institutional development of the French state of the early Modern time and Modern time. Particular emphasis is placed on its active, crucial and historical results of the Congress of Vienna (1814-1815). The attention paid to the institutional and social portrait of an outstanding personality Sh.M. Talleyrand-Perigord in the historical perspective and perspective.

Keyword: the Foreign Policy, the Diplomacy, institutionalization, a model of diplomacy, the diplomacy institutions, Sh.M. Talleyrand, France, Europe.

Charles Maurice de Talleyrand-Périgord (fr. CharlesMaurice de Talleyrand-Périgord) was Minister of Foreign Affairs of France at different times, the first in the history of the French Prime Minister (from 9 July to 24 September 1815), a prominent European politician and diplomat late XVIII - early XIX century. His name became a household word for determining the brilliant and cynical policy-conformist who easily changes the political and diplomatic views and beliefs, but thriving under any political regime. He gained recognition among his contemporaries as a sophisticated diplomat, counselor and intellectual, smart politician and master of backroom intrigue. He had a significant influence on French diplomacy, international relations and the general course of European history of the nineteenth century. His most distinguished acumen, the ability to use the weaknesses of opponents and at the same treachery, extreme unscrupulous goal, distinguished phenomenal greed.

Charles Maurice Talleyrand is one of the most brilliant European diplomats and statesmen of early modern and modern times. [1] He lived a long 84 years. In 80 years still had the civil service. Sam said that he brought 14 different sworn different governments and different people called him "the servant of all masters," and all these men in turn he cheated. At the same time, an aristocrat and wit, clever and not without humor. His remarks became known around Paris very quickly and then some existed as saying. He left a mark in Russian history: Alexander I, Emperor of winning the war against Napoleon, had varied multifaceted relationship (from the political and diplomatic personal) of Charles Maurice Talleyrand.

If we speak about principles Talleyrand, the main of them - be sure to bring. He could long remain idle, time is not time, and wait a time when it's time to strike unexpectedly crushing, tearing to pieces the jump-kick After all, almost never wrong. He was of the highest quality and professional master of fine political and diplomatic intrigue.

It is likely that this political giant of his time formed special political and diplomatic scenes of childhood. Charles Maurice Talleyrand-Perigord was born February 2, 1754 in Paris, Garansyer Street. His father Charles Daniel - Chalet Prince, Count Perigord and Hrynolya, Eksedeyu Marquis, Baron de Bovilya and de Mare at the time was only 20 years, and his wife, Alexandrine, was 6 years more. Immediately after the baptism of the child gave the nurse a suburb of Saint-Jacques. Once left unattended Charles Morris fell from the dresser and seriously injured his right leg. He remained lame, though, as saying: "Not at the ball and not to women." Subject mutilation has become a favorite for contemporary artists. As contemporaries testify, for example, he could not stand long without sticks. Therefore, posed, leaning on a pedestal (for example, the artist Pierre-Paul Pryudona in 1817).

In September 1760 he was sent to study at the College Harcourt in Paris, and in 1770 a young Perigord entered the seminary of Saint-Sulpice. The four years he spent in the seminary and finished his education at the Sorbonne in 1778. Not getting bishop, Talleyrand was "finance minister" of the church, taking in 1780 the post of general agent of the clergy at the royal French government, which gave him the opportunity to get a large fortune in financial speculation. Charles Maurice Talleyrand believed that in order to be decent "finance minister" in the church, do not understand the money, we must understand the methods of finding and "right of distribution for all." Given the considerable merits of his minister, at the end of 1788 the Pope affirmed Bishop Talleyrand Otenskym, and in 1789 he was elected deputy to the States General of the clergy Autun [2].

Parliamentary career of Talleyrand was swift and brilliant. He made a number of important proposals that were considered during the preparation of documents that were milestone in the history of the French Revolution. In 1789 Bishop Otenskyy from the tribune of the Constituent Assembly put forward a proposal for the alienation of church property to the state. Popularity Sh.M. Talleyrand particularly increased after him in 1790 proposed to introduce holiday Bastille Day. During this festival the bishop celebrated a solemn Mass at the altar, erected the middle of the Champs de Mars. Slowly but steadily, Talleyrand became friendly with the French bourgeoisie, but not leaving a good relationship with the royal court, including the Duke of Orleans.

It was a time when Talleyrand there is a wide range of contacts and friendly relations. Earlier, he met with Voltaire, French Foreign Minister Choiseul, and later with the future writer Baroness de Stael, politician Mirabeau, just in case and began to attend Masonic lodge. This enabled him to death at the time head of the Diplomatic Committee Mirabeau, in April 1791, to take his place. However, little is still king granted his request for resignation as bishop Otenskoho. In his declining life Charles Maurice Talleyrand wrote: "All my youth was devoted to the profession for which I was no born ..." Talleyrand always had a complex relationship with the church because of his relationship with God, in his words, "... knew only they together."

The first diplomatic agreement that was signed Charles Maurice Talleyrand, was the decision to prepare weapons and 27 ships for the Spanish Navy. It was a continuation of the Franco-Spanish Treaty 1761, favorable to France, Spain and Talleyrand, who received its first "diplomatic" compensation - 100 thousand dollars the Spanish ambassador. In 1792 the Ministry of Foreign Affairs has offered to hold our hero early in his life diplomatic negotiations with Britain. They ended successfully, the ambassador made complete neutrality of England on the internal affairs of France.

During his diplomatic career Sh.M. Talleyrand had many diplomatic negotiations and signed historic agreements: Am'yenskyy (1802) Presburzkyy (1805) Tilsit (1807), after which he resigned. Much later, while in exile, Napoleon said about the reasons for the resignation of Talleyrand: "This is a talented man, but it can only deal with money. Kings Württemberg and Bavaria many times appealed to me complaining of his greed, that if not for his diplomatic talent, I earlier took him to a ministerial portfolio. " However, full diplomatic genius of Talleyrand was showed at the Congress of Vienna (1814-1815). Defeated France received diplomatic concessions, after the signing of which one European diplomat said: "If you read it carefully, do not know who won - France defeated or victorious coalition. We must be careful with Talleyrand in the issue of indemnity of us for what we liberated Europe, France and Talleyrand from Napoleon".

Historic day in the life Talleyrand was 31 March 1814. He solved the problem of who was to rule France, proposing the principle of legitimacy that substantiated the formal legality of the return of the monarchy: "The legitimacy of the monarchy or, better government is the protection and soil for the life of nations, as it if is not, it should be sacred" - a wording like all monarchs were winning and they accepted.

After 1815, Talleyrand withdrew from diplomatic activity for 15 years. He returned only in 1830, received the appointment as ambassador to London. He started his career in the British capital and finished it in the same city. Talleyrand was in office for four years and, according to him, France received in this time "... everything that can be useful from England".

Charles Maurice Talleyrand is a living legend, intuitive prophet of his time, a distinguished French diplomat, Foreign Minister, head of the French delegation to the Congress of Vienna 1814-1815 years. He found the time Revolution that overthrew the monarchy. In addition, just in time sided with Napoleon, who gained political weight and strength, and then joined the opponents of the emperor. Talleyrand maintained good relations with Britain, even in the era of the Napoleonic Wars, adorned, there was a political reason and wisdom during the Bourbon Restoration, but betrayed them and shortly before the fall. E.V. Tarle, who appealed to the image of Talleyrand in his famous historical study, answers the question - what rule this man? Opportunism, brought to a high art? Or a political vision and a heightened sense of reality.

And we are referring to this outstanding personality of modern times a day, we put the question: who he is - a virtuoso diplomat, wise politician or evil genius of his time? For example, you can learn diplomacy Talleyrand as his professional achievements, and he wrote "Memoirs" - a fundamental textbook guidelines outline of the theory, history and practice of diplomacy.

Diplomacy is an integral part of the relations of the great powers, profession, which codified the Renaissance in Italy, particularly in the Venetian Republic. It can rise to the rank of art as reflecting a certain perception of the world. And from this perspective, Charles Maurice de Talleyrand-Périgord occupies a truly unique place: it is not just shone and outstanding skills Negotiator at the time, but left to posterity a work of diplomacy that was not subservient century as classic statements do not subject to fashion trends. For example, he used to say: "... Art to put the right people in the right place is the beginning of management science, but finding a place for malcontents, the most difficult thing."

Talleyrand belongs to the era when lifted on the shoulders of Voltaire, Mirabeau, Metternich and Kutuzov Europe extending far beyond its geographical boundaries. Part of the time was Napoleon, to whom he wrote François-René de Chateaubriand in his "sepulchral notes (notes)" (1811), "away from the Empire of Bonaparte and to what came to replace them, it's the same thing as rush of being in nothingness, to jump from the top of a cliff into a bottomless abyss." Although now the dawn of the XXI century globalization is obviously no longer creates geniuses, less productive it does not include: power stage demonstrations covering our planet, and international actors on it stands a huge set. International relations are the subject of research and gain unprecedented complexity. In this, new environment views of the "Prince of Diplomats" (the theme sounded scientific workshop that took place 10 years ago on the 250th anniversary of Talleyrand) remain a source of inspiration.

Passion of Charles Maurice Talleyrand to worldly pleasures, despite the appointment of a bishop Otenskym granted just three entirely different modes (revolutionaries Bonapartist and liberal monarchy) services and ambiguous relationship with Napoleon, representing his sly, deceitful and capable of treachery person.

Actually not everything is so simple. To retain influence post (they offered money, but still require the substantial returns) during the turmoil that led to the change of the political regime in France from a monarchy to revolution, and of the Empire to the Restoration, Talleyrand had to demonstrate outstanding intellect, strong will and complete temper. Greed was hardly powerful enough force to set in motion the man whom Jean Orye called "incomprehensible sphinx." He had a clear understanding of the situation to pave steep course through troubled waters at the time.

By Presburzk peace world in 1805 (he signed after Austerlitz) Talleyrand allowed the military genius of Napoleon strengthen the position of post-revolutionary France midst of monarchical Europe. He liked the reasonable peace with Austria and Russia, but Bonaparte, who sought to subdue the continent, looking at the situation differently. In Ertfurtsk Congress in 1808 Napoleon commissioned him to conclude a tactical alliance with the Russian monarch Alexander I, but Talleyrand brought the King of King Francis II of Austria Austrian. Since then, only Talleyrand use own understanding of Europe and not the views of their emperor. It was known that Napoleon intended to assert its imperial order everywhere from Paris to Moscow from London to Rome. For Talleyrand is a major and undisputed always been a balance.

Talleyrand was against the invasion of Spain and unnecessary suffering that outlined in the memory of a nation Goya. It was against unlimited hostility to the conservative Austrian monarchy, against the disastrous invasion of vast Russia, described by Tolstoy in his "War and Peace": only one day a terrible meat grinder in Borodino, the Russians lost 42 thousand people and the French - 58 thousand! This Talleyrand wrote in his "Memoirs": "All the time when I was entrusted with management of foreign affairs, Napoleon I served with loyalty and diligence. For a long time he listened to the views that I considered it my duty to inform. (...) Set in France monarchical institutions that would guarantee the sovereignty, retaining it in the proper range. Reassure Europe that she forgave her French happiness and glory. "

Talleyrand was born in the XVIII century, but he had already formed an idea of ​​Europe equalizing each other centers of power. That is, it is much ahead of his time, was a harbinger of multipolarity of the world order. This concept continent determines its attitude to France and who controls it. France should not only strive to stay itself, a great country, but a country without incident, a key part of the European system. Nation, political structures and modes should only form a balanced whole in it. And such a structure (architectonics, internationalization) should restrain the desire for power. Talleyrand became the embodiment of universalism and took position on domestic issues in terms of external representation. He recalled the words of Montesquieu (when he departed from life Talleyrand had all year): "If I knew something useful for the country, but disastrous for Europe and the human race, I would consider it a crime."

In 1814 this bloodless representative of France (Guglielmo Ferrero called it "constructive genius") could based on smaller countries to secure sufficient influence to form the famous Congress of Vienna the new European order, "European concert of powers." The coalition states realized that Talleyrand guided by the interests of the continent as a whole, and only allowed his genius talent to do the reorganization of Europe, which was generally favorable to the weakened military defeat of France. In Napoleonic France, to take effect at the beginning of the XIX century. Russia was the state. This meant a threat to the status quo. However, through the diplomatic art Talleyrand was going to find a suitable location for the new Russian reality. When he was ambassador day event in London, he was able to agree on the formation of the Quadruple Alliance (Spain, Portugal, England, France) as opposed to the Holy Alliance.

The result of institutional processes in modern times in Europe it is the Congress of Vienna, which launched a new system of international relations - Vienna. New Europe has become institutionalized by laws operate a new system of international relations, with its principles and rules of the game. Congress of Vienna (November 1, 1814 - June 8, 1815) - is the most numerous and longest summit in the history of international politics and international diplomacy. [9] He went nine months, it came to 216 head of European states. At the same time, he became fateful golden songs of Charles-Maurice Talleyrand.

Congress of Vienna, "Battle diplomats" (1814-1815) is unique for its time political and diplomatic thing, the results of which were made principles of international dialogue, the use of formal institutions and informal diplomacy (backstage) diplomacy elements and rules of diplomatic protocol , etiquette and ceremony, which formed the basis of diplomatic practice around the world, not just in Europe. On the political-legal and diplomatic levels Congress of Vienna brought the political circulation or legally secured such basic terms of geopolitics, "balance and the balance of power", "great powers", "dominant state", "the coalition of states", "new frontiers and territories" "bridgeheads" and so on. Vienna system laid the foundation geopolitical era, based on the principle of imperial control was geographical space. Congress of Vienna recognized the status quo of European borders that remain in this configuration unchanged until the middle of the nineteenth century. First developed a system of peaceful settlement of international relations and attempted to create new effective mechanisms of relationship between monarchs and their peoples. [3] An important milestone in the history of the Congress of Vienna was the adoption as Annex 17 ("Provisions on diplomatic agents") to the Final Act of the Congress of Vienna, Vienna, or so-called regulations. Its main provisions included in diplomatic practice as universally recognized norms of international law. Vienna rules - the first multilateral act of international law, the first position on the single classification of diplomatic ranks.

Congress of Vienna became bright holiday all diplomats, Star Time European and world diplomacy. It is this and subsequent congresses were given impetus to multilateral diplomacy. Strong momentum was process improvement and systematization diplomatic services, the professionalism of diplomatic activity, which is then finally turned to the special, and a specialized branch of the civil service. The prestige of the profession diplomat risen to unprecedented heights. Congress of Vienna became famous as the most sophisticated diplomatic battle, which came better political and diplomatic minds then Europe.

The famous Congress of Vienna determined the geopolitical configuration of Europe and the main directions of the great world politics for several decades ahead, summarized the experience of restructuring the system of international relations. Congress of Vienna summed up geopolitical war coalition of European countries with Napoleonic France and established a new European borders. He summarized the experience of transformation of the world order early nineteenth century, which came in the form of a new quality European concert. Founded after the Congress of the Holy Alliance was one of the first institutional structures aimed at supporting European stability and security [4; 5].

Results of the Congress of Vienna served as an important stimulus for the further socio-economic, security, political and diplomatic European development. His achievements and practical experience gained European diplomacy late XVIII - early XIX century, determined the future institutional development of world diplomacy and international law, not lost its relevance today.

Today, in the spirit of permanent diplomatic Charles Maurice Talleyrand would support the idea of ​​a global balance based on specific and organized polycentric. At any act or action that violates sided balance must respond in a way that the interests, including the interests of the party that is committed. He would support those who believe that the American superpower should, above all, learn how to limit the use of its enormous power. Talleyrand ceased to follow the line of Napoleon, because he believed that he was high-handed and led France and all of Europe before the tragedy. In the XXI century state became powerful - this is not Russia, and, of course, China. Talleyrand would not procreate empty hype around the "China threat." Excitement on the definition contradicts the diplomacy and is not suitable for international relations. Moreover, it can become a dangerous threat when repelled by false ideas.

"Chinese threat" is the greatest hysteria in those who would manipulate globalization so that it brought only benefit them. Talleyrand thought to how to make China part of the global system and have consistently collaborated with those in China who want to achieve for their country's rightful place in a balanced world. It should not try to force or guile to contain China, which is gaining a strong political and military potential, and it is reasonable to choose the most appropriate place, which, without exception, will be considered as such. In addition, due to the rise of China this great diplomat, who managed to preserve the unity of Europe at the Congress of Vienna, stressed the importance to integration of our continent. After only a united Europe can count on a significant role in world affairs restored along with China and the US superpower.

He would not agree with isolation of Russia from Western Europe and despite the fact that the prosperity of the Chinese world now has a powerful attractive force. Thus, to avoid imbalances across the Eurasian his permanent diplomacy would be aimed at rapprochement between the EU and Russia. It is not limited to the arrangements of the great powers (EU, Russia, China, India, Japan, US), but regularly allocated to States to place second and third in the plan are still applicable OON space. Also, do so, we clearly distinguish one from the other in a relationship that existed in Europe in the days of Talleyrand? Rousseau wrote: "Europe is a perfect assembly of nations in which the joint is perhaps just a name. At the same time a real partnership with religion, morals, customs and even laws, none of the people who can not move away without raising with excitement."

Can we say the same thing about the relationship between great civilizations? Do they form, as he said Rousseau, "true community"? Although the Europe, USA, India and China do not form a homogeneous society with values ​​that forms the basis for speculation about the "clash of civilizations", the world is not doomed to endless historical and philosophical divisions and hostility to each other. Before we can get rid of tension and potentially even the entire mosaic of conflicts, we first need attention to mankind. If diplomat truly great, he draws inspiration from the conciliation of humanism, "the concept of peace." In the absence of necessary efforts intoxicated split "leaders" to take advantage of short-term differences in their goals and needs.

Some say that foreign policy and diplomacy only reflects the state of its internal conditions and needs. Talleyrand also offers us a different point of view. Formed in our picture of the external and politico-diplomatic world can (at least partially) shape our understanding of the inner world. But perhaps all this is, simply, a betrayal? Perhaps it is rather the ability to move away from private and pay the general opinion. Talleyrand, the European figure XVIII century, is not obsolete in this era of globalization and cyberspace. Celebrated his model educated (education) commitment to diplomacy and the balance will always remain a milestone in the formation of what is waste destroys fear and desire for power consciousness.

In this position of Ambassador to England Talleyrand contributed to rapprochement of France and England and the distance from the Belgium and Holland. In determining the state border for a bribe Talleyrand Belgium Antwerp included in the composition of the State. But scandal soon exploded diplomat forced to resign.

Talleyrand was buried in his luxurious estate Valence in the Loire Valley. At the tomb reads: "Here lies the body of Charles Maurice de Talleyrand-Périgord, Prince Talleyrand, the Duke of Dino, born in Paris on February 2, 1754 and died there May 17, 1838". After the death of Cardinal Richelieu Pope Urban VIII said words that can be attributed to Talleyrand: "If there is God - His Eminence much for that will answer to Him. And if not ... then what, he lived a happy life."

Attitude to Charles Maurice Talleyrand was not - and it could not be - definitely! Surroundings appreciated the diplomatic talent of this figure, but his lack of principle and susceptibility to corruption and unreliable world affairs has become a legend. It was also known propensity Talleyrand benefit of all. When he died, in the upper classes of French society joked: "Talleyrand died? And which side it is profitable? "Napoleon wrote in his diary: "Talleyrand face so impenetrable that absolutely can not understand it. Lannes and Murat joked that if he talks to you, but this time someone gives him a kick back, his face you do not define it." Sam Talleyrand also left a lot of conceptual ideas, which were winged expressions such as: "In politics there are no convictions, but only circumstances", "Politics it's just a way to shake people so that skillfully it then use for their needs" and so on.

References

1. Tarle E.V. Talleyrand / E. Tarle. - M .: AST, 2010. - 352 p.

2. Lodey D. Talleyrand: main Minister of Napoleon / David Lodey / per. from English. I.V. Lobanov. - Moscow: AST, 2009. - 512 p.

3. Lentz T. Le congrès de Vienne. Une refondation de l'Europe, 1814-1815 / Thierry Lentz. - Paris: Perrin, 2013. - 400 р.

4. Jarrett M. The Congress of Vienna and its Legacy. War and Great Power Diplomacy After Napoleon / Mark Jarrett. - London-New York: I.B. Tauris, 2013. - 522 p.

5. Livet G. L'équilibre européen de la fin du XVе à la fin du XVIII е siècle / Georges Livet. - Paris: PUF, 1976. - 231 р.

Some aspects of international scientific and technological cooperation of Ukraine

Oleksandr Sosnin

Summary

It is known that in the Soviet era, Ukraine was part of a small group of countries were able to provide a full cycle of designing and manufacturing high-technology aerospace sector (aerospace direction) with a huge part - instrumentation, including computers and communications systems with cryptographic information protection, armored machinery, shipbuilding and more. That is why one of the key strategic goals of innovation development of Ukrainian society in modern conditions is searching of the ways to save research potential and taking of the effective steps in scientific and educational spheres to train technical personnel capable to act conditions of scientific, technical and technological development.

Key words: information, international scientific and technical cooperation, information resource, innovative activity, information communication technology, national information legislation.

In today's world, affected by the global and comprehensive crisis in the economy, political life, government, engine of development and the basis for the investment attractiveness of Ukraine, of course, can only be our experience in industrial and post-industrial development through active implementation of scientific and technical ideas that emerged in the design and manufacture of high-tech products, including electronic and optic-electronic equipment, weapons and more. All this, together with education gained information resource and expertise of our scientists and engineers can be attributed to an intangible asset of society. Why the late twentieth century Ukraine was rejected by the higher levels of post-industrial development? The answer to this is painful for us, the question may be just that, gaining independence, we have not paid on time due attention to the task of improving the management of science and education, which are system-substance intangibles society, not directed vector of international scientific and educational cooperation on global international projects. Management, scientific and educational elite of Ukraine did not take timely that the end of XX - beginning of XXI century marked by two technological revolutions: digital and information (science and technology). They were made possible by the emergence in the mid-twentieth century breakthrough work in management theory and communication theory in the first place - mathematicians and engineers, scientific and practical work of Norbert Wiener, Victor Glushkov, Alan Turing and John von Neumann. Thanks to their ideas and developments in the late 40s - early 50s made possible the emergence of computers.

Studying the experience of today's leading countries, first of all, the United States, we see that quite successful in the twentieth century was the idea of ​​realization of intangible assets (IA) through the activities of transnational financial and industrial groups and corporations (TNCs). Under the influence of transnationalization business ideas in the twentieth century there was not only extremely important and gradual process of unification of humanity around the English language, but also formed a new independent type of professional management of tangible assets and intangible asset (especially meaningful flow of scientific and technical information) and the orientation of professionally trained people for certain R&D projects by means the so-called communication management. His methods effectively complement the administrative, financial and today, under certain conditions, act immediately as a leading power management. Due to this ambition old empire that at one time placed within their territories headquarters of TNCs, acquired a new quality of scientific and industrial, scientific and educational projects.

In such circumstances the world has another scientific, technical and technological revolution, transformed under the influence of knowledge on the matter, the human genome, nano- and biotechnology, improving fit your specific needs of your computer, creating sophisticated ICT. In particular, for this purpose developed and used NBIK latest technologies (nano, bio, info and cognitive). The development of philosophical and conceptual foundations of a new world is extremely fast and parallel with the most changes, even talking about changing the material and spiritual nature of man.

Humanity has knowledge and meaningful information is constantly under the influence of all new and new creative ideas that are constantly generated around the world, employing their creators. Under these conditions, the world's dramatically increasing need for specialists capable of organizing and analyzing huge amounts of information. Competitive intelligence developed countries and multinational corporations trying to track and manage these processes in global computer networks where information circulates. Many centers created by the only philosophical pattern but different in structure, in turn, determine that the TNC focused initially projected planetary universal system divide knowledge and R&D centers. Today under the pressure of technological innovations in information and communication sphere humanity develops (exponentially), gaining experience in working with global IA. Classical science has not identified here by the end of the legislative and economic-value limits on information in communication activities and in communications, unfortunately, understands quite a simple process for any information. In fact, the process is complicated, and possibly supercritical element in the use of the content, especially scientific and technical information and data in the structure of process innovation and development image investment appeal states.

To understand these processes and to improve the efficiency of scientific and technological search, in addition to the active implementation of the latest scientific ideas grounded in ICT, it is appropriate depth study of fundamental processes of evaluation IA society. It is necessary to determine a monetary value of information resources (particularly those with certain legal limitations in access) in the final product of intellectual and industrial activity. Determination of today is crucial for effective sales information resources, IA at all in the transfer of trade marks, patents, etc., and determine their value in statutory funds of enterprises and so on. Unfortunately, our scientific and educational activities have not yet identified the importance of this information and NMA sustainable development of Ukraine and the ratio of weight to the issue of national security. Despite national differences, they are present everywhere, as the overall objective of each country is a leader in providing three development priorities: education, research and the creation of high-tech knowledge-intensive industries. The leading countries of the world at all costs try to control them through information flows and information and communication processes in their algorithms. That is why the most relevant to the security of the agenda submitted the problem of building a secure information and communications, scientific and educational environment. We are, unfortunately, more and more fragments remain bureaucratic Soviet system.

The meaning of a person's ability to convert knowledge into a product called "information" has not changed for centuries, but now conditions (the process of) creation of systematized knowledge as "informational resources" of development for themselves and society as a whole has become more multifaceted. In an attempt to show the real economy the transition from individual to collective knowledge through the category of "information" and "resource" is not only informative value. Understanding the algorithm of the process, of course, allows clearly establish focal points and conversion processes information and forms one state to another state and form, which in turn makes it possible to record the area of ​​legal regulation of relations and behavior at all stages information, to identify objectively determined normative subjects (legal, technical and other) regulation in information and communication activities. Researches that Americans began in 1973 at Stanford University to study the phenomenon of "resource" is largely caused their approaches to information policy. Ukraine is obviously too late, and therefore largely only simulates the processes of innovation. Backlog of our country to build competitive ICT use and the quest to achieve the goal of economic and technological success in the global information and communications environment is both a challenge and threat to further development.

Programs of development of our country do not seem to take into account that the millennium mankind needed in order to understand the economic efficiency of investments in research and production, scientific and educational spheres. Priority knowledge, information resources and other IA embedded in information and communication paradigms of development in many countries. The word "information" from the mid-50s of last century began to be used widely and comprehensively, but we promptly paid no heed to the fact that this is a general property of life, matter and society. However, the fact that it can dramatically change the vector of influence on any situation, scientists have noticed in the 60s of last century, the study putting its laws even before the origin of energy. For example, only one bit of information changes the green light to red, forbidding movement. Any human interaction with nature and with each other based on the information available resource development (or vice versa) for each of us, society and state. We used that information as a product of reflection of reality, space and time retains its value intact until the moment remains unchanged carrier of information - memory, and largely identify its specific entities that own it and means submission. Information spreads through the category of "knowledge", while creating a resource states, groups, organizations, individuals and societies as a whole. Clearly, a new era of computerized ICT, fast and comprehensive time through scientific and educational activities change laws dissemination of information and knowledge.

The study applied scientific and technological aspects of the use of information in the world began only after World War II when the US systematically summarized the experience of Germany, the Soviet Union and its own management on scientific and technological development, assessing the results of the atomic project its influence on society. Demonstrating its economic and intellectual power, that's when they set out to become world leaders in science and technology and educational areas, covering information and communication activities of all spheres of human life. That's when they stimulated the location of the US headquarters of major multinationals. This greatly affected the organizational (administrative) power of their citizens, moved in their minds priority of traditional culture and methods of scientific communication and international communication. US first prompted the creation and active use of ICT for computer science and technology intelligence that dramatically changed the face of political life and expanded contours of global labor markets, including the development of national scientific and educational spheres. They not only globalized the world economy through its scientific and educational services, the greatly expanded English-speaking world. Conquering the world, they began including global program of commercialization of education, which was currently at the same time a great achievement and the greatest threat to humanity in terms of public benefit and equal access. Today this problem is for us signs of critical and key to the further development of our university and vocational education as continuing its commercialization as innovative performance in scientific and educational field, germinating many shameful phenomena and abuse, corruption, maximally reduced confidence in the our university and to education in general.

Noting the level of danger posed by the privatization of education, World Congress (7th World Congress of Education International), held 22-26 July 2015 in Ottawa (Canada), stressed the importance of a global response and opposition to the commercial world educational intervention corporations system education [1], violation of national borders and national sovereignty of independent countries. Global Educational Corporation with their capital seeking to grab market value of $ 4.5-5 trillion per year with a predicted trend grow to 6.7 trillion dollars per year. Profitability and inexhaustible educational market appears to them the one attraction that in an effort to increase their windfall allows them to easily destroy our scientific and educational traditions and seize power through revolutionary changes in management education.

The danger in the transfer of educational services in the hands of international business corporations (often private) is not only because it allows foreign entities (forces) not only to us "uncontrolled profits" but also to influence through their pets in many processes of political decisions contrary to international agreements and national interests. This poses a threat to not only public education and research activities in the country but also for the development of democratic institutions, social cohesion and justice population. Unfortunately, during the twenty years of independence, answers to fundamental questions about whose interests prevail and taken into account in the reform of scientific and educational field and what results is a policy, our society has not found even discuss the possibility of the national discourse. Currently, Ukraine's political landscape does not affect the growing domination of some ideas of Ukrainian education reformers - particularly in the field of international relations shows that we should actively discuss and unite more closely for common sense and protect the constitutional norms.

Through all human history there is a struggle of people and nations for the possession of information and communication resource, for example, a library, a repository of knowledge and educated people - scientists, leaders - leaders, officials of the government, which, given out their required bandages, were carriers of systematized knowledge, information resource belonging to the nation and the military have always been considered valuable trophies.

Thanks to the invention of the computer, the fundamental feature of which is the ability to instantly capture and store information and ICT, which gave the computer a huge number of functions in systems information management (storage, processing, distribution and protection of information) in the world today are numerous special structure. Based on scientific knowledge of exact sciences and humanities, engineers are constantly expanding functionality for devices to record, store and automatically process information for the given algorithms, parameters and properties. For their participation is becoming a fundamentally new global management system and the digital world economy, observing nature and man others. It can be argued that since the beginning of. This led to the formation of new active views on the nature of human work, innovation, the type of society, politics, economics, military affairs and, of course, science and education.

Global information of society enabled simultaneously affecting the population, use of modern ICTs as to stabilize and to destabilize the social situation in the states. The strategic plan includes special services around the development and implementation of many malicious programs to deal with us at the global and regional levels. They already make it possible not only to display the objects down critical infrastructure (banking systems, electricity and water supply, railways, factories and airports), but also cause more extensive damage.

It is indisputable that the basis of competitive countries of the world is increasingly becoming the ability to accumulation, preservation and effective use of basic knowledge - content information, turning it into a resource for development. Based on information resources now created more new breakthrough technology of high level (high-tech). Man and information and communication potential of the acquired signs major component of national wealth and national innovation systems - the main important mechanism of its formation, development and implementation [2]. All this today was specific interdisciplinary area of ​​research humanities and engineering research at leading universities in the world, and the process of filling them with meaningful information in accordance not only important in scientific and educational activities, but at the same time a major lever in competing personalities.

The process shall sign the "fourth industrial revolution", which is a simplified called "Industry 4.0" (because the term is widely covered global economic processes of renewal and transformation of our ideas about scientific and technological revolution and its impact on the economy). The name became popular recently (in 2011) on the initiative generated businessmen, politicians and scientists. They identified it as a means of increasing the competitiveness of German industry, strengthening its integration in the world "kiberphysical system" and production processes. However, the term "Industry 4.0" is still quite uncertain and is now one of the most controversial and discussed topics. "Industry 4.0" is implemented within a global or pan-innovation initiatives (for example, in November 2011 the European Commission officially announced the program "Horizon 2020", putting aim to unite all information resources content), declared it a key tool to create Innovation Union - flagship priority in the strategy "Europe 2020" [3].

The main objectives of the program "Horizon 2020" declared:

- Improvement of European scientific base due to taking interdisciplinary research, promotion of future technologies and technologies rapidly developing international organization of trainings and internships, support of research institutions;

- Support for European leadership in the production and acquisition of competitive advantages, promotion of effective leadership in the field of industrial and technology innovation among SMEs;

- Increase the contribution of representatives of science and innovation in addressing key social problems;

- Introduction of scientific and technological support to EU policy focused on the end user;

- The integration of "knowledge triangle" consisting of: a) studies; b) training of researchers; c) innovation.

For Ukraine the chance to successful implementation of plans for the program "Horizon 2020" [4] is an extremely important task, and we must urgently start a systematic training of specialists for international cooperation in science and technology, and the special role should be assigned to engineering and technical universities. The need for our society to qualified knowledgeable in the underlying process of Ukraine's European integration, including integration processes in science and technology, constantly growing and this should reflected in the programs of training of students. Successful implementation of the program "Horizon 2020", after all, only opens the prospect of integration of scientific and educational space of Ukraine into Europe. When this happens - our scientific and educational world will be laid "hands on" "main center" of Europe and our experts have to become full partners in international companies in all areas of science and technology.

All this will base on understanding and mastering the methods of computer thinking needs of the modern economy in the new knowledge. Together they form the so-called intangible assets resource person, society and state. The brightest minds and most influential moneybags of the world is not yet able to simulate the end all risk processes of the future, which clearly at this year's forum of elites in Davos, but a global development process on new forms of work with NMA has already begun and the integration of scientific and educational sphere of Ukraine to the World and European information and communication environment is active. It has become, say, a well-known fact of the Scientific and Academic Network URAN, which was established by a decision of the National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine and Ministry of Education of Ukraine is 20 June 1997. During this time she became a full member and an integral part of the project GÉANT - multygigabite pan-European research and education network, which brings together more than 8,000 academic institutions in Europe and enables all participants to conduct joint research, collaborate for research and educational activities.

As for the concept of IA, it is probably the shortest definition given by professor at New York University L. Baruch: "Intangible asset provides future benefits, with no material or financial embodiment". Today, experts distinguish among them at least ten types. They relate to:

- Marketing (e.g., trademarks, trade names, trademarks (brands), logos, etc.);

- With technology (such as patents for processes, patent applications, technical documentation, technical "know-how", etc.);

- A creative human activity (e.g., literary and musical works and copyrights on them, publishing rights, etc.);

- With information processing and creation of databases (for example, proprietary computer software and maintenance of automated databases copyrighted software, masks and templates for manufacturing integrated circuits, etc.);

- The engineering activities (e.g., industrial designs, patents on products, engineering drawings and schemes, projects, corporate documents, etc.);

- Customer (e.g., customer lists, contracts, relationships with them, open purchase order, etc.);

- With contracts (for example, with suppliers of high quality services, products, licensing agreements, agreements franchise agreements on non-participation in the competition, etc.);

- With human capital (e.g., work on selection and training of the labor force, employment agreements, agreements with trade unions, etc.);

- With cadaster activities (such as the right to develop mineral rights to the airspace, the right to water space, etc.);

- From the concept of "goodwill" or reputation (goodwill organization of professional practice goodwill, personal goodwill specialist celebrity goodwill and finally the total value of the business as a going concern) [6].

Lack of strategy for Ukraine's transition to an innovative development model constrains the war and improper use of scientific methods of planning at all levels of management (system analysis, forecasting, optimization, target-oriented management, etc.). Lack of innovation culture of public authorities is largely due, in our view, the failures is a scientific and educational spheres. For example, unlike in developed countries, in Ukraine, due to immaturity of information laws, information and IA resources, information and communication sector of Ukraine, has not even created the foundations of the national innovation system. We at amateur level monitor global developments in technology upgrades of in-depth information, protect it as a resource for its development. As a result, structural deformation, institutional incompleteness, inconsistency, imbalance of technological, economic, social, and value issues characterize our innovation, and scientific and technical potential of Ukraine is practically excluded from the economic process state.

In our country since independence science and education functions significantly lost influence on the socio-economic development of the state. Not only the lack of resources and outdated material and technical base of scientific and educational institutions significantly limited the ability of in Ukraine at the global level international scientific projects and research, and to a critical level decreased indicators of national scientific and technological potential because of the lack of real ideas innovative development that implicitly, was a blatant threat to national security of Ukraine. Add that our country has in recent years only formally declares innovative orientation state does not stimulate the economy increased demand for scientific and technical and educational projects.

Research and Education, information and communication space of Ukraine has turned into a field of confrontation "all against all", and, in addition to the need to establish national systems cyber security, as emphasized in their speeches, world leaders need throughout deepen the sense of perception and understanding of the importance for life society very notions of "information", "information resources" and "intangible assets" and so on. Rational implement this direction by developing new training for specialties in higher technical institutions that will certainly require us significant effort, including the quality of new teacher training all disciplines humanitarian, economic and legal profile. A considerable amount of humanitarian disciplines has transformed. However, such work should start preparing for future professionals knowledgeable in the techniques of information internationally and to rebuild all socio-economic, political, military, clandestine manner and open processes of national state.

References

1. The Global Problem of Privatization and Commercialization, Diane Ravitch, dianeravitch.net, August 3, 2015.

2. Jalal V.I, Innovative information technology - the basis of innovative culture // Ukr. medichn magazine. tehniki i tehnologiï. - K .: 2007 - Part 1, number 1. - S. 66-77.; h. 2, number 2-3. - S. 30-52.

3. Europe 2020 [Електронний ресурс]. − Режим доступу: ec.europa.eu/<wbr>europe2020/index_en.htm

4. Europe 2020 [Електронний ресурс]. - Режим доступу: ec.europa.eu/<wbr>europe2020/index_en.htm

5. Kay A.S. Baruch Lev on Intangible Assets // CRM.com. 19.01.2001. URL:

www.destinationcrm.com/<wbr>Articles/CRM-News/Daily-News/<wbr>Baruch-Lev-on-Intangible-<wbr>Assets-46181.aspx

See: Mard M.J., Hitchner J.R., Hyden S.D. Valuation for Financial Reporting. Hobokin, 2010; Reilly R.F., Schweihs R.P. Guide to Intangible Asset Valuation. AICPA, 2013; Kling A., Schultz N. From Poverty to Prosperity: Intangible Assets, Hidden Liabilities and the Lasting Triumph over Scarcity. New York, 2009; etc.

6. R. Reilly, R. Shvays Valuation of intangible assets. - M .: Quinto Consulting, 2005. - 792p.; Belysheva I.V., Kozlov N.A. Intangible assets are: classification and accounting // company: corporate governance issues. 2008. № 4. URL:http://www.aojournal.ru/<wbr>journal/lib/archive/detail/<wbr>ArticleID/38/%D0%90%D0%9F%D0%<wbr>A0%D0%95%D0%9B%D0%AC-4-47-2008