Головні статті

№5 / 2016
14.09.2016, 12:45

"Axis of Evil" as a risk factor of international security

Igor Gorobets, Andriy Martynov


The article considers the United States fighting the "axis of evil." In 2002, the U.S. President George W. Bush declared Iran, Iraq, Libya, Syria, North Korea and Venezuela as its components. However, definitive changes in political regime did not happen in most of these countries. Instead, attempts to provide these changes caused further unbalance in the global security system.

Keywords: global security, the United States, Iran, Iraq, Libya, Syria, North Korea, Venezuela.

After the attacks of September 11, 2001 the administration of George W. Bush officially announced the list of countries that pose a direct or indirect threat to US security. In his address to the US Congress in 2002 he included to this "axis of evil" Iran, Iraq, Libya, Syria, North Korea, Venesuela. The meaning of this process the former Foreign Minister of Germany Y.Fisher sees in difficult finding a balance between risk and needs global cooperation in the new world sestem. Even during the "cold war" Aron said that "the purpose of military operations, ideally, is to disarm the enemy". However, in the current situation radically changing forms of military operations from "humanitarian intervention" to "hybrid war" and "war by proxy". But all this arsenal was used in combating States from 2002 to the "axis of evil." The first attempts to reduce the number of countries in the "axis of evil" were held in Iraq and Iran. Against all this the last time before 2015, when it reached international compromise on Iran's nuclear program, were sanctions. But still exhausted the Iranian dossier should not be considered. The "large restructuring" of the Middle East in March 2003 was started in Iraq. And he was accompanied by Afghan operation and "Invictus freedom" that only scattered forces and created a classic race situation "for two hares". US military doctrine, which included the possibility of doing two local wars and victories, they have proved their vulnerability. As a result, the administration of George W. Bush not only failed to eliminate the "axis of evil", but on the contrary, strengthened its individual parts.

Instead of on October 9, 2009 the Nobel Committee has published sensational news that the Nobel Peace Prize in 2009 was the 44th President of the United States 48 years old Barack Obama. American and world media immediately questioned the decision. In particular, stressed the chronological discrepancies, since Barack Obama became president only on January 20, 2009, and nominations for the award ended on 1 February. American conservative circles saw it as an attempt awarding European countries "impose" their vision of foreign policy priorities of the Euro-Atlantic space, led by the US and Afghan scenario and end the Iraq war.

In fact, global economic crisis had already abounded at that time, which has radically changed the socio-political situation in the world. Particularly sharp was a tension in the Arab countries that suffered from rapid population growth and limited economic opportunities for the growth of living standards. In December 2010 riots began in Tunisia, to the spring of 2011 to cover the majority of Arab countries, except Saudi Arabia and the rich Gulf oil emirates. Iran link as "axis of evil", then managed to avoid social unrest, not least due to confrontation with Saudi Arabia, because the interests of Tehran and Riyadh direction faced in Bahrain and Yemen.

At the direction of the Syrian situation has radically changed on September 30, 2015, when Russia began to use military space forces in Syria. Finally, in early March 2016 the conflicting parties agreed to negotiate. Even before there were many assumptions about the possible scenarios of their completion. Sincere optimists believe that a ceasefire two weeks have shown how the Syrians longing for true peace, for which ready to compromise. Evidence of this was the readiness of Bashar Assad, even for the services mediator, but to negotiate with majority Sunni Syrian opposition groups. However, even in this wide format negotiations is difficult to believe the best, because at the request of Turkey, despite the position of Russia, the Geneva talks were not involved Syrian Kurds. They now constitute the main strike force in ground military operations against militants "Islamic state" and the Syrian branch of "Al Qaeda" - "Nusra Front of Al." Therefore, excluding the positions of Syrian Kurds in general is hardly possible to speak of a stable settlement of the situation in Syria. However, the recognition of this reality are not ready neither the US nor Turkey.

In general, the complexity and contradictions of negotiations on a peaceful settlement in Syria proves the correctness of the thesis that the Syrian fronts on the fate of the new world order. Even if another disruption of the peace process already discussed the feasibility of so-called "Plan B". It is the territorial division of Syria and the formation of new states. In the opinion of the expert community is that Iran and Saudi Arabia, because of "a draw" Five hostilities achieved not least thanks to the intervention in combat operations directly or indirectly, the United States, Iran, Saudi Arabia, Qatar, Turkey ready backstage offer design division of Syria into spheres of influence. Officially, this scenario is not even discussed in Geneva, where all the negotiators sweared to preserve the territorial integrity of Syria.

In the harsh reality of geopolitics the territorial division of the scenario looks increasingly likely. First, because "draw" on the battlefield in a situation where we used all weapons except nuclear, proves the futility of fighting. Moreover, "honorable peace", which is prepared to become a victim of Syria, is now satisfied with most of the major players in this conflict. In particular, before the restoration of the Geneva talks US Secretary of State John Kerry visited France and Saudi Arabia. As a result of these negotiations, it seemed that the administration of President Barack Obama is interested in, to mesh as a year before the end of its mandate Syrian conflict is not burned again in full.

Even the Saudis are looking for loans of $ 8 billion for the current budget of the kingdom, to cover losses from low world oil prices. Considering this factor, as well as reconciliation Iranians and Saudis in Yemen, we can not exclude their willingness to create in Syria under Shiite and Sunni states. It is clear that the option of instead of the current Shiite government of Syria that will be directly dependent on support from Tehran and the Lebanese Shiite movement "Hezbollah" is hardly satisfied with Israel. However, the territorial disintegration of Syria and Israel would win, because nobody else will return annexed in 1967 Golan Heights, which is strategically important for Israel's security. However, the reality of implementation of "Plan B" can motivate participants in the Geneva talks forced to compromise in order to preserve the territorial integrity of Syria in the form in which this long-suffering country and its people came five years ago in the "Arab spring". In fact, any option reconciliation is acceptable for civilian Syrians.

Interestingly, at the same time, in early March 2016, the attention of the world media to Libya stimulated shooting at the Libyan-Tunisian border. In the desert it is rather arbitrary, but the attack on the Tunisian border with neighboring Libyan territory under the banner of "Islamic state" once again forced to think about what turned five years after the change of the regime of Muammar Gaddafi Libya. In fact, come true the most pessimistic forecasts of developments.

Today thereis not Libya as an integrated territorial state. Libyan society is divided by clan-tribal basis. Each tribe has its own armed forces that control the tribal territory. "Confederation" ethnically Arab or Berber family breeding associations joined forces trying to control more territory. Even in Libya regional geographical distribution that existed at the colonial times, in the provinces of Cyrenaica, Tripolitania and Fezzan in fact there is no "central authority". As a result, all attempts of the United Nations, European Union, African Union or the form of these disparate tribal coalitions central government fail. Because Libya is a reality the situation is much worse than the Somali. In Somalia, clan-tribal groups clearly divided the spheres of influence, because there is no such resource as oil. This factor stimulates the Libyan war of all against all and unstable alliances that break immediately after some tribal military groups captured oil province, an oil refinery or port. At the time of such lift War Libya Colonel Muammar Gaddafi, who created a clear hierarchy distribution of income from the export of Libyan oil. Each tribe had its ґesheft in this business. After the "revolution" each tribe tries to break the bank in the oil game, and the position of supporters of the "Islamic state" in this background are becoming stronger. They are trying to reverse the idea of ​​tribal disputes supra "the only correct version" of Islam. Moreover, unlike in Syria, where the military structure of the "Islamic state" from the beginning of its existence came into internecine struggle of the Syrian branch of "Al Qaeda" in Libya, extremists managed to consolidate in a common "Islamic Front". Increasingly, it is combat units "Islamic state" are the one military power, which accelerates the tribal army, offering them to join efforts in order to establish an Islamic caliphate. And to the extent of causing damage oil business "Islamic state" in Iraq and Syria increasingly important for financing their terrorist activity becomes sale of Libyan oil. No less profitable business for Islamists in Libya remains the smuggling of refugees to Europe.

The greatest concern about these developments in Libya shows the Italian government. However, Italy has not been able to consolidate allies in NATO and the European Union to resolve the Libyan issue. This is not surprising, because even very hot ruins Syrian war is that all plunged into another war in Libya. Nearest African neighbors Libya - Algeria, Egypt, Tunisia still trying to defend against the Libyan anarchy on their own.

The sad experience of Syria urges those who have not completely lost the common sense that the challenges do not always have a military solution. Bundeskantsler Angela Merkel strongly opposes a joint EU military operation in Libya. It is inevitably provoke another wave of migration would be extremely unpopular and almost a year before federal elections in Germany. The same reasoning to constrain Libyan towards French President Francois Hollande. He had to take account of the bitter experience of his predecessor, Nicolas Sarkozy, who is trying to impose criminal liability for receiving "gifts" of Muammar Gaddafi. So for Libya and France is very delicate problem. Not reached Libya and the administration of President Barack Obama, which pays the lion's share of effort "restructuring" of the Middle East, North Africa assigning a secondary role in this process.

For supporters of the "Islamic state" back up optimum conditions for maximum strengthening its position in Libya, which in the case of their defeat in Syria and Iraq could become the main base of "Islamic state." And, unlike politicians in democratic countries are forced to reckon with public opinion and based on it to plan their action thriller "Islamic state" this need not have. They plan their actions are not in the time interval between elections, and in the long term. Therefore, there is a very high probability that the events in Libya, the international community will again respond in an emergency order, badly understanding the course of events.

The most unpredictable element of the "axis of evil" is North Korea. In early March 2016 against the background of joint exercises, conducting the US and South Korea, the North Korea government has threatened preventive nuclear strikes. North Korean propaganda relentlessly demonstrates nuclear warheads and their means dopravlennya to prove that these threats are a bluff. Even after the January test of the nuclear device Americans continued to deny that the regime of Kim Jong INA is important from now on "nuclear argument." To admit this would have to accept the fact that the policy of the previous Democratic administration of Bill Clinton in the Korean issue was wrong. Recall that in 1994 Clinton agreed to "compromise" on the issue of North Korean nuclear program. In exchange for Pyongyang's promise to put its nuclear facilities under the control of the International Atomic Energy Agency while Bill Clinton agreed to establish an international consortium on the development of non-nuclear energy in North Korea.

In principle, this project was successful, but in 2003 the new US administration of George W. Bush managed to remove from power the Iraqi regime of Saddam Hussein. This was a strong argument for the leadership of the DPRK to fully update its military nuclear project. In 2006 North Korea conducted its first successful nuclear test. Then there were the successful launches of ballistic missiles, which are a means of delivering nuclear warheads to set goals.

To soften criticism of the foreign policy of the Obama Administration with the Republican camp, especially given the fact that Hillary Clinton was his secretary of state, had to quickly organize military maneuvers on the Korean peninsula. In response, North Korea officially announced the list of targets in the Republic of Korea that could be targets for nuclear attack. It is understood that this game of nuclear muscles further strain the already volatile situation in the region. Even the closest ally of North Korea - China was forced to make a great diplomatic demarche and urge Pyongyang to greater restraint and responsibility. So far one thing is clear - to hope for rapid changes in power structures North Korea regime after receipt of control of nuclear weapons is meaningless. On the contrary, this fact creates the most serious risks to international security. After Pyongyang actually got a versatile tool for global blackmail. It is easy to imagine a situation where the North Koreans (world if they do not make concessions) sell radioactive elements militants "Islamic state" by submitting the situation so that they did not, and Pakistan. Further, any apocalyptic scenario may seem like fairy tales. As long as the "great powers" tried, but could not agree with what they do with radical Islamists in Syria, they missed an even greater threat on the Korean peninsula.

Instead, the greatest successes in curbing the "axis of evil," the Obama administration boasts in Latin America. In March 2016 the Venezuelan democratic opposition launched a campaign for the resignation of President Nicolas Maduro. This news is hot for the Latin American region. Indeed, in the years 1999-2013. When extravagant ruled Venezuela President Hugo Chavez seemed that South America could have done the socialist choice. At least the rhetoric against the United States while in Venezuela increased too. Chavez's successor - Nicolas Maduro at the time were lucky only once, when Hugo saw in him - a former trade unionist - a figure worthy to be vice president.

However, the "cap of Monomakh" for Maduro was too heavy. Trouble began for him with a sharp decrease in world oil prices, after which the Venezuelan "oil socialism" had to end. Immediately pozhvavishalo opposition, which could lead mass protests against Maduro and his social policies. As a result, in late 2015 the opposition coalition celebrated victory in parliamentary elections in Venezuela. However, Nicolas Maduro said he did not intend to hold early presidential elections and even tried to put pressure on the opposition. But he could not save the president's control of parliament, which was the basis of consolidation protest. Of course, they would be impossible if the economic situation was better.

Severe occasion to clarify the relationship between the opposition and President Maduro - destination management in the state oil company. As human skeleton Venezuelan opposition are businessmen who have suffered significant losses on nationalizing the oil industry in times of Chavez, we can assume that this fight is going to be really sharp. In case of loss of control over the oil industry bottom presidency Nicolas Maduro matter can be considered. Another thing is whether you can do it during the presidential term of Barack Obama, who on 20-21 March 2016 first visited Cuba. The real beginning of the regime change in Venezuela will definitely have a great echo in Cuba. It was, until recently, Venezuela's closest ally Cuba, its actual economic contributor. Last year's restoration of diplomatic relations between Cuba and the United States welcomed the Venezuelan opposition, but ignored by the media close to President Nicolas Maduro. Now intensification of the democratic opposition in Venezuela may be the signal for activation of the Cuban opposition. So last month presidency of Barack Obama's promise to be extremely important for Latin America.

A number of local wars that the US drive against countries of "axis of evil" in various forms, from information warfare to sanctions, wars by proxy and attempts to change the ruling regimes, on the one hand, demonstrate leadership ambitions of the United States, but on the other - these wars occur with varying and successfully put these ambitions into doubt. After all, are less effective traditional mechanisms for maintaining global stability, which are international organizations, international law and world public opinion. After all, the UN has found itself in the situation of the League of Nations before World War II, international law discredited its selective application, and world public opinion is the subject of various artful manipulation. Available are signs of transition from the international system of balance of power, which guaranteed the dominance of the United States, when there was no global confrontation, but were frequent local conflicts to conflict multipolar system in which the polarization of interests of superpowers that more rarely take into account the interests of other subjects international relations. The coalition of peripheral states, which gnomic in 2002 called "axis of evil", is impossible. However, permanent war against the states "axis of evil" make it possible to maintain a good shape US social security institutions and certify that hide unipolar security system, despite all the signs of the crisis too early.


1. Bush George W. Key decisions. - K., 2012. - S. 425.

2. J. Fisher Story returns. The world after September 11, and the revival of the West. - K., 2013. - S. 395.

3. R. Aron Peace and war between nations. - K., 2000. - S. 45.

Migration crisis in the context of a clash of civilizations

Evgen Ryabinin


The article under consideration deals with the pressing problem that European Union faces currently that is immigration crisis. The author analyses all the reasons that led to the immigration collapse in Europe. Among the basic problems the author singles out the wrong immigration policy concept that has been chosen by European Union. It is necessary to underline that immigrants who come to Europe don't want to get European values that's why the clash of religion and identification takes place. Some decades ago Europeans were happy to get immigrants as cheap working force, but now due to low fertility rate of European women and high fertility rate of the Muslim women it is possible to predict the percentage of Muslims in Europe in 20 or 30 years and they will influence all the processes in European Union. Nowadays we already could see the problems that Europeans face - that is the conflicts that take place in European cities as it happened in German cities on the eve of the New Year and terroristic acts in Paris and Brussels. The author supports the idea of S.Huntington who predicted the clash of civilizations. Besides the author underlines that the clash of civilizations will take place in Europe in the European society and the Europeans are doomed to be defeated due to the wrong multiculturalism and tolerance policy.

Keywords: European Union, immigrants, immigration crisis, clash of civilizations.

Recently the problem of Islamization of Europe is the main among the problems of European society. In the early 1990s, the main problem of the XXI century S. Huntington defined the clash of civilizations, namely the Christian and Islamic. [1]

In August 2015, the migration flow from Libya, Syria, Iraq and Afghanistan has increased to record levels. EU countries were not ready before, which caused immediate decisions about their placement without an analysis of the possible consequences. It should be noted that the final destination of migrants being chosen mostly to Germany because of the high level of development, and therefore a higher level of social protection, including support workers. As rightly said Hungarian Prime Minister, "people who seek asylum in Europe, should be treated as immigrants, not refugees as they seek a German lifestyle and refuse to stay in the first safe country they reach which" [2]. Federal Government has allocated 6 billion euros to cope with a record influx of migrants, whose number by the end of 2015 reached 1 million. People. Thus, F. Hollande said that France could take 24 thousand. For immigrants closer to two years. However, these figures appear unlikely, because every day thousands of people come to a country of the EU.

The modern concept of Europe is based on the concept etnoplyuralizmu, which can be time bomb. If we turn to the history of the United States, we see that J. Washington passed a law under which immigrants from Europe were not allowed to settle in compact groups at the same territory. So, there was a process of assimilation of ethnic groups and all considered themselves Americans.

In Europe, the outskirts of major cities are transformed into national ghettos, and with a clear tendency to expand. The problem of Western Europe is that betting on multiculturalism; it formed for immigrants isolated "national apartment." As a result - immigrants find themselves separated from society and adoption of local codes of conduct has become a matter of individual choice [3, p. 95].

One of the social implications of these enclaves is the growth of the shadow economy, finance and services. The second is the criminalization of some of the immigrants. The third - the formation etnokorporatyvnoyi morality, which provides support to people who are considered "their" [4, p. 52]. The most important problem for immigrants is a problem of cultural and religious terms. In addition, according to Eurostat, the vast majority of immigrants - young people under 35 (79% total), that the most active category of people ready to have children.

Formation of a nation is something subjective, it's impossible to make a person from Algeria feel European and French. In French society, the term "immigrant" is meant not only for people living with the Algerian passport in the country, but all Algerians who received French citizenship. Europe turns into a weird mix of African, Asian, Muslim values ​​and traditions that are not correlated at all with the European. Only a few decades ago Muslim immigrants Europeans gladly accepted, considering them as cheap labor. However, when the birth rate fell to a minimum, Europe was dependent on immigrants. Today about 10% of its population are those born abroad, and 20% - in families of immigrants.

In Europe today lives 44 million Muslims, accounting for 6% of its population. According to various forecasts, the Muslim population of Europe will double in 2025 (within the current EU dwell about 30 million Muslims). Only in major cities of the UK, the Netherlands and Belgium today autochthonous population is only half. Immigrants prefer not accept European identity: they live in England, France, the Netherlands, but it is not the British, French, Dutch. Europe, which has survived in the twentieth century two world wars, continues to practice tolerance, rejection of nationalism, multiculturalism. However, Western European principle of "flexible integration" sees only the consequences of the disease, avoiding its causes.

In the history of Western European nations has never threatened force Common character that is so alien that could understand and accept at least the basic rules and principles of functioning threatening communities. The conflicts in its territory were internally civilizational character. Europe did not have to fight the Tatar-Mongol hordes that bare his life, as incomprehensible to someone else for them Slavic. Europe does not have to keep his identity under the pressure of foreign language and inshokulturnoyi community. Even the fall of the Roman Empire under the onslaught of the barbarians preceded napivkonfliktne long-term coexistence with the same barbarians and Roman historical experience of interaction with other cultures [5, p. 382]. So, Europeans usually not seriously treated the threats that stood throughout their history.

Another problem is the demographic crisis in this part of the world. There is a perception that in Europe today face not Christian and Muslim civilizations, but postchristian secular-liberal values ​​and the traditional value system of Muslims, sometimes-hardened reforms. According to British journalist Tony Blenkli "if fertility rates remain current if the current EU policy will continue, if not change his way of thinking (to some extent - and America), European values ​​and way of life will be driven out of Europe values ​​of radical Islam." Falling fertility is indeed a serious problem of Western civilization. Once Mullah Omar of French Bordeaux said: "One only fecundity of our women we win Christians. After French to be free, do not want to give birth. We will force them to look after our children." So in Europe may be the territory uncontrolled by the central government, for example, the French "Kosovo" or British "Sunni Triangle". Thus, it is possible that within 20-30 years closer Europe actually become a "Yevrabiyu." Therefore, there is a serious problem directly related to the identity - is the aging of Europe and the need for filling jobs by immigrants.

The author is not a supporter of racist theories, but about the "extinction" of white Europe should seriously think about it, because at stake - the survival of members of the white race. This problem is acute in the agenda for the following reasons: reduced reproductive capacity; increasing life expectancy; aging generation of baby boomers; the result of changes in the structure of the family (continued training after employment, frequent job changes, expensive housing and lack of incentives, changing priorities for women's career first, then the family); feminist movement.

According to experts, Europe's population will increase by the middle of the XXI century 10 million people, but two thirds of them - people older than 65 years. A significant amount of the working population will be immigrants. According to research bureau Eurostat for 2035 Europe's population will increase from 495 million to 521 million, and then level it starts to decline. Moreover, the initial growth it will affect the influx of immigrants. The main factor in population decline will become excess of deaths over births. Experts believe that this trend is already firmly established in 2020. And if in 2035 the influx of immigrants from less developed countries to offset the decline, then this source will dry up, since 2035, leading to a gradual fall in the number of residents. However, the population decline is not uniform across Europe. On the contrary, significantly increased its number in the UK (25%), Cyprus (66%), Ireland (53%), Sweden (18%), Luxembourg (52%). However, the serious loss of forward Eastern Europe. Population of Poland reduced by 18%, Bulgaria - 28%, Romania - 21% in the Baltic countries the population will decrease by about a quarter.

In the European Demography negatively can affect the popular movement "childfree", whose members call not to have children at all. According to them, in the modern world without child much easier to live, grow and build a career. They also claim that the world is overpopulated and so, so that the child will inevitably be worse parents. By refusing to have children, they save them from future trials and suffering.

German demographers are sounding the alarm: in order to keep the number of Europeans at current levels, the birth rate exceed 2.11 child per family. Today, the figure for the German family of 1.3 children for Italian - 1.2 for Spanish barely reaches 1.1. Overall fertility index of European (white) female child is 1.2, while representatives of Islam, living in the EU - 4.2. Acute is the problem of the aging European population. Today every citizen of Europe at the age of 65 years account for four employees. Fifty years later, this figure will fall by half - to each pensioner will fall just two employees. For the economy situation where only a third of the population is of working age, could result in a disaster. [6]

Given these trends forecasts are disappointing: in the near half-century of cultural and civilizational view of the continent changed almost beyond recognition. In the UK, the number of Muslims in the last 30 years has increased 36 times. In the Netherlands, half of all newborns is born in Muslim families. In Belgium, 25% of the population - the Muslims. [7]

World population forecast for the next 50 years makes it possible to speak of two major trends for European countries: reducing the number of indigenous people and its visible aging. The process of population aging, caused by a decrease in the total fertility rate and increasing life expectancy, there is almost everywhere. But today in many European countries the total fertility rate has fallen so sharply that the aging population has become yet unseen scale. Moreover, there are countries where mortality is already higher than the birth rate and declining population.

Some believe immigration saving from extinction in Europe, but in fact - this is the extinction of Europe through her passion strangers. The aging population also reach a record high. In Italy, for example, the average age of the population will increase from 41, in 2000 to 53 years in 2050, and the proportion of people over 65 years - from 18 to 35%; France, respectively, from 38 to 44 years, with 16 to 26%. This potential support ratio, ie the number of people of working age (15 to 64) that accounts for every person over 65, reduced by half, about four or five to two. All countries and regions who wish to avoid population decline, need immigrants. The level of required immigration inflows depends mainly on the total fertility rate in a given country.

Why Europe is interested in immigrants? In the above demographic factor, as migrants it needs air. After all, the average Belgian rather sit on financial assistance from the government than to work as a loader, plumber, and janitor. Also, European entrepreneurs, especially those doing business "on the edge" of the shadow economy, lucrative illegal migrants who are undocumented. They are de jure not subject to European social norms, taxes, etc. [8, p. 27].

The problem of migration is also a radicalization of the community. In France, the unemployed who are at the expense of aid already inhabit whole blocks and even the suburbs of large cities. The problems start when conscious reach age children who were born in Europe and have not seen their ethnic homeland. The ultimate dream for parents - social assistance and living in migrant ghetto Belgian Anderlecht or on the outskirts of Paris - seen kids as bottom exist in Europe. Thus, they are usually not possible to make a difference socially acceptable means - education they have received, their specialty workers do not attract as young indigenous people, but the ambition and energy of many is unclaimed. In this case, they form explosive social environment, which adds street gangs and organized crime groups in European cities.

His anger migrants slop on ordinary Europeans, as happened Christmas night in Cologne. The main cause of the current migration flow is active hostilities in the Middle East, which plunged the region into total instability.

What is the situation in the context of a clash of civilizations can be predicted for Europe in the near future?

An act of terrorism in Norway in 2011 clearly demonstrated to the whole world, and especially Europe, today we are witnessing the birth of philosophy "white" Europe. The declaration, published by Breivik, calls the new crusaders to fight the Islamization of Europe and Marxism. The author condemns "harmful cultural Marxist multiculturalism and Islam." In particular, he wrote: "... most are antynatsionalistamy and want to destroy European identity, traditions, culture and even nation states. We all know that the basis of European problems - weakness of cultural identity and nationalism. This irrational fear of nationalistic doctrines prevents us stop our own national and cultural background of suicide on the annual increase in Islamic colonization."

In this context, we would like to recall the thinking of the famous French analyst Guillaume Faya. In particular, he was a "etnoplyuralistychnoyi against the principle of a united Europe, including Islam. But in Europe and ethnocentrical based on power politics "; "The notion of Empire meaningless without a minimum degree of homogeneity of its population, which implies rejection of etnoplyuralizmu and too much mixing of different peoples." G. Such views Faya on European space organization were united in the concept of "Yevrosybir": the idea of ​​the creation on the territory of Europe and Asia alliance that combines state of the population, mostly belonging to the white race. The spatial organization of its political project looks like "ethnocentrical and avtotsentrychnyy Yevrosybir" global alliance peninsular and central Europe and Russia, from Brittany to the Bering Strait.

The cornerstone principle of selection and Yevrosybir as the region is settling white race (social and demographic basis of a new unity). According to G. Faya, "we are entering a world where the old and historic national rivalries among all these nations (the white race) should be dialectically overcome and replaced by a global alliance; because we intend to confront common threats that have gained immense scale against our identity and our existence." [9, p. 93].

So G. Faya can be attributed to the group of far-right ideologues who advocate overcome national fragmentation in areas of Europe for the "preservation of the white race." In one of his manifestos, K. Hoffmeister concludes: "Continents secondary. Race - a crucial factor that should influence policy and colonization. If the white race can overcome its internal disintegration, united in a single unit, then it can start to look across the oceans and infinite space. This means that landmasses, which tend to geopolitics, lose their eternal status" [9, p. 94].

The migration problem adds the popularity of right-wing politicians, such as Marie Le Pen in France. In her view, the progressive Islamization of France and the growth of political and religious demands threaten the survival of European civilization, and Muslims praying in the streets of France, she compared the occupation of the country during the Second World War. The politician also offers deprive immigrants of all social benefits, reduce the residence from ten to three years to abolish automatic citizenship to children of mixed marriages, leave the Schengen area and leave the EU to abandon the euro for the purpose of economic recovery [10, p. 43].

No better is the situation in Germany. According to public opinion research, 15 to 20% of respondents support the ideology of right-wing extremism, hidden sympathizers of these ideas is 40% of the population. PEAIWE Movement - "Patriotic Europeans against the Islamization of Western Europe" fixing mistakes power and continues to protest. The discontent of the population instrumentalizuyetsya right and left radicals, the shares joined by extremists from the National Democratic Party of Germany. "Alternative for Germany" Eurosceptic party, markedly transformed into a group of right-wing populism slogans. Her ranking rose to 10%, which can provide a passage in the Bundestag elections in 2017 [11].

Right-wing parties would support, because the attitude of Europeans towards immigrants and this attitude is rather negative. Already in 2008, according to a study of American analytical center Pew Research, the "unreliability" of Muslims complained 38% of French, a quarter of Britons and 46% of Poles. In a 2011 survey of the German Foundation Friedrich Ebert behalf showed that in 50-60% of seven EU countries, including Britain, France and Poland, according to Muslim immigrants are "too demanding".

It should be emphasized that such radical views were heard in the early 2010s. There is no doubt that after the crisis years 2015-2016, the statement became even radikalnishymy.

Therefore, in our opinion, it can cause hantinhtonivske clash of civilizations. Creating a critical mass of Muslims on the territory of Europe gives grounds to assume that Muslims, who immigrated years earlier, conducted some work on the creation of radical Islamist organizations. They joined the latest wave of immigrants, dissatisfied with low social support us. Events in the magazine "Charles" and the terrorist attacks in Paris and Brussels showed that the frequency and magnitude of these murders will increase. Europe, in the event of serious conflicts over inflated their degree of tolerance can not resist them. EU could get and blow from the south, from the Muslim BiH, Albania, Kosovo, ie the state, which at one time helped gain independence. Thus, the alleged clash of civilizations in Europe, within her community - between native Europeans and immigrants from the Middle East. And this conflict can be stimulated interpersonal conflicts, because not all migrants seeking to assimilate into European society or take its traditions and culture.


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Nagorno-Karabakh - attempts to establish justice

Porvana Telman kizi Rustamova


The article examines the Nagorno-Karabakh conflict, the current situation in the conflict zone and the positions of countries, including Minsk Group. The Armenian-Azerbaijan conflict has an actual meaning in view of the current events and regional security. The role and place of external actors are determined.

Keywords: Nagorno-Karabakh, Azerbaijan, Armenia, OSCE Minsk Group, Turkey, USA, Russia.

The conflict, which has lasted for over 20 years, remains unresolved and is accompanied by the Treaty on ceasefire signed in 1994. Although both states Azerbaijan and Armenia are former Soviet republics, among them there are significant economic, cultural, religious and political differences. Recent events are proof that every shot in the conflict area, now and in the future will be regarded as a challenge to security in the region. The territory of Nagorno-Karabakh is growing arena of aggression and tension. The passivity of the OSCE Minsk Group, the failure of UN Security Council resolutions by Armenia, constant acts of provocation on the front line are factors nerozv'yazanosti conflict.

The escalation of the situation around Nagorno-Karabakh in early April this year and was accompanied by provocative military actions. It is symptomatic that this happens right after the IV Summit on nuclear safety in the US, which was attended by heads of the two states of Azerbaijan and Armenia. [1] Even on the night of 1st to 2nd April Armenian sabotage group attacked Azerbaijani positions, killing two soldiers. In response, Azerbaijan is strengthening its military position, causing dissatisfaction and Armenia necessitates the search for external support.

The official statement of the representative of the Russian Foreign Ministry M.V. Zakharova in connection with the situation around Nagorno-Karabakh (2 April 2016) states: "In Moscow concerned about the situation in the Nagorno-Karabakh conflict. We urge the parties to cease military clashes" [2].

Already on April, 3 in the formal resolution of the Defense Ministry of Azerbaijan announced "the unilateral termination of Azerbaijan kontroperatsiy. If the enemy will continue to subversion, shelling residential complexes and position, without limitation Apply Azerbaijan military equipment to destroy the enemy and territorial integrity". [3] This decision was a clear condition for a ceasefire to the conflict caused by the position of Azerbaijan and peaceful requirement intermediaries, including Russia, as one of the co-chairs of the Minsk Group. However, Armenia has from 3 to 4 April violated ceasefire in the conflict zone. Among the victims were not only military, but also non-combatants. Thus, the Armenian side for the purpose of re-occupation of lands has launched attacks on positions of Azerbaijan in the direction of Agder, Terter and Fuzuli-Hodzhavend, exposes the settlements located near the contact line of troops, heavy shelling. Despite the suspension kontroperatsiy Azerbaijan, the Armenian side continues to violate ceasefire regime and gets strikes in response to attacks on settlements. It should be noted that it is not only Nagorno-Karabakh, but also seven adjacent regions of Azerbaijan occupied by Armenia.

The official position of Azerbaijan is not aimed at the outbreak of war with Armenia. According to President of Azerbaijan can understand that all hostilities in the area of Nagorno-Karabakh are intended to protect the territorial integrity and is retaliation [4].

It is necessary to analyze the international response to the early days of the conflict escalation. Official statements were published on the website of Foreign Ministry and Turkey. The latter called on Armenia to stop the attack and the use of fire, to take measures to release the occupied territories. As a State Party to the Minsk Process, Turkey supports a fair and peaceful conflict resolution [5]. Ankara's position in the Nagorno-Karabakh conflict is obvious and well known. As for brotherly Azerbaijani people state it reaffirmed its readiness to help Azerbaijan. The meeting of Presidents Aliyev and R. Erdogan in Ankara on March 15 this year was evidence of historical and cultural friendship between the two peoples. If the hostilities continue, Turkey is always ready to provide military assistance to Azerbaijan. April 5, 2016 at the meeting of foreign ministers of Azerbaijan and Turkey in Iran Mammedyarov E. and M. Cavusoglu stressed the importance of resolving the conflict in accordance with UN Security Council resolutions. [6] It should specify what Turkey's role in the conflict is of great importance.

Foreign Minister Lavrov said on April, 4 unreasonableness change the format of OSCE Minsk Group and expressed confidence that the new format will lead to deterioration in the peaceful settlement of the conflict. The reason for this is that, on the one hand, does not want to lose their position on the settlement of the conflict, and the other - frozen situation for her is the most favorable. Obviously, the duration of this conflict has certain causes and consequences. Protracted nature of the conflict is the lack of confidence of the parties and complicates the process of constructive dialogue. Russian political analysts believe that the terms of the CSTO (Collective Security Treaty Organization, 1992) of the Russian Federation is obliged to support Armenia, which is a party to this regional association. However, the validity of such a contract can not be higher than the international principles of territorial integrity of the territory and, therefore, any military intervention in the conflict zone will be regarded as interference in the internal affairs of States.

It is obvious that the conflict can not last more than 20 years and not become a threat to the region. Of course, members of the Minsk Group (France, Turkey, Russia, the USA, Belarus, Finland, Sweden) immediately reacted to developments in the area of Nagorno-Karabakh to cease fire and to demonstrate political will. Chairman of OSCE, German Foreign Minister Frank Walter Steinmeier expressed concern about the military escalation [7].

Unfortunately, the above representations remain on paper and have no real weight in the conflict. In recent years, the US has taken a clear position on the Armenian-Azerbaijani conflict. This meeting proved Aliyev and Kerry inWashington, which was the signal for the Armenian side. Secretary of State stressed that the US supports the territorial integrity of Azerbaijan and resolution of the conflict must comply with international law, the UN Charter and the Helsinki Agreement [8].

The position of the Islamic Republic of Iran has always been a special attention of the region. During the trilateral meeting of foreign ministers of Turkey, Iran, Azerbaijan, April 5, 2016 M. Zarif said the concern about the situation in the zone of Nagorno-Karabakh. Although a formal appeal of the state held a clear voice its position on this issue, the role of Iran in the resolution of conflict is essential. It was in that state most of the population are Azeri Turks. Iran's position is similar to the position of Russia only in the context of official statements. That is why the rapprochement of Azerbaijan and Turkey are disadvantageous for Iran because the regional importance of both countries is obvious to Tehran. Features of both countries are pushing Iran to seek an ally, which today is Russia.

Analyzing the situation in of Nagorno-Karabakh zone, it is important to take note of UN Security Council resolutions. What are their main provisions are not respected and why there is a threat of further hostilities in the conflict zone? First, based on the statement of the Minsk Group of the inadmissibility of the use of another's territory in order to obtain international recognition or change the legal status of 4 November 1993, the international community stressed that no "Nagorno-Karabakh Republic" is not and can not be. Not recognized by any state, even to Armenia, the land can not claim the right to a separate rule. Map of Azerbaijan in all official and international sources is evidence that Karabakh and the surrounding regions are an integral territory of Azerbaijan. Thus, the question of maintaining status-quo, which offers Armenia has no logical connection.

The official position of France, Hungary, Pakistan, the United Kingdom, Brazil, Spain and other countries in 1993 were aimed at recognition of the occupation of Azerbaijani territories and expressed concern about the situation. All four of UNSCR 1993 requires dismissal territories of Azerbaijan and peaceful solution to the conflict. [9] This failure of basic requirements unilaterally by the government of Armenia cause destabilization. War and aggression in the conflict zone threaten peace in the region today and in the future. From 2 till 5 April sides suffered significant losses. Azerbaijan demonstrated its readiness and strengthened military position. Already on April 5 Ministry of Defense of Azerbaijan announced a ceasefire.

Although the ceasefire talks were held OSCE Minsk Group on April. 6 in Baku, Armenia continues to shell villages. The Minister of Defense of Azerbaijan Zakir Hasanov "Azerbaijan will never accept the fact of occupation and retain the right to release the occupied territories". [10]

It is necessary to make a historical digression to justify the events surrounding Karabakh. Because of the colonial policy of tsarist Russia underwent a process of resettlement of Armenians in Karabakh, which intensified after the signing Turkmenchayskoho peace treaty in 1828 between Russia and Persia. By signing the contract Turkmenchayskoho Armenians in Karabakh Khanate was much less. "According to the Russian census, in 1823 Armenians constituted 9% of the population of Karabakh (the rest - 91% - were registered as Muslims). In 1822 after the dissolution of Karabakh khanate and create Karabakh province appears first document that includes information on the ethnic composition of the population of Karabakh. The tax register Karabakh province ("Description of the Karabakh Province compiled in 1823"), these facts, which Azerbaijani Turks population is predominant. IF Paskevich was responsible for the resettlement of Armenians in the Caucasus, particularly in Karabakh Khanate [11]. The number of Armenian settlers increased every year.

Propaganda of the Armenian lobby on "ethnic Armenian population" Nagorno- Karabakh is absurd. Settlers can not be considered ethnic population. Panahi Ali Khan - head of the Karabakh khanate was Azerbaijani Turk from generation Bayati, a Muslim. This means that the territory of Karabakh Armenians have never ruled. Thus, the military regime in the zone of Nagorno-Karabakh continues invaders and Armenian Diaspora gathers resources to support the "government pygmy formation" [12].

In the future, Azerbaijan plans to establish historical and legal justice. Re-escalation will be a challenge for Armenia, considering the military capabilities of Azerbaijan and support provided by its allies, especially Turkey and Pakistan.

Ukraine has repeatedly announced its support for the territorial integrity of Azerbaijan. This position of the Ukrainian authorities is essential for the latter. April events were evidence of patriotic spirit and readiness to return the occupied land. All military action is the only answer to the aggression and provocations of Armenian separatists. The fighting underway in Azerbaijan, causing a threat to settlements located near Nagorno-Karabakh. That is why the conflict should be solved as soon as possible. The memory of dead soldiers and civilians urge the people of Azerbaijan to considerable effort to prompt peaceful settlement of the conflict.


1. Glinka S.N. Description of resettlement of Armenians within the Russian, with a brief preliminary presentation of historical times Armenia. - M., 1831.- 48 pp.

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5.​ Azərbaycan cavab tədbirlərini birtərəfli qaydada dayandırmaq barədə qərar qəbul edir // Müdafiyə Nazirliyi - 3.04.2016 [Електронний ресурс]. - Режим доступу: http://www.mod.gov.az

6. The Security Council held a meeting with the President of the Azerbaijan Republic // Speech by President Ilham Aliyev April 2, 2016 // [Electron resource]. - Access mode: http://ru.president.az

7.​ Temas Hattında ve Azerbaycan - Ermenistan sınır hattında devam eden çatışmalar HK. // Türkiye Cümhuriyyeti Dış İşleri Bakanlığı // No:82, 2 Nisan 2016 [Електронний ресурс]. - Режим доступу: http://www.mfa.gov.tr

8.​ Azərbaycan Respublikasının xarici işlər naziri Elmar Məmmədyarov Türkiyəli həmkarı Mevlüd Çavuşoğlu ilə görüşüb // Azərbaycan Respublikası Xarici İşlər Nazirliyi // Iran - 5.04.2016 [Електронний ресурс]. - Режим доступу: http://www.mfa.gov.az

9.​ OSCE Chairperson-in-Office calls on the sides in Nagorno-Karabakh conflict to cease hostilities immediately // OSCE // Berlin - 2.04.2016 [Електронний ресурс]. - Режим доступу: http://www.osce.org

10. Secretary Kerry's Meeting With Azerbaijani President Ilham Aliyev // U.S. Department of State. -30. 02. 2016 [Електронний ресурс]. - Режим доступу: http://www.state.gov

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12. The situation around Nagorno-Karabakh, the UN Security Council Resolution - Resolution S / PV.331. - 12.11.1993, the [E-resource]. - Access mode:


US and crisis of neoliberal model of globalization

Sergiy Shergin, Olena Matveeva


The article presents the review of the main trends of world development in the context of postglobalism paradigm. Also it focuses on the problem of the USA leadership within international system under the impact of processes of the world economy crises.

Keywords: globalization, postglobalism, alterglobalism, neoliberalism, international system, new world order

Ten years ago it was considered completely groundless to talk about the collapse of the power of the United States as a world leader. Today such statements are common not only in the media but also among prominent politicians and scientists. The critical mass of opinions and assessments increased significantly after the US intervention in Iraq. UVreshti all in the scientific community sformuvalasya concept of "end of the American era" and start "postamerica world" [1]. But that still is not enough analyzed, it is the nature and consequences of the weakening of US leadership and when it began. Most Western analysts argue that the United States were in power after 1991, when the world moved from a bipolar to unipolar international system that existed during the "Cold War."

However, the outstanding American economist and sociologist I. Valerstayn true essence of the process is seen differently. In his view, the main challenge to US world domination caused the collapse of the Soviet Union and USA military action against Iraq led to their slow weakening grew into a rapid decline until 2007. The US lost its credibility not only of economic and political leader of the world system, but the dominant military power [2, c. 19].

At least for 2001 economic, political and ideological position of the United States looked as strong and steadfast. But foreign policy administration George. W. Bush transformed a slow weakening US dominance in rapid decline. The only advantage saved the US military was their huge potential, and that it relied on inaged US President D. Cheney, the then Mministr Defense D. Rumsfeld and other neo-conservatives politicians when they tried to convince the international community that "the only superpower "unable to provide the international order. However, they made two fundamental errors.

The first was a misunderstanding that the air force and special forces enough to effectively resist the forces of all other countries - potential opponents of the United States. Another serious mistake neoconservatives became confident the US military force as an effective means of winning the war and providing new world order such as Pax Americana. Obviously, the military force to fear as long as it wins. In this context, any result other than victory, reduces the fear of others, and hence the effectiveness of expensive modern military equipment as a factor of intimidation HC world politics. Thus, in the 1990s. US Secretary of State Madeleine Albright during a conversation with K. Powell and other commanders on the rational use of military force asked, "What is the meaning possession of the most powerful armed forces HC world if we can not use them?" The answer lay in the fact that now in nayavnostivolodinnya naypotuzhnishymhy zbroynymyh forces in the modern world "did not make any sense" [2, c. 31-32].

Being a world power, the United States gradually lost control over processes, introduced the initiative to their own elite. In 2008-2010 America has captured a sharp monetary and financial Yee economic crisis, which quickly turned to the world. This systemic crisis revealed with all the economic problems and social conflicts and, more importantly, showed that zhodnaniyaka State hegemon vuzhe not able to cope with such crises. Unable to control the situation, politicians and diplomats in Washington were increasingly forced ruhatysya downstream, becoming hostages tsdanoho process.

In turn, the regional players, local elites, social classes and social movements, whose activity has recently been limited to external control, begin to act on their own, ever more strongly and persistently obvidstoyuyuchy own interests. This clash of the many forces that are released from the global press control often become chaotic and not always create the conditions for change for the better. Thereforenot change order is not Mr. reached a new order or even, more or less efficient conversion, and plain confusion, chaos, anarchy. Saale in any case clear that the rules of the "Washington Consensus" quickly destroyed. As noted I. Valerstayn, long stay under the pressure of world order hegemony of a superpower, moreover, not burdened by historical traditions and responsibilities, has meant that disparate contradictions and conflicts, finding solutions, tended to escalate [2, c. 33].

In this context, interest is the study of the problem from the standpoint postglobalization American sociologist William Robinson. In his view, globalization should not be considered as a source of the common good, and a dichotomous process which can be both creative and destructive. Attention is drawn to the author attempts to combine two major trends in the study of globalization: an attempt to analyze the specific manifestations and problems of globalization and the desire to find a theoretical framework to describe the process of globalization in general. After he highlights 1970 years as "bifurcation point" in the history of capitalism, which gave rise to "stage transnationalization."

The fact that the crisis of the 1970s. was impossible to solve within the existing economic models - no Keynesian or socialist models or variant of capitalism in the countries of the "third world" did not give a clear answer to the question how to solve this complex problem. So the idea of ​​neoliberal globalization was seen as an opportunity to find a way out of the stalemate, which gave her the opportunity to rapidly spread. According to the "theory of global capitalism" neoliberal globalization has formed new aspects of the capitalist system, which include appearance, first, truly transnational capital and, secondly, "flexible accumulation of capital" [3, c. 2, 25]. Note that this system is characterized by increasing mobility of capital, which correlates with a sharp reduction in economic and political barriers (reducing trade barriers, blurring of frontiers, etc.) and with scientific and technological progress.

So, W. Robinson made two largely kontrversiyni thesis. First, although it is premature to talk about leaving in the past "golden age of capitalism", the world-system will cover the next wave of devastating financial turmoil that yv result of what happened. Second, he points to the paradox of capitalism, globalization, modus vivendi which was to solve the crisis of the capitalist economy, not only did not solve it, but rather strengthened, creating another economic crisis that eventually leads to a decline in the US and the position of losing a world leader [5, c. 412].

Postglobalization due to the fact that neoliberal globalization is a global economic model with reduced mechanisms of national and international regulations. Uncontrolled international financial flows is enhanced by the fact that states and groups of states that have huge potential impact on the global economy, the degree egoism and adherence to national and corporate interests block differ little from non-state actors -transnatsionalnyh companies and financial institutions. Readiness of the US and its allies to "operational" view of international law, up to recognition of the legitimacy to intervene in the affairs of other countries, shows the degradation of basic international institutions. The dominant become mechanisms of self-regulation, which in practice means complete freedom transnational structures of any international control. Thus is formed a global system in which "the rich get richer and the poor poorer, leading to enormous population of marginalized low-income periphery" [6].

The main purpose of postglobalization movements or alterhlobalizmu is the fight against international capital, represented by TNC and TNB and propose alternatives on the Internet - a global network of communication between different groups alterhlobalizmu that combines movements such as the fight against racial discrimination, the environmental movement, nongovernmental organizations fighting for human rights, the feminist movement and anarchists and pacifists.

There are two areas within the anti-alterhlobalizmu: reformists who advocate for institutional reform of international organizations and the organization of the annual World Social Forum and the protest movement - represented organization Accion Global de los Pueblos (AGP) - Global Movement nations that oppose capitalism and a tool for fighting brings confrontation. The difference is that the first offer to reform the current model of globalization, and the second -proponuyut completely abandon the system of neoliberal globalization. Alter-globalization opposition represents the capitalist system, but to achieve this goal is no state resources, power of transnational corporations and a concrete political project. However, the alter-globalization protests against political decisions and actions in the social, economic and cultural spheres, which carried power states and international capital [7, p. 48-49].

To combat these phenomena of market economy alterhlobalisty actively use the Internet, through which the richest countries in the emerging accountability in decision-making in the environmental field, and responsibility for processes occurring in poor countries. As a means to combat neo-liberal globalization also uses the alter-globalization blocking official forums IMF boycott certain commercial "brands" and products, demonstrations in the streets, alternative social counseling, resisting police, blocking highways and trains, new electronic technologies boycott. Despite the fact that the movement is an international alterhlobalizmu global actor, but itâ offers ideas alterhlobalizmu far from implementation in practice, especially in developed Western countries. These ideas were echoed in the ethical and cultural sferiah, but the reforms proposed alterhlobalistamy far from realization in the public-political sphere.

Alter-globalization movement is expressing protest against the exclusion of poor countries from the process of globalization, global liberalization merkantylizatsiyi and consumerism. In this connection, it is worth noting a protest against the policies of the International Monetary Fund, which protects the interests and the strategy of the US and allies, as well as a protest against plans structural reforms that are offered as "recipes" to the crisis in developing countries. It is generally known facts are destroying economies undergoing reforms proposed by IMF Inresult neadaptovanosti them to the real economy in these countries. The negative effects of liberalization policies on prescription IMF held in Russia in 1990, showed the inefficiency and not adapted structural reforms that caused a crisis of confidence in the neoliberal globalization in the international community. [6]

Analysis of alter-globalization allows to conclude - US dominance in the world and the neoliberal model of development caused criticism not only in peripheral countries suffering from neoliberalism and US imperialism, but also in developed countries. Allegations of massive criticism of the neoliberal model of development based on the fact that most spectacular actions against globalization took place in Seattle, which is a symbol of neoliberal US economy.

The crisis of 2008-2009 revealed the most negative aspects of global neoliberal capitalism. In response to falling US currency and several financial institutions, some members alterhlobalizmu started a discussion about the end of neoliberalism. Government efforts to exit the crisis, defending the interests of financial institutions, but not people. In September 2008 one of the largest US bank Washington Mutual filed for bankruptcy, and in October of the same year Lehman Brothers. In general, in 2008 the US government spent 50 billion. Doldol.ariv to rescue City Bank, which completely contradicts the ideology of neoliberal globalization, the dominance of the free market and economic liberalization. In 2009 the US government spent 20 billion. Doldol.ariv to rescue Bank of America and 118 billion. To provide guarantees of its assets [8, c. 59-60].

In the context of the study of the phenomenon postglobalization interest are the predictions for the future for further development of the international system. It is expected that by 2025 the structure of the international system will change dramatically. This fact does not question the National Intelligence Council (HIC), which occupies the position of director M. McConnell. In 2008 the Council published a report calling for stimulating global thinking and strategic direction concerning the future. In designing the "Global trends - 2030" NIC appealed to the views of experts, who are not citizens of America. As a result, six seminars were held on five continents. According to most speakers, this study is primarily a description of factors that can affect future events and nenizh forecasting system. This report intends to help by becoming a guide for the future, showing scenarios and their possible outcome. [9]

NIC predicts that the international system is utvorylasya after the Second World War, will change beyond recognition by 2025. This will be the result of new states in the international arena. There will be a smooth flow of economic power from West to East, will increase the role of international and non-governmental organizations. In fact, a similar transformation is happening now. This is due primarily to the fact that rising oil prices made it possible to produce large revenues of tai Gulf and transfer the bulk of production in the country and South and East Asia.

According to the Council, by 2025, the international system will become multipolar permanently. Islamic countries that are outside the Arab world, such as Indonesia, Turkey, Iran, and Russia, India and China gradually play a leading role on the world stage. The report vidznachenoyy the fact that the growing influence of China in the world in the near future will increase significantly. This forecast also predicts that soon the second status in the world and a leading military power will reach China. According HPR, eighth place after the USA, China, India, Japan, Germany, Great Bbrytaniyi, France, woo the economy, on the global stage will belong to Russia. Despite the fact that by 2025, America will be the only relatively strong state vonaSShA vtratyayt most of its leadership. This happens due to the revaluation costs, both economic and military sferahi. Also, consider and version HPR loss of status of the US currency, which "take an equal place among other", and it will change the behavior of US foreign policy. [9]

The strategy of neoliberal globalization, which was originally for Western elites a way to expand its influence and strengthen control over the periphery, in the long term has generated new trends, contradictions and challenges that these elites can not properly handle. Paradigm unipolar US dominance in the international system along with the failure of neo-liberal globalization to ensure their US leadership is more discussion about the beginning postamerykanskoho international order and posthlobalizatsiyi day. Proof of this process is the state of the Asian markets that pryvablyvishiyh by European and developing countries BRICS, seen as potential locomotive of global growth.

So imperial hegemony of USA increasingly questioned as the ability of leading Western states to effectively control the turbulent economic and political processes in the world. Currently in the richest countries of the world is falling wages, reducing social security and sharpening class confrontation. Obviously, the old mechanisms of social and economic regulation does not function in many developed countries. So many peripheral parts of the world are working on new models rozroblennyamkoyu social modernization, and people in their rise to fight, obvidstoyuyuchy their dignity and the right to independent development. To make these new features have been successfully implemented, profound changes are needed at both the international and national rivnyahi, namely such that. The changes apply not only to reform economic and social policies, but also build a new world order.


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2. Wallerstein I. Accelerated fall. The advent of multi-polarity / Immanuel Wallerstein / Sunset US Empire: crises and conflicts: [translation] / Immanuel Wallerstein [et al.]; with a foreword. Boris Kagarlitskogo. - C. 19-33. - Moscow: MAKS Press, 2013. - 242 s.

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4. Robinson I. W. Theory of Global Capitalism: Production, Class, and State in a Transnational World / W. Robinson. ‒ Baltimore, MD: The John Hopkins University Press, 2004.

5. Robinson W. Latin America and Global Capitalism : A Critical Globalization Perspective / W. Robinson. ‒ Baltimore : The Johns Hopkins University Press, 2008. - 412 p.

6. Tretyakov S.A. Alterglobalism and neoliberal globalization in modern political process / S.A. Tretyakov [Electron resource] Problems of Modern Economics, №4 (36), 2010. - Access Mode: http://www.m-economy.ru/art.<wbr>php?nArtId=3435

7. Rovira G. Zapatismo and international network / G. Rovira // Thinking the word. - 2005. - № 47. - S. 47-52.

8. Botts D.L. From fighting in Seattle before the 2008 crisis and the Obama / D.L. Botts // Wind from the South. - 2009. - № 107. - S. 56-63.

9. US intelligence: 2025 - the year when the world will appear in a different guise [Electron resource] / Global Trends: 20130: Alternative Worlds. - 03.12.2016. - Access mode: http://www.mirprognozov.ru/<wbr>prognosis/politics/razvedka-<wbr>ssha-2025--god-kogda-mir-<wbr>predstanet-v-inom-oblichie/ru#

The problems of globalization in programs of far right political parties in Europe

Marta Grymska


The importance of analysis of far right ideology within Ukrainian political science as a prerequisite for better understanding of their history, present state and future prospects is emphasized. The role and place of globalization views in the system of values and ideas of the far right is identified. Three main spheres that are most frequently discussed by the far right in the context of negative globalization impact are distinguished - economy, culture, international relations. The impact of globalization in each sphere is analyzed in details and relevant examples from party documents of various European far right parties are used.

Keywords: political parties, far right political parties, ideology, globalization, globalization in economy, globalization in culture, globalization in international relations.

Exploring the reasons for the electoral success of far-right political parties in European countries, most foreign scientists agree on the importance of ideology as a factor in the growth of their support. Globalization and the increasing rates of migration at the same time somewhat blurred and, conversely, significantly strengthened the sense of national identity of the peoples of Europe. In this era of constant changes in everyday life and in the international arena are becoming popular new ideological currents and values ​​that have offered a simple and clear answers to difficult questions, and far right political parties were able to successfully fill this niche. In particular, they managed to attract the attention of different groups of voters through very clearly expressed negative views on globalization and the perception of this phenomenon as a threat to all areas and sectors of public life. The presence of such items in their programs often considered a prerequisite for the strengthening of electoral support.

The most comprehensive and complete all aspects of the ideology of the extreme right-wing political parties in exploring their books and articles Danish scientist Cas Mudde. The most famous of his works on its own ideology of the extreme right is the book of the same name. [1] More details in the various aspects of this issue, he delves into more contemporary work "populist far right parties in Western Europe", which singled out three main characteristics of the ideology of the far right - psychological nativism, populism and authoritarianism [2].

The increase electoral support far-right political parties in European countries again puts these political forces at the center of scientific attention of foreign political science (work of scientists such as M. Williams, T. Givens, T. Dublikash, G. Kitshelt, E. MakHen, P. Merkle , R. Itvell, P. Norris, Shekhovtsov A. et al.). However, Ukraine far-right political parties are just beginning to become a subject of research.

This article is devoted to the ideology of the extreme right in the context of their views on globalization. One of the specific features of the ideology of the extreme right political parties have a tendency to separation of the main "enemies" that, as stated in the program documents and rhetoric, hinder the development and prosperity of the people. These enemies can be both personalized (in this case is - immigrants, especially Muslims, ethnic minorities, such as Roma, etc.) and reflect certain social phenomena that the extreme right are considered particularly negative. Among these enemies or threats stipulates the globalization. It was the last event often accused of threatening and other negative trends of our time - multiculturalism, immigration, unemployment, aggravation of a number of social problems, destruction of national identity and so on.

In the simplest sense, globalization is the destruction of political, economic, social, cultural, information and other boundaries between states, resulting in their gradual convergence and increasing interdependence. Considering globalization, far right political parties very well away from the abstract and general rhetoric, often incomprehensible and alien to the average voter, and pay special attention to its adverse consequences in various areas, often referring to the three: the economy, social life (culture) and international relations. This specification allows them to more clearly appeal to certain groups of voters who consider themselves victims of globalization and willing to support those who offer specific solutions to their problems [2, c. 184].

The main threat of economic globalization far right political parties consider strengthening dominance in global markets multinationals, mostly American. The opening of borders and the common market does not perform its basic function - the intensification of international trade and to ensure the free and equal competition. In fact, the domestic manufacturers (especially SMEs) are not able to withstand the huge transnational corporations that receive much more benefit from economic globalization. Thanks to huge volumes and greater flexibility in the distribution of its assets (the ability to move their production to countries with cheap labor or with less stringent requirements on environmental protection, earning money through offices in countries with more liberal tax laws, etc.), large business substantially reduces its production, displacing local businesses that often are the main employers in the country. As a result, rising unemployment and various social benefits, creating excessive strain on the state budget.

That is, in economic terms, globalization leads to export jobs to less developed countries, threatening unemployment for citizens of European countries that are rightly demanding proper conditions and decent wages can not create competition to workers who have such a choice is not and who are forced to accept the proposed minimum . Ultimately, globalization has caused the strengthening pace of international migration, opening borders and leveling barriers to movement of labor between countries. The ability to freely travel the world, which was seen as an inalienable right of every person, has now become possible to provide for his or her own welfare alone by moving to a rich state. Overall, not speaking for the complete closure of borders and mostly positively treating migration of educated and talented that may something to bring to the economy of the state, far right political parties emphasize the growth of "social tourism", i.e. migration solely for the purpose of obtaining a better social assistance is seen a dangerous tendency, whose influence will be felt in all spheres of public life.

These views on the negative effects of globalization in the economy can be found in the programs most extreme right-wing political parties. Specifically, this topic is a separate unit in the program of the German party Republicans. The paper noted that the party fully supports the deepening of cooperation between the countries, including through increased international trade, but such cooperation should be based on mutual respect between sovereign and equal nations, which regard the manual only the interests of their peoples. Instead, today globalization is "the laws of the jungle" and economic interests supersede everything else. In an effort to maintain their position in a tough competition, businesses are forced to reduce wages, cut social programs for its employees and abandon the policy of protecting the environment [3].

French National Front accuses globalization and immigration in creating unequal conditions for competition in the economy. Moreover, in its party program calls these phenomena arms of big business, which he uses to further reduce wages and violations of the social rights of workers, hiding behind the need to reduce the cost of the product [4].

"Movement for a better Hungary" stresses that the system of global capitalism, which is based on the free movement of transnational capital, "broke." From him still suffering billions of people, and the gap between the richest and the poorest is mounting. Instead, the party proposes implementing the principles ecosocial national economy that would serve primarily the interests of Hungarians, providing them adequate standard of living and a safe environment [5].

Even more dangerous is the globalization of the people as a community based on the feeling of belonging and shared identity. Cultural globalization involves the unification of cultural products, essentially meaning Americanization of lifestyle (you can often find more derogatory term - McDonaldization). Domination of others "popular" films, books, music, television, habits regarding food, free time and more young people are forced to be ashamed of its products and traditions, preferring imposed from outside. This phenomenon is sometimes called American cultural imperialism, whose influence is becoming more tangible [2, c. 190-191].

Describing the negative impact of globalization on social life, the extreme right political parties talk about immigration and multiculturalism as the basis for the destruction of stable relationships within the community, creating a sense of insecurity and alienation, leading to increased levels of crime, abuse of state social assistance provided by others. The emphasis is thus on culture as the foundation, through which the nation is united. Preservation of the national culture in the context of globalization and cultural expansion should be one of the main tasks of the state, while multiculturalism as the idea of ​​an open society where different cultures coexist multiple, far-right political parties categorically reject [2, c. 144].

National Democratic Party of Germany connects deepening of globalization with the spread of Islamization of European society. Multiculturalism, especially in combination with each other radically different cultures and religions, destroying the value of people as a unified community solidarity, instead of provoking the emergence of selfishness and individualism that adversely affect the development of society. [6] Another German far right party Republicans stressed that in multicultural societies lost sense of home, and so there is almost impossible to create a sense of belonging as a precondition for the unity and solidarity of the community. Because of this multicultural society has always been and will continue to conflict. [3]

Similar ideas can be found in the program of the French National Republican Movement. The party claims that while maintaining the current trends of development in the nearest future economy, nations, civilizations, cultures, races and religions to reach a huge global melting pot, which will complete the unification and leveling any differences. In particular, in France, Islam gradually became just the second religion in the country, but also begins to impose the entire population of its rules and traditions.

Swedish Democrats emphasize that multiculturalism is a major threat to the traditions of their country, destroying the common values ​​and eroding identity. The minaret should not become a new symbol of multicultural Sweden, as this only reinforce the feeling of insecurity, and which so present in Swedish society. The party stressed that it supports the exchange of ideas and cultural experiences without any boundaries, but it is important that it happened voluntarily and provided equality of the two cultures, or can become a cultural imperialism and constitute a serious threat to national identity [7, c. 178].

Far right political parties consider the negative impact of globalization and foreign policy and international position of their countries. In political terms, in their opinion, the main driver of globalization is the United States, for whom it means additional opportunities to promote their interests around the world. Left, in fact, the world's sole superpower after the collapse of the bipolar system, the United States saw an opportunity in the globalization strengthen its dominance in all spheres of public life.

That is, for the far right political parties globalization mean people losing control of their own destiny through the transfer of decision-making bodies and institutions which are outside the state. A permanent increase prestige of various "clubs" and associations, as well as increase their capacity, countries have to agree with them more and more questions about not only foreign, but also on domestic policy, or risk losing not just membership, but also get to the international isolation.

The issue of integration of European states are usually considered out of the question. In general, the most far-right European parties inherent positive attitude to deepen cooperation between European countries. They see Europe as a space of shared history, culture, religion and values. However, the attitude to modern trends of European integration are mostly negative. Expanding the powers of "Brussels bureaucrats" leads to restriction of national sovereignty. So a lot of the far right in favor of conservation works only in some areas, while in all other consider it necessary to return the powers of national governments. For example, some extreme right political parties opposed to the single currency, considering it disadvantageous for economies of individual states. First of all, it is typical of the extreme right of the most developed and rich countries of the EU (France and Germany), which emphasize that their state is much more invested in the union than to get away from him, and therefore any attempt to increase its powers in every way criticized.

However, as noted above, the question of the EU considered separately from the challenges of globalization, which in this context is not European integration and numerous international institutions, which are seen as extreme right representatives alien interests of the people seeking to impose its will. They carry out manipulative pressure on the national political elite, forcing her to take decisions favorable multinational corporations, even if they are contrary to the interests of the people [2, c. 74] and US.

According to the French National Republican movement, the result of the growing influence of international organizations will form a new world order where the United States dominate. States and governments have implicitly accept the new realities, which they are imposed. For example, international organizations spreading the idea that immigration can solve the demographic crisis in Europe, why should open its borders, and the formation of a multicultural society only enrich European culture.

Adding of international organizations to the list of inherent enemies there is in Hungarian far right political party "Movement for a better Hungary". Party leader Gábor Vona in his speeches often mentioned in this context, the International Monetary Fund, the US and Israel. They seek to influence the economic and financial policies in Hungary to promote their interests, and therefore the state should change its attitude towards them in the negative, as the party promised in the event of coming to power. [8]

Supranational union as a threat to the development of the German people consider in their programs and the National Democratic Party of Germany. In an effort to influence the internal life of the state and control its politics, they make it to the actions that are not in the national interest and, therefore, in its foreign policy, Germany must strongly defend its sovereignty and independence. [6]

Thus, the problems of globalization are among the important topics in programs far-right political parties in European countries. Opposing globalization as a phenomenon and denouncing its negative impact on all spheres of public life, the party attracts diverse groups of voters, offering simple and understandable problems. Therefore, further study of the ideology of the extreme right and their views on globalization contribute to a better understanding of the current state and prospects of further development of the group of parties, and therefore should be part of political discourse in Ukraine.


1. Mudde C. The ideology of extreme right / Cas Mudde. - Manchester&New York: Manchester University Press, 2000. - 224 p.

2. Mudde C. Populist radical right parties in Western Europe / Cas Mudde. - New York: Cambridge University Press, 2007. - 404 p.

3. Bundesparteirprogramm. Social. Patriotisch. Ökologisch [Elektronische Ressourcen] // Die Republikaner. - Elektronischen Daten - Zugangsmodus: http://www.rep.de/upload/REP_<wbr>Daten/Werbemittel/_Allgemein/<wbr>Parteiprogramm/BUND_<wbr>parteiprogramm_2011.pdf (am 10 June 2015 angesehen). - Titel von der Bildschirm.

4. Notre Projet. Programme Politique du Front National [Ressource électronique] // Front National. - Données électroniques. - Mode d'accès: http://www.frontnational.com/<wbr>pdf/Programme.pdf (vu le 10 juin 2015). - Titre de l'écran.

5. Radical change: a guide to Jobbik's parliamentary election manifesto for national self-determination and social justice [Electronic resource] / Foreign affairs committee, 2010. - Electronic resource. - Mode of access: http://www.jobbik.com/sites/<wbr>default/files/Jobbik-<wbr>RADICALCHANGE2010.pdf (viewed on December 1, 2014). - Title from the screen.

6. Arbeit. Familie. Vaterland. Das Parteiprogramm der Nationaldemokratischen Partei Deutschlands (NPD) [Elektronische Ressourcen] // Nationaldemokratische Partei Deutschlands (NPD) - Elektronischen Daten - Zugangsmodus: http://medien.npd.de/<wbr>dokumente/parteiprogramm.pdf (am 10 June 2015 angesehen). - Titel von der Bildschirm.

7. International migration and ethnic relations: critical perspectives / [edited by Magnus Dahlstedt, Anders Neergaard]. - New York: Routledge, 2015. - 300 p.

8. Csipke Z. Vona reveals Jobbik's "enemies list": IMF, United States, Israel, Slovakia and terrestrial commercial television stations [Electronic Resource] / Zoltan Csiple // Politics.Hu. - Electronic data. - Mode of aceess: http://www.politics.hu/<wbr>20100126/vona-reveals-jobbiks-<wbr>enemies-list-imf-united-<wbr>states-israel-slovakia-and-<wbr>terrestrial-commercial-<wbr>television-stations (viewed on January 14th, 2016). - Title from the screen.

The role of the political-geographical image in the geo-culture in modern society

Inna Kostyrya


The article deals with the phenomenon of geographic image in terms of its relationship to the concept of geo-culture. The starting author's position is the statement in which politics, as well as any other sphere of social relations based on specific fundamental elements of individual and collective consciousness. There are "atoms" of modern political thought, which were summarized in political science by terms of myth, image, ideology, image etc. This study examines the role of political and geographical image representation as a fundamental mechanism of perception of social phenomena in modern political world, and finds it crucial in the formation geo-culture local and global worldview.

Keywords: geo-culture, image, meaning, symbol, sign, the geographicо-political space.

The political arena today is a complex synthesis of diverse interests, opinions, interpretations and strategies for the management and conservation of power. This system is difficult to single universal modeling, especially in view of the temporal lag theoretical thought from practical reality. In this regard, political science teaching are increasingly turning to new concepts and abstractions designed to grab the longest period of rapidly changing reality. It seems more recently in the scientific dictionary of social sciences came the term "globalization", and today this scientific object divided into its components and variations such as "glocalization", "polarization", "westernization", "geopolitical assimilation" and so on. This trend is obviously not a sign of slipping political science, but rather highlights the ambiguity and political space bahatofaktornist formation of the planet.

Each geopolitical theory to some extent builds a hierarchical structure in terms of the significance of each of the four spaces, putting on central or political values ​​or economic expediency or social situation. Heokultura as a relatively new view of geopolitical science proposes to consider the cultural space as a determinant that is hierarchical layer primary political space in general. Overall, heokultura - is specific to each nation's system integration and disintegration of political factors motivated civilizational and historical, religious attributes often society. Geo-cultural view of the policy should be considered as one of the most popular alternatives to economic determinism in the social sciences, which has already proved itself very positive.

Taking into consideration the geographical position of Ukraine between civilizations, its existence between Orthodox, Protestant, Catholic and Islamic world, geo-cultural aspect to the national political science can be extremely relevant and important.

In a superficial understanding of any political discourse can be reduced to the interaction of ideas and assumptions about the social organization of a particular society or humanity in general. When we point out the political context of social phenomena, we mean collectively fight more generalized models that describe the typical assumptions about the way to solve social problems or complex problems. Because politics as any other sphere of human relations, based on certain primitive elements of individual and collective consciousness. Modern political science summarizes the respective "atoms" of political thinking in terms of myth, image, ideology, image and so on.

Geo-culture as part of the political culture, obviously, also based on specific primary carrier partykulyariyah political consciousness. These elements are the geographical and political image and meaning. Yes, "democracy" and as a sign of "democracy" as a symbol - two different ways of perceiving a social and historical phenomenon, the difference between them in a live political broadcasting is extremely difficult to catch.

One of the striking historical examples topology between political signs and symbols may be the image of Communism as a political eschatology in the Soviet heokulturi. Communism as a conceptual sign to indicate an element of the author's theoretical and political theories of Marx, the geocultural dimension Soviet Union often shifted in the direction of the character that was based on the basis of a long-established in Orthodox culture image of the imminent end of the progressive history - a specific substitute religious paradise and "Judgment Day".

However, what is the specificity of political image in geocultire? Geoculture - both civilizational and historical interpretation of political reality model based on sustainable attractor social consciousness, kept from generation to generation. Just as the political culture in general, geo-cultural component of social thinking is determined by specific ideas about public and political life of implementation mechanisms of power in the country. We are talking about a developed political culture in society when there is a clear vision of how is possible to achieve power in the country and control its implementation. In geocultural aspects like the idea formed in the context of natural-resource, environmental and geographical conditions of political life in the country.

As noted, political representation is structurally complex element of social consciousness, formed on the basis of specific political images and meanings. Thus, in terms of heokultury can be roughly divided geographically segment political and cultural images - emotional and sensory reflections of political reality in specific geo-cultural conditions. The image of the region, state, national culture, religion, and the periphery of the city, provincial and "patrician" religious and cultural fraternity, economic rivalry, political hostility - like visual mental unit collective consciousness play a fundamental role in shaping national policy idea.

Geo-political images and meanings form a geo-cultural signs, symbols, ideas and define specific perception of political events. Multiple images can intermingle, creating specific metaphors associative chains or instant connotation that is often used in manipulative political technologies. In particular, the Ukrainian researcher O. Hops said: "Being the image, metaphor so it is desirable for the crowd. Hypnotizing her undoubted function. For the most part by foreign metaphorical nomination hidden connotation that is predetermined evaluation. Accordingly, there are metaphors that manipulative set up a positive assessment ( "Ukrainian Piedmont", "velvet revolution" as a supposedly non-violent) as are those that initially cause a negative attitude to the phenomenon ( "puppet", "nenkopatriot") "[ 1, c. 22]. Add that metaphor is not the image itself, but is rather a synthesis, erasing the visible line between two separate political (sometimes between political and ordinary) images, which leads to the subconscious signs of extrapolation one impression to another.

Interio political and geographic images (the image of their country, region, city) are most universal template external eksteriornyh images. The image of European and Russian policy in the region formed a Ukrainian citizen because of his contrasting images of space. According to Ukrainian researcher O. Schurko that does not separate the political image of sense, considering them as two sides of the same nature, irrational dimensions shaped the perception of another country based on two characteristics of the collective consciousness: "Emotionally assessment elements of the image of the state mediate perception cognitive component of the image. These processes are increasingly taking place in the subconscious, are the basis for these two types of mental personality characteristics:

1) those that are stable and almost unchanged in time - archetypes, stereotypes, experiences, beliefs;

2) those that are variable regarding preliminary and dependent on the specific event driven situations contemporary political realities can be introduced from the outside (fashion) or artificially propagated propaganda - emotional installation, reference representation (idea of a ideal), expectations, etc. "[ 2, p. 6].

Since the idea in our proposed model of perception is the essence of social phenomena, derived from the offense, the author describes the characteristics of consciousness are rather the result of the presence of certain images in the minds of political entity than the source. Basic mental instructions "there" and "here" realize radiation "outline" of the political picture of the world where their own political and cultural region acts as a measure of all other regions. The statement outside geography and political image is also retroactive effect - it says crystallizes internal images compatriots.

A similar effect is quite aptly in his time enjoyed Roosevelt. Famous historic moment began his political career as an illustrative case of a demonstration of US citizens in US military activity in the then political map. "It is believed that had the greatest effect so-called speech of a map that Franklin Roosevelt delivered in February 1942, in the days when the country" axis "were on the boats military success. The President asked the audience to stock up in advance cards - and cartographic sections of bookstores were just devastated. The president and the country sat together and talked on large-scale maps. Eighty percent of Americans were taken by unknown fingers still areas which quietly said their leader "[3].

Through such means, and through the overall military situation in the then world, Roosevelt became known as one of the few presidents who managed to find the key to the formation of the cathedral of American identity. "Real geographical map, therefore, can serve as the most effective cultural, geographical or political-geographical image that will present the" essence "of the continent, country or area, even if she does reflect other areas" [4, p. 43].

Ambiguity interio and eksterio dimensional images greatly complicates the study of phenomena and geo-cultural regional "paintings of the political world." Difference idea of ​​planetary political development of the "middle" of Ukraine and "outside" - this is just one example of the phenomenal number of branching geopolitical and geo-cultural images. "The complexity of geographical studies of such images consists of the need to harmonize different views on the internal and external dynamics of individual mehaobraziv example, the study of the geographic image of the Arab world is inevitably linked to the establishment of adequate procedures value ideas" inside "of the Arab world of ideas" out "him - quite possibly from several points of view (European, Russian, American, and so on. d.) "[5, p. 10]. However, the study of geo-cultural images may be feasible by analyzing basic image-geographic "Megatrend" significantly affect the formation of political and cultural ideas in the region of the world or the continent.

The existence and growth of the role of "Megatrend", according to D. Zamyatin, there are legitimate grounds the process of "natural globalization." "Natural globalization geographic images is treated as the inclusion of prevailing ideas about the optimal development of the world (in a certain era) in specific geographic images and their subsequent localization (" domestication ") in the traditional geographic representations. Through this process the traditional geographical area whose global image originated in the Age of Discovery, is like a domashnishym more "placed" [5, p. 11]. In this regard, in addition to the geopolitical, cultural and economic dimension of globalization can talk about geo-cultural dimension - that consolidation of different local geographic images.

An alternative view on this matter holds one of the authors of the concept heokultury I. Wallerstein. For him, the concept of "world culture" is rather artificial, violent movement postkapitalistic world order, which does not create, but rather replaces cultural images, icons political. "I think we have too long avoided serious thoughts about the cultural implications of the post-capitalist future, given our understandable absorption capitalist present difficulties." Wallerstein believes that the formation of real images of world culture is currently impossible, but the world can no longer be in the same geo-cultural conditions that have existed until now. "I am skeptical about the idea that we can find our way to finding the true global culture. But I am also skeptical about the fact that the global system basis of national, ethnic or any other form partykulyarystskoyi culture can be more than just a crutch. Crutches are not unreasonable instrument. We often need them to restore our integrity, but crutches by definition transitory and transient phenomenon" [6, p. 104].

Some scientists considered geoculture the latest step in the development of world culture, giving it a value of spatial tumors based on the diffusion of cultural phenomena. As such geoculture is the result of a specific image of the world that now is not formed as a result of the collision different cultural spaces, and in the process of "blending". E. Zelenov, justifying the idea of "spatial accumulation of capital", shares a similar opinion. "Culture gives the image of the world powerful potential of self-development. The transition from culture to allow heokultury seemed to see two phenomena simultaneously - the culture of ideas and culture of people. Not content laid it geoculture concept - one of the largest humanitarian categories that characterize the global integration nature and diverse world culture" [7, p. 176]. A look at the latest heokulturu as the humanitarian category is based on the recognition implicitly defining the status of the territory in the global economy.

Many political scientists and economists emphasize the "devaluation of space", ie the gradual loss of crucial territorial interests in the global political game. This trend they are associated with the development of global communication and transport to ensure the free movement of capital, labor force and means of production. From this point of view, the image of the power of global power and influence now much less determined by the degree of ownership territories, and more linked to economic, resource and, especially, market interests. Many other scientists indicate that the role of spatial equity increased contrast, but now it exists in the private rather than the public interest. In this regard, there is clearly a new paradigm of global political image - parastatal understanding of the geo-cultural space.

Thus, defining the role of the image within heokultury determined its place in the structure of perception social phenomenon political consciousness of society. Along with the sense of the image is the second part of initial grip of social reality. If the political sense geographically linked to the rational side perception of geo-cultural phenomenon, geographical and political image of the relates to irrational, emotional and sensory representation of the phenomenon in the minds of political entity. Specific coordination image and sense of social phenomenon is the basis for the formation of secondary constructs of political consciousness - geopolitical idea, understanding and character-mark.

Geo-cultural image is the most-face and mediated form of representation of social phenomena. In terms of position in the political space images can be divided into interiorni - reception area "from the middle" and eksteriorni - perception of space by external actors. The dynamics of interaction interiornyh eksteriornyh geo-cultural images and dictate the initial conditions of the consciousness of the masses in political worldview within which internal political-cultural region acts as a measure of all other regions. On the other hand, the statement of geographically political image is just the opposite of generalization - external geo-cultural phenomena naturally argue crystallized images of internal recipients.


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3. Utkin A. On the side of life [E-resource] / A. Utkin // Ukrainian business magazine "Eskpert". - 2007. - № 4 (102). - Access mode: http://www.expert.ua/print/83/<wbr>58/3264/

4. Zamyatin D.N. Culture and Space: Modeling geographical images / D.N. Zamyatin - M .: Badge, 2006. - 488 p.

5. Zamyatin D.N. GEOCULTURE: image and its interpretation / D.N. Zamyatin // Herald of Eurasia. - 2002. - №2. - S. 5-17

6. Wallerstein I. The National and the Universal: Can There Be Such a Thing as World Culture? / I. Wallerstein // Culture, Globalization and the World-System. Contemporary Conditions for the Representation of Identity / Ed. by A.D. King. - Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 1997. - P. 104.

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Jacques Chirac vs Giscard d'Estaing: the history of confrontation

or political-diplomatic dialogue?

Iolanta-Anna de Vris


Jacques Chirac takes the first place in the popularity among the ex-leaders of the French state. At the certain time his political way was connected with the president Valéry Giscard d'Estaing though their dialog altered into the open confrontation. The key event was the elections of 1981. How did the confrontation influence the French political landscape?

Keywords: Jacques Chirac, Valéry Giscard d'Estaing, Francois Mitterand, Fifth Republic, confrontation.

On May 7, 1995 Jacques Rene Chirac was elected the fifth Pprezydentom Fifth Republic and remains the most popular head of French state preferably 33% people 1. He is well ahead of Francois Mitterrand (21%) and even General de Gaulle (17%). Quite different level of sympathy for causing Sarkozy (7%) and current President François Hollande (5%). Literary work Chirac recognized far outside of France, and he is considered an icon for the younger generation stylyayu French. For a while Chirac's political path has been associated with President Valéry Giscard d'Estaing, during whose reign pershyyShyrak two years held the post of prime minister. But then their political and diplomatic relations were transformed into open confrontation.

Both personalities have a lot in common and both positioned themselves in one segment of political marketing. Youth, combined with political experience, elegant style and the great intellectual potential inherent to both leaders. Both presidents were graduates of the National School of Administration. Giscard d'Estaing - liberal educator, Jacques Chirac - a politician who confidently to victory and seeking immediate results. However, it must be emphasized that tai Jacques Chirac and Giscard d'Estaing had the opposite traits in many fields - methods, colleagues and political environment - everything except political ambitions, because, of course, their paths soon diverged.

27 months cohabitation between Chirac and Giscard d'Estaing became illustration pages of right-wing Fifth Republic. The choice of candidates for the position of leader of the government is fully invested in the strategy of the new President of France 1974 Valerie Giscard d'Estaing, who represented the youth and change.Chirac's political career early by the standards of the French politicians of the time, had excellent results. He was appointed Minister in the age of 39 years, 18 years headed the mayoralty of the capital, served twice as prime minister. His political style define the expression "speed in everything". But Francois Mitterrand described Chirac as follows: "He runs fast, but do not know where." In this connection, it is expedient to note that surely went into history as the leader of the right, Chirac at different stages of the path vyidriznyavsya political views, which contained some contradictions.

Obviously future president admires politics quite early. In 1947, Chirac entered the Rally of the French People General de Gaulle, and ten years later received the diploma of the National School of Administration. For admission have to undergo military service, and after participating in the war in Algeria Chirac promoted to the rank of second lieutenant. It was during his service in Algeria, he began to keep a close relationship ize services in France. This Chirac knew who to bet on in the presidential race of 1974. In 1962 thanks to a meeting with the then Prime Minister Georges Pompidou, Chirac was able to enter the top political esteblishmentu countries and rapidly climb the career ladder. In 1967, Jacques Chirac was appointed Secretary of State for Employment of the Prime Minister. With the election of President Pompidou of France in 1969, Chirac won a ministerial post, which urivnyuvala of his future opponent Giscard d'Estaing. In his role as Minister of Agriculture Chirac won the recognition of French farmers and leading interior, -takozh and the necessary instruments for shaping public opinion. Valéry Giscard d'Estaing at the time headed the Ministry of Finance.

In the course of political and diplomatic relations between Chirac and Giscard d'Estaing also influenced by the fact that the Pompidou Chirac embodied in a successor, which was well known Giscard d'Estaing. The political fate Jacques Chirac was closely associated with the Gaullist party representatives Zhyuyye Pierre and Marie-France Garo, who had influence on future decisions by the president.

Before the official appointment May 27, 1974 Chirac had doubts whether to agree to head the government Giscard d'Estaing, but under the influence of Garo Zhyuyye and he took a positive decision. Difficulty future dialogue between the president and prime minister immediately apparent. The Cabinet was formed entirely on the orders of President Chirac and managed to hold only one person - the post of health minister Simon Wei. On formal occasions, the Prime Minister was ordered to keep their distance from the president three steps. Their rivalry rivalry compared with the Duke of Gizo and Henryk III. In turn, Giscard d'Estaing entourage also met with Chirac purpose of reservation. Michel Poniatowski, with the election of Giscard d'Estaing was appointed interior minister, warned the president: ''Chirac is a boa".

The rivalry between the president and prime minister received a form of action. While Giscard d'Estaing on the Franco-American Summit in the Antilles, Chirac using Charles Pasqua received leadership among holistskyh barons. The Prime Minister was elected general secretary of the Union for French support for democracy, the party that was a crucial right resistance movement in France. Reporting to the creation of a new party, Chirac hoped for a favorable response the president, but he did not encourage such initiatives subordinates. Scenario head of the presidential office-Claude P'yerra Brossleta spravdzhuvavsya. In an interview with Giscard d'Estaing, he said: "Once he wants to take your place". The confrontation between the leaders of the country exacerbated. On the decision of the Elysee Palace, Chirac learned from the newspapers, was not invited to lunch with the Minister and the intention to enter into the Barra Reymond, who later became his successor, Prime Minister did not even reported.

In response, Jacques Chirac has involved the practice of diplomatic trips rhetoric, which negatively affect the rating of the then president. In 1976, Chirac tried to find an opportunity for a frank conversation with Giscard d'Estaing. During the stay in Fort Brehanson, meeting the prime minister and the president took place in the presence of a ski instructor and his wife. During the meeting, Giscard d'Estaing is located in a comfortable chair, inviting Chirac to take an ordinary chair. Jacques Chirac shortened his stay in Fort Brehanson and for weeks voiced leave the premiership.

Chirac decided to resign, slamming the door loudly. Yes, August 25, 1976 he said: "I have tools that I find necessary for the effective discharge of my office of the Prime Minister and in these circumstances I have decided to put an end to them." Giscard was not even present at the meeting of the Council of Ministers, during which prem'yerShyrak announced his resignation. Jacques Chirac was the first of the senior management P'yatoyiP'yatoyi Republic, who had resigned as leader of the government.

The war between the prime minister and the president has not ended. Chirac's new party interest 80 thousand. Citizens, but without the support of the media is not possible to build an effective dialogue with society. True Giscard d'Estaing Interior Minister Michel Poniatowski contributed straykoviu press. When Chirac announced his intention to run for mayor of Paris, Giscard d'Estaing proposed the person from his entourage - Count d'Ornano, former mayor of Deauville. It is advisable to emphasize that residents of the capital not only gave the victory to Chirac, as long mandate entrusted to him mayor - the election of the state president Chirac in 1995. In addition to the election in 1978 to the National Assembly Chirac's party also won considerable support. Slogan put forward by the party that Chirac was the most conformable mood of society - "Yes - France that wins, yes - France, that invents".

The key event of conflict between Chirac and Giscard d'Estaing was the campaign 1981. During the presidential election, Chirac invited Giscard main opponent for the post of leader of the country Mitterrand at a secret dinner. In the second round out Giscard d'Estaing and Mitterrand, Chirac left third. However, the candidate of the right-wing forces are not urged to vote for Giscard. Speaking on television, Chirac suggested that the French vote on your own. Its participation was also orhanizuovano printing and distributing leaflets in support of Mitterrand. Giscard d'Estaing Chirac placed on the responsibility for the defeat in the presidential election of 1981. Mitterrand support agreement was reached during a secret meeting Jacques Chirac and Francois Mitterrand in the house Édith Cresson end of October 1980. December 15, 1995 a few days before his death, the former head of the French state d''Estenu Giscard told about this meeting: "I do not remember the words, but the meaning Jacques Chirac message was very clear: "We need to get rid of Giscard!" I was very surprised."

Giscard told how before the second round turned into the headquarters Chirac, posing a military town of Levallois-Perret 2: "I would like to ask for whom to vote on Sunday?" - Man's voice instantly replied: "Do not vote for Giscard. It should tell you this" - Yes, yes .. but whether to abstain or cast blank bulletin?" - "We must vote for Mitterrand." The next day the leader of the Socialists won. Meeting Chirac and Mitterrand in a house on the street-Clément Marot close to Elysee Palace promoted not only the defeat of Giscard d'Estaing, but also laid the foundations for cohabitation Mitterrand and Chirac in 1986. Giscard d'Estaing described his condition after losing the presidential election in 1981: "What I feel now is not humiliation, but something more severe - frustration unfinished business." In 1986, Jacques Chirac offered him the post of foreign minister, but Giscard did not accept the offer to work under the direction of his opponent.

Giscard d'Estaing is no longer involved in the presidential race, remaining an influential politician. In 2001, he was elected as chairman of the Committee on the Future of Europe, which sought to develop the concept of expanding the boundaries of a united Europe. French politicians, led by President Chirac chynnymdiyuchym sought to third Pprezydenta Fifth Republic was chosen not only because of the potential leverage that this position allows for the implementation of the foreign policy strategy of the country, and to direct energy Giscard d'Estaing on European affairs thereby neutralizing its initiative in the country. It is because of the position Giscard d'Estaing term of presidential powers had reduced from seven years to five, because the initiative met with broad support of French society. Although the constitution, Chirac has the right to run for a third presidential term, he decided not to participate in races of 2007.

The two presidents met during the meeting of the Constitutional Council on November 19, 2007. Meeting Chirac and Giscard d'Estaing demonstruvalya performances inattention to each other and not potyskannyaly hands.

Charges Giscard d'Estaing around the presidential campaign finance Chirac became the new coil tensions former presidents in 2009. Giscard d'Estaing attacked directly Shyraka "Usually, you know that proceeds from foreign countries is not taken to support candidates in France. I learned that Bongo financially supported Jacques Chirac." Such statements of third President of Fifth Republic have caused a wide resonance in political circles in France. Former Interior Minister Charles Pasqua, now a senator That de-Seine, sided with Chirac, noting that Giscard d'Estaing should provide evidence if it has them. As one of the trustees during the election campaign Chirac in 1981, Pasqua believed Giscard d'Estaing statements "low innuendo". And Jacques Chirac officially denied the accusations against him concerning the financing of his campaign 1981 President of Gabon Omar Bongo. Valery Giscard d'Estaing son Louis, MP from the UMP department of Puy-de-Dome, stressed that he was not surprised that campaign financing in 1981 is again the subject of discussion. Louis Giscard d'Estaing cautiously noted that discussion is more appropriate "for the retrospective analysis of our political life". Andre Vallini, the representative of the Socialist Party, which now holds the position of Secretary of State and is responsible for the development and Francophonie and the Ministry of Foreign Affairs and International Development and noticed that Omar Bongo financed the election campaign and as of right and maybe left.

After all these allegations, Valery Giscard d'Estaing did not attend the meeting of the Constitutional Council. Former President understood that members of the legal movement do not want a war that divides them. He pretended as if continuing to hold the formula "rancour throw into the river" 3.

However, Giscard d'Estaing himself became the subject of accusations of this kind, when in October 1979 it was reported that, while as Minister of Finance, he received a gift of diamonds from Emperor Bokassa of Central Africa. In summer 1977, a year after the resignation of the prime minister of the election of the mayor of Paris, Jacques Chirac met with Marcel Zhyullyan known French writer and screenwriter. A party that will platsdaromom for these elections was set, and to the elections remained only a year. The positions of the Left in the elections to the National Assembly were quite strong, and opinion polls show that Jacques Chirac is seen by citizens as too "hectic" "rude", "mean".

Marcel Zhyullyan said that, if the French knew Chirac such as its residents know the department Corrèze - a sincere, friendly, ready to political and diplomatic dialogue, they would be willing to support him in the elections. The goal was set and achieve its planned writing a book that had reytynhau enhance future president. The first biographical writings are not mentioned personal reasons for breaking with Giscard d'Estaing, as the canons of construction of the image of the political factor should emphasize their victories and prospects, rather than a complex relationship with the former management.

Franz-Olivier Zhisber was the first biographer Chirac, who was entrusted to touch the subject of contentious relations between the former presidents was already the state. French journalist had potuzhnyiy experience as editor of the influential publication Nouvel Observateur, and then published a biography Pprezydenta Republic Francois Mitterrand. The publication was timed to re-election in 1988, the cover of Jacques Chirac sent message of youth, modernity, however, as in previous elections, Mitterrand won the championship again. However Zhisber predicted because Chirac certainly belongs to this type of personalities like Mitterrand, Giscard, Pompidou, Clemenceau, Poincare, and the people of this level do not disappear, it always appears in the next presidential election in 1995. In the latest edition of the biographical Zhisber was less optymistic: "There is a curse Chirac. Some kind of inability to manage that it will sooner or later to the country of everything against him".

As mentioned above, tandem of Pierre Zhyuyye and Marie-France Garo largely contributed to the Jacques Chirac became the master Hôtel Matignon. In an interview after the release of his book ''Who killed the Fifth Republic" Garo also criticizes the political style of the former French President "He really had a charm ... But he has never been defined line". It emerged during Zhyuyye and Garo Chirac decided to retire and create a political movement and win the mayoral election in Paris 4. Garo accused Chirac: "It allowed ministers to be free, that is guided directly from the Elysee Palace. He is not managed". So, in spite of a negative assessment of their own activities as part of the inner circle, and members of the opposition camp, Jacques Chirac still continues zalyshayetsyatysya most popular president of the state. "Right in history must suffer" - said the head of the Fifth Republic, General de Gaulle, and, of course, Chirac earned the right to the full. With the end of the presidential office of Jacques Chirac announced his desire "to" serve the other way '' and the founder of the charity fund in its own name or slogan which was "Act for peace".

One of the last performances of Jacques Chirac during the presentation of the same name award in November 2014 caused an ovation the audience. In addition to the ceremony came to Francois Hollande, which Jacques Chirac expressed his "respect ... the political feelings out". Prize for conflict prevention in November 2015 won Latif Ibn Ziaten by creating "Association for Youth and Peace", have perished at the hands of Islamic terrorists in 2012 soldiers of the French army. However, it is worth noting that the confrontation between Chirac and Giscard d'Estenomom, long-lost personal in nature and largely contributed fourteen rule of the Left in France. The similarities and contradictions in their personalities had a significant impact on the country's political landscape and continue to be felt in the future. "The figure represents the shadow set that can not be recognized, and directly or indirectly neuvpynno persecuted" 5, - stressed eminent philosopher tai psychologist Carl Gustav Jung. Intersect, similar shadows can form a single unit or overshadow one another, or opposition political-diplomatic dialogue?


1. http://www.challenges.fr/<wbr>politique/20150422.CHA5178/et-<wbr>le-vainqueur-est-jacques-<wbr>chirac.html

2. Valéry Giscard d'Estaing, le Pouvoir et la Vie, tome III.

3. Franz-Olivier Gisbert. Une Tragédie du president. Flammarion, 2006, p.70.

4. http://www.lemonde.fr/societe/<wbr>article/2006/05/26/marie-<wbr>france-garaud-au-bon-souvenir-<wbr>de-jacques-chirac_776454_3224.<wbr>html

5. Carl Gustav Jung. La guérison psychologique, Genève, Georg, 1970.

People's diplomacy and politics of the Roman Catholic Church: historical retrospective and "models church" in modern Italy

Vyacheslav Tsivatyy


At the article is analyzed and systematized the activities of the Catholic Church in the context of realizing of public diplomacy as a form of political and diplomatic dialogue in the historical retrospect and in the modern world. The attention on consideration basic "models of church" in modern Italy, its peculiarity, role in political and politico-diplomatic life of the country. Particular attention was paid to the institutional changes of church in the conditions of new challenges and threats of globalization and post-modernism, and in the minds of the laity, especially after the II Vatican Council (1962-1965). Characterized by the example of Italy, features and forms of implementation unofficial diplomacy of the Catholic Church (public diplomacy of the Catholic Church) in contemporary international relations and the role of unofficial diplomacy in resolving of international conflicts.

Keywords: foreign policy, diplomacy, diplomacy model, institutionalization, the Catholic Church, church models, church history, the history of the Pope, Italy.

Fundamental changes of political and historical areas of the picture in the emerging polycentric world needs a new approach to conceptualize the church - civilization. During the long history of government tried everything possible to subordinate the activities of the church his political interests.

As in modern Italy, and in Italy historic in its distant past quite diverse manifestations of the "sacred" or personal or religious or magical practices, theosophy, spirituality, religion Asia pagan cults or New Age Movement. The position of the Catholic Church is clear: such teaching "give a moment to feel the infinite bliss and forget the bitter end", but eventually lead to the destruction of Christianity as such. [1] What oppose the church hierarchy to new spiritual practice? Often you can hear the following answer: a new model of church.

In addition to traditional tools formed for centuries of papal diplomacy, there are those that distinguish the Holy See among other subjects of international relations. "People's diplomacy" is now carrying out many of the faithful who are united in the so-called Catholic community - "Opus Dei", "Sant'Egidio", "New katakumeny", "Kartitas" which though different in practices and approach to , still able to mobilize significant Catholic mass to address major international issues of topical issues of foreign policy and diplomacy.

With the introduction of the reformist model of church-state relations, the Holy See has changed the form of interference in the internal political and social life of the state. According to the rules of internal church documents and Church's social doctrine priests have no right to directly participate actively in the political life of society. In particular, the Code of Canon Law states that "religious persons forbidden to hold public office, involving participation in the exercise of civil power" (n. 285) [2]. However, the Holy See urges laity to participate actively in politics and diplomacy, which are individually or jointly engage in various socio-political and political-diplomatic institutions such movements, political parties, trade unions, and protect the interests of the Catholic Church and Christianity in general.

The Second Vatican Council (1962-1965) contributed incarnations to life the concept of "apostolate of the laity" ("apostolatus laicorum") and determined the mandatory participation of the faithful Catholic laity in the life of society, to "saturate the procedure and improve current affairs evangelical spirit" (§ 2 k. 225). The concept of "apostolate of the laity" appeared in the second half of the nineteenth century. When created associations of the laity, especially in the working environment that attempted from the position of the Catholic Faith to overcome social contradictions. The doctrine, which are regulated by the aims and objectives of the apostolate of the laity, forms and methods of their work, tools, institutions, disclosed in the documents of the Second Vatican Council and the Decree "Apostolicam actuositatem" ("Apostleship of the laity"), Decree "Ad gentes divinitus" ("On missionary activity Church", 2-3, 15-16, 21, 41) of the Constitution of "Lumen gentium" ("On the Church, 31, 33-35), encyclicals and speeches of pontiffs. Among the latter should provide encyclical of John XXIII "Mater et Magistra" of May 15, 1961; apostolic appeal Paul VI evangelization of the modern world ("Evangelii nuntiandi") on December 8, 1975; apostolic appeal of John Paul II on the vocation and mission of the laity in the Church and in the world of 30 December 1988 ("Cristefideles laici"). The rules governing the activities of "Catholic movement" defined in the Code of Canon Law 1983 (Canons 225-230, 298, 327).

Decree of the Second Vatican Council "On the apostolate of the laity", put up for discussion at the third session of the Council and adopted 18 November 1965, states that "the Catholics competent in politics and diplomacy and strengthened, as expected, in faith and in Christian teaching, not have to give up management of public affairs, good governance, they can promote the common good and at the same time prepare the way the gospel". (p. 14) [3] Speaking theological language decree was intended to revive the activities of the People of God, because of population growth, technological progress demanded by the laity more intense and widespread apostolate.

Thus, the Holy See, which has lost much of its influence in international events and political and diplomatic life, tried to turn his unyielding authority through activation of the role of the laity in the ministry for the good of the Church. Attraction laity to cooperate remarkable way contributed to the diversity of their fields of activity: all aspects of life, youth, social, national, political, diplomatic and international field.

According to the Second Vatican Council in 1967 Paul VI as an international focal point in the Roman Curia was established Pontifical Council for the Laity in (Pontificio consiglio per i laici), initially as experimental structure. The Council functions as a department on a stable basis, which promotes the participation of the laity in the life and Mission of the Church. In 1968, the Pontifical Council was included in the Conference of International Catholic Organizations. Since 2003 chaired by Polish Cardinal Stanislaw Rylko Curial. The functions of the Pontifical Council owned publication Handbook of international organizations "Catholic movement", which was officially recognized by the Catholic Church. Under Catholic movement refers to a form of religious activity in the Catholic Church, uniting mainly laity for more effective implementation of the apostolic mission according to their general charisma. Practice shows that Catholic lay organization founded his missionary and apostolic activities on the charisma of its founder. One can cite as an example the following names: Jose Maria Escriva ("Opus Dei"), Chiara Lyubich ("Fokolare"), Andrea Riccardi ("Community St. Giles"), Frank Duff ("Legion of Mary"), Roger Schutz ("Taizé Community") and others.

All of worldly goals and systematized by the nature of the actions in terms of participants and the spiritual and social activities. In order to control "Catholic movement" The Holy See published annually by the council, synod, episcopal and papal instructions.

Prominent among Catholic organizations laymen that facilitate proceedings in the life of the main tasks of the Catholic Church in diplomacy and foreign policy, holds charity and peacekeeping organization "Community of Sant'Egidio", founded in 1968 in Rome as a teacher of Church History Andrea Riccardi, who now it is headed. Members of the "Community" from the beginning guided by innovative ideas of the Second Vatican Council proclaimed policy of "aggiornamento". In 1986 the Holy See gave the community official status of "international public organization of the laity." But for the "Community" status is not only decisive but also support the Roman Curia. Now the first includes a network of small fraternal community of 50 thousand. Members in 72 countries: Africa (29) Asia (7) Europe (23) North America (8) South America (5). As noted in an article in the publication "L'espresso" C. magister, "Community St. Giles "is always a candidate for the Nobel Peace Prize, has always received favors from the Pope; at the same time as "the most famous Catholic world", "Community" is structured on the principle of absolute monarchy and remains as impenetrable organization, as the legendary group "Opus Dei". Meanwhile, the British diplomat Ivor Roberts in the prestigious publication "The Economist" calls the organization "unorthodox elite corps" (extra corps d'elite), which can use resources "in areas where conventional diplomacy does not work."

The main objective of the branched structure is assistance to all those in need, regardless of religion. Thanks to many successfully settled international disputes "The community of St. Giles "is sometimes called the" Roman peacekeepers "or" Catholic Council "[4]. Defining the guiding principle in the implementation of peacekeeping, "Community" states that "war is the mother of poverty because peace must be built on hope and justice." Thus, the greatest success of the organization was the resolution of protracted conflicts in Mozambique. Also, "Community" successfully worked in Kosovo (without the desired result) and Algeria. October 4, 1992 in Rome signed a general peace agreement between the government of Mozambique and armed opposition organization "Rena". This was possible after 16 years of bloody war, and conflict resolution led to difficult negotiations that lasted 27 months with 11 sessions in which "Community St. Sant'Egidio "took on the role of mediator agreed by both parties. By agreement were attached 7 protocols that are directly related to the order of formation of political parties, the principles of electoral law, military matters, guarantees, etc. ceasefire. During the negotiation "St. Communities. Giles' professional resorted to synergy of efforts at all levels: institutional, political, diplomatic and formal. In the final stages of negotiation "Community St. Giles' asked various governments and the UN to send representatives as observers and guarantors of the implementation of the peace agreement.

Such peacekeeping tactics "Community St. Giles' applied in resolving the armed conflict in Guatemala. During the conflict "frozen" by the United Nations undertook a community that has managed to organize the necessary meetings between representatives of the government and the rebels of "UNRG" in 1996 in Rome, Paris and San Salvador. Eventually a peace treaty was signed on February 12, 1996 in Mexico City in the presence of delegations community. De facto, the organization provides the Holy See of "parallel diplomacy", formally requesting permission for their actions and contacts, and so she takes off diplomatic official responsible for the results of such actions.

One of the most powerful clandestine manner organizations of the Catholic Church is a Catholic lay order of "Opus Dei" ( "The fact of God"), founded in 1928 holy priest Escriva de Balaguer. In 1950, "Opus Dei" has received the status of "secular institution". In 1982, Pope John Paul II granted the status of "personal prelature", which reported to him personally. Unlike other monastic orders, "Opus Dei" is not subject to the Congregation for Institutes of Consecrated Life and societies of apostolic life (Congregazione per gli istituti di vita consacrata e le societa di vita apostolica), but rather formally accountable to the Congregation for Bishops (Congregazione per i vescovi), giving him the opportunity to act globally. Prelature has about 90 thousand. Members, of which - 2000 - the priests, the rest - the laity. Unlike the "Community of St. Sant'Egidio 'and' New katakumen "," Opus Dei "is not a missionary or charity. This is especially powerful ramified institutional structure, whose main duty - to implement the will of the Pope in various fields, including in international politics. During the pontificate of John Paul II prelature was one of the main instruments of foreign policy of the Holy See.

In the development of inter-church relations should also take into account the activities of Christian ecumenical community of Taizé in the village of Taizé, which is located in Burgundy (France). Its goal is finding common in various Christian churches in the process of prayer and social discussions on current topics [5]. In terms of post-modernism and to respond to new challenges and threats of globalization Catholic Church in Italy institutionalize a new "model of the church." "We are seeing not only the return of the sacred - it will not disappear - said another 1997 J. Filoramo - what a paradigm shift."

The collapse of the great ideologies of the twentieth century. Their vision of institutional and historical processes largely caused frustration messianic idea in the forms in which it offered to Christianity. French theologian P. Valadye was not so pessimistic. In his book "Christianity for the future", he said that the fall of the great ideologies - Marxism-Leninism and rationalist ideology of progress - did not lead to despair, "culture of death" and total nihilism. It caused a new form of rationalism - a union of faith and reason. Later the idea of ​​polyphony of faith and reason put forward in Munich in 2004 the German philosopher Habermas and Cardinal J. Ratzinger, later Pope Benedict XVI. Ratzinger spoke out in favor of "korelyatyvnosti" Christian faith and Western secular rationality as the two major components of European culture provided sanctification. After the election in 2013 of Pope Francis And researchers projections of Christianity in Europe and particularly in Italy, sounded an optimistic note. Many attributed the arrival Berholo hope of overcoming the crisis within the church and the revival of its prophetic mission. [6] Let's characterize historic and modern "model church" of Italy.

1. "Parish model." Ever since the Council of Trent (1545-1563) In Italy dominated the so-called parish model. Parish (ward) for centuries been the primary self-contained unit of the church, "Eucharistic community" in which every parishioner (parishioner) could meet the spiritual needs - regularly start sacraments, give children a Christian education to participate in the festivities, ask for help in serious situations. This model is common mainly in the countryside, among people of low and medium educational qualifications and rests on the authority of the parish priest. Now, according to the Italian Bishops' Conference, the country has 226 diotseziv and over 25 thousand congregations (wards). Vatican II 1962-1965 bienniumm made adjustments in understanding the role of the congregation. Redefining the role of the parish was dictated by necessity because of the mid-twentieth century Italian parishes were in deep crisis. At the beginning of XXI tendency to improvements (but you should always keep in mind the historical features of mental development of territories of the South and the North of Italy, the state of the urban and rural areas, etc.). As of today the parish - especially in cities - gradually acquires the features of the basic Christian communities that historically traditional model of the church, which is typical for Italy and which, according to the documents of the Second Vatican Council, should be an example for the entire country's civil society in the distant future.

2. "Model of electee". A fundamentally new model of the church and parish became the main competitor of the so-called "model obrannosti." It is, above all, the numerous ecclesial movements "of the faithful of Christ" lay Christifidelis laici. This variety of communities that meet the needs of people of different ages, professions and social groups. It is worth noting that on their own ecclesial movements is not new to the Catholic Church. Suffice it to recall the history of monasticism begging orders (another form of "obrannytskoyi model" church); acts of penance and austerity movements in the Middle Ages and Early Modern time new spiritual movements as a response to the spread of the Reformation; Christian groups and society XVIII century; Oratorio nineteenth century. Modernist movement direction limits nineteenth and twentieth centuries. One of the most famous in Italy mass lay Catholic association - "Catholic action" (CD). This organization, originally called the "Society of the Catholic Youth" was institutionalized Pope Pius IX in 1868. Catholic movement of lay people - this is the place where the church meets in peace - peace that is used in the broadest sense of the term: a society with new achievements of civilization, philosophical thought, science and technological progress. This applies both to the actual "Catholic Action" and movements that pushed her to the religious, political, diplomatic and international scene. They appeared in the wake of the Second Vatican Council and still consider themselves to be "children" of the cathedral, its fruit, a sign of "spring" of the church. With the charisma of the founder associated emergence of a number of associations: Brotherhood "Communion and Liberation" (Don Giussani founded in 1954), the Focolare (Chiara Lyubich founded in 1943), Community of Sant'Egidio (founded in 1968 by Professor Andrea Riccardi, church historian, former minister in the government of M. Motni). These movements seek to return to early Christian ideal of eternal life, rabid attempts to slow down the process of secularization.

3. "New evangelization." The history of the Catholic movement in Italy was thorny and full of drama long way in 150 years. This course included the different stages of the first attempts to believers to preserve Christian values ​​in spite of secularization and new developments in the field of ideology, science and technological progress, even to participate in the "new evangelization", which called for the last three Pontiffs - John Paul II Benedict XVI and the current Pope Francis. The term "new evangelization", which first performed June 9, 1979, does not mean duplication or repetition of the "first" of evangelization or proselytism especially politicians. The division of the world into "countries of Christian civilization" and "land to be Christianization" today seems simplistic. Developed in 2011 by the Synod of Bishops Lineamenta, or guidelines of the "new evangelization in the transmission of the Christian faith", distinguish six such "scenarios": general cultural; migration; media; economic; Science and Technology; political (emergence on the international scene of new players, changing priorities in legal and international legal fields).

As stated in the Lineamenta, the task of Christians in the new conditions are: to overcome fear of the unknown, meet the spirit of the time, that is to be "on time" while keeping the "Gospel radicalism" inherent in all major initiatives of evangelization past and finally have the courage to bring God in the present scenario of human development in the context of globalization, if not, then at least the universalization of Christianity [7].

Thus, seeing the example of public diplomacy and practical actions and mechanisms of its institutions - "Community of St. Giles "and others can attest that the diplomacy of the Holy See is not limited to purely traditional diplomatic means in carrying out its international, foreign policy and diplomatic activity. We can state that a religion that for centuries has been subjected to withering criticism, not only still has the hearts and minds of the majority of mankind, but also makes a significant impact on the current state of the international community. Most secular scholars of religion this fact was unexpected and controversial in scientific terms.

We live in times of cosmic insights, paradoxical ideas, unexpected konstatatsiy. Maybe we should nevertheless acknowledge that mankind has come to this stage when his identity can not be limited absolutisation earthly experience of "mastery" of nature, the idea of ​​of reason, spirituality, freedom, a unique and exist in isolation from the general processes in the universe. Does this mean that erased or blurred the line between science and theology, religion is also able to provide scientific solutions and a series of practical problems? No, we are talking about something else, namely the need to distinguish between science and religion as a special form of culture, each of which has its own subject, their methods of acquiring knowledge, which together make up what is called the attitude of the individual.


1. J. Ratzinger (Benedict XVI). Values in Times of Change. On Compliance challenges of time. - Moscow, 2007

2. The Code of Canon Law. - M .: Institute of Philosophy, Theology and History of St. Thomas, 2007. - C. 141-142.

3. About the apostolate of the laity ("Apostolicam actuositatem"): Decree 18 leaf fall 1965 p. // Other Vatikansky Cathedral. [Electron resource]. - Access mode:http://www.vatican.va/<wbr>archive/hist_councils/ii_<wbr>vatican_council/documents/vat-<wbr>ii_decree_19651118_<wbr>apostolicam-actuositatem_sp.<wbr>html. 04/20/2016.

4. J. Bensi. Roman peacekeepers // Nezavisimaya Gazeta. - 2004 - 4 February. [Electron resource]. - Access mode: http://religion.ng.ru/printed/<wbr>91075. 07.01.2011

5.​ Woodrow А. Brother Roger Schutz // The Guardian. - 2005. - August 19. [Електронний ресурс]. - Режим доступу: http://www.guardian.co.uk/<wbr>news/2005/aug/19/<wbr>guardianobituaries.religion. 09.04.2016.

6.​ Sorpresa e speranza // L'Osservatore romano. - 2013. - 15 marzo.

7.​ Salvini G. La nuova evangelizzazione // La civiltà cattolica. - Roma: Anno 162 - Volum I. - 5 febbraio 2011. - P. 181.

Challenges to strategic partnership of Poland and Ukraine in the context of global transformations of European security

Oksana Mitrofanova


The events in Ukraine of 2014-2015 caused global transformations of the European security system and created challenges to declared strategic partners of Ukraine and signatories of the Budapest Memorandum. One intensified discussions about the status of strategic relations of Ukraine with the countries with which a strategic partnership hypothetically would be possible, taking into account symmetry of their potentials, resources and far-reaching geopolitical goals. The relations between Ukraine and Poland can be taken as an example.

This article studies the Polish concepts about the crisis in Ukraine such as approaches of the current Polish President A. Duda and his predecessors, the approaches of other statesmen and researchers. It deals with the various aspects of Polish humanitarian aid from its constituents to the facts of theft. It is analyzed obstacles on the way to form a successful Polish-Ukrainian strategic partnership highlighting the points of view of Polish, Ukrainian and foreign experts.

Key words: Budapest Memorandum, EU, NATO, Poland, strategic partnership, Ukraine

In Ukrainian Foreign Policy, Poland has a special place. Official Kyiv has recognized strategic relations with Warsaw. It is significant that Poland is by many measures a real strategic partner of Ukraine. The document "Strategy for security of Poland", adopted in 2000, relations with our country defines as relations with strategic partners. In 1993, Polish President Lech Walesa said that "without an independent Poland independent Ukraine is impossible." For Ukraine, which seeks to integrate into the European Union, experience and support of Poland is important.

Annexation of Crimea by Russia and further developments in eastern Ukraine led global transformation of the European security and raised the issue of effectiveness of international law, international organizations effectiveness in guaranteeing the sovereignty of individual states and inviolability of borders. The precedent of non-compliance with the Budapest Memorandum will be an important factor for doubt any state that expect to reduce their nuclear capability or minimize nuclear programs. The ineffectiveness of the UN in resolving the Ukrainian crisis may contribute to the next arms race, because each state, watching the developments in Crimea and eastern Ukraine, convinced that the sanctions of the international community - is good, but its powerful modern army - even better. The mentioned events will strengthen the arguments of proponents of realism and power determinant in world politics, and therefore weaken the position of adherents of idealism.

Ukrainian state was faced with the fact of annexation of its territory, the inviolability of borders which was guaranteed by numerous international agreements; before the powerful explosion of separatism in the east, which strongly helps neighbor. In such circumstances, the question of strategic partnerships in Ukraine. We know that our government announced a significant number of strategic partners, but developments proved, firstly, their absurdity, as in the case of Russia the aggressor; secondly, the potential discrepancy Ukraine potential US national power, because the first could only rely on paternalistic policy on their part, not on an equal partnership; Thirdly, dyskusiynist status of strategic relations with countries with which a strategic partnership hypothetically be possible, in view of proportionality as potentials and resources, and far-reaching geopolitical goals can serve as an example of why relations between Ukraine and Poland.

Therefore, it's time to explore the Polish concept on the crisis in Ukraine, in particular, approaches the current Polish President A. Duda and his predecessors, the views of other government officials and academics, the difference in the approaches of different actors and government officials on the issue of aid to Ukraine and evaluate hypothetical threat of their own country. The majority of publications on this subject has been devoted to research or Polish-Ukrainian relations, or the study of the strategic dimension of this relationship over time. However, the problem influence events in Ukraine 2014-2015 biennium. On the Polish-Ukrainian relations are not yet reflected in the fundamental research. Events in Ukraine raised the issue of effectiveness of strategic partnerships not only to our country but also to the most powerful players in the international strategic space.

How far the US willing to go in ensuring European security, when their efforts absorbs the fight against the Islamic state? We know that the Baltic states have expressed concern about the preservation of its sovereignty due to the developments in the course of Ukraine and Russia in that role. United States announced to strengthen its military presence in Europe. In particular, the commander of US forces in Europe, General Ben Hodges 1 September 2015 stated that operation will resume military base "Coleman Barracks" (Coleman Barracks) in the German city of Mannheim. There will be for about 1200 units of military transport and other equipment, including 250 tanks from Germany that can quickly get to any place in Europe. In addition, the Pentagon has proposed to place in Eastern Europe and the Baltics heavy weapons to deter possible aggression of Russia. It considered the following countries: Latvia, Lithuania, Estonia and Poland, Romania, Bulgaria and possibly Hungary. As far as European leaders are able to conduct coordinated policy to resolve the Ukrainian crisis? How viable is the proposal of the newly elected President of Poland Andrzej Duda President of Ukraine Petro Poroshenko on the new format of negotiations on the settlement of the situation in the Donetsk and Lugansk regions with the participation of neighboring countries, including Poland? Ultimately, is capable European leaders understand the clause known Polish economist, former Finance Minister of Poland Leszek Balcerowicz, who advised the West to give Ukraine a lot more attention than Greece because it is four times larger, has borders with Russia and is a test for the EU and NATO since President Putin took Crimea and informally intervened in eastern Ukraine?

Among the countries of the North Atlantic Alliance is no consensus on the methods of settling the Ukrainian crisis, sanctions and concessions to Russia. Leaders of states, representatives of various political movements, the deputies and senators, scientists and businessmen have their own approaches to solving the Ukrainian crisis, affecting both ideological positions of each actor, and his personal relationship or mercantile interests in (recent example can serve significant investments in Russia or funding of political activity, as in the case of the French National front).

An important factor in shaping a country position on the crisis in Ukraine is that the leaders of the state, which depend on the adoption of specific decisions, pressured by representatives of the legislature and powerful businesses that do not want to lose their income due to sanctions.

We emphasize the role of historical factors in the context of Russia's interference in Ukraine can cause various memories of a representative from each European country. In the historical memory of Poles tell divide Poland and later its existence as a satellite country of the USSR. The Baltic countries also have memories of losing its independence and functioning as Soviet republics. It is known that the Polish leaders argued strongly that the American presence in Europe is vital and just stay under the protection of the Americans guarantee security in Europe, while France, being an apologist for European strategic autonomy, persistently sought to create and strengthen the European security structure. New NATO members, with the burden of the past Soviet era, with an understanding attitude to European integration of Ukraine, whereas old EU members as concerned about the economic crisis and financial problems of Greece and Portugal, fearfully imagined hypothetical accession of Ukraine to the EU and NATO.

According to the Polish President A. Duda, the EU marginalizes Russian aggression against Ukraine. Duda made it clear that the conflict in Ukraine should result in lasting peace, not freezing. Lasting peace means a return to the borders recognized by the international community. He believes that the future of Europe needs unity and partnership of EU member states, but the "selfishness" of some states may cross the future. An example is the position of Germany, which intensify their desire to sign an agreement with Russia on gas pipeline "Nord Stream - 2", which would but prefer to skip the territory of Poland. [1]

The position of the president shares the deputy head of the Polish Sejm Committee on Foreign Affairs Witold Vaschykovskyy. At the prestigious 25th Economic Forum in Krynica-Zdroj in Poland September 8, 2015, he announced that the "Normandy format" to forget, because "it is - concern superpowers that meets Russian dreams to Europe led several countries. You need to think about the new format - Geneva, or any other, where will the country bordering with Russia and Ukraine. It is about Poland, Romania, possibly Turkey, if she will wish to join, and the States, which we perceive as a partner of Europe." Vaschykovskyy believes that there is little chance that Ukraine will resume control of their overseas elections in Donbas be democratic, so the format should attend other international organizations, not just a "helpless" the OSCE.

Remarkably, the dilemma of European values ​​in the context of events in Ukraine is perceived by politicians through their own ideological prism, and sometimes even overshadowed when it comes to financial interests. Significantly, the former French President Nicolas Sarkozy, who has a chance to fill this position again, regrets the loss of substantial profits through France of non-helicopter "Mistral" of Russia. The question is, if known politician of the country, which has consistently advocated European autonomy in the field of security and defense and campaigned for the development of the military component of the EU makes such statements, how can feel protected Central European countries that have in the past experience of confrontation with Russia - Poland or the Baltic states? How much EU countries are united, if in the light of Russian aggression non-nuclear EU states rely on the protection of the US and NATO, not to help the nuclear powers closer neighbors?

It should be noted that Sarkozy during his election campaign spoke about the European vocation of Ukraine, ie to its far-reaching prospects in the EU. Meanwhile, the events demonstrated that respect for sovereignty and inviolability of Ukrainian borders somehow loses essential to this policy, and loss of money comes to the fore. How is correlated with the desire of France to increase its influence in the world through the EU, new members who can draw conclusions on the priorities for the Paris-European security or national financial component? However, the current French President Francois Hollande has taken the difficult decision not to transfer the ship in. Remarkably, this situation raises the question of the role of personality in history, because it depends on the individual vital decisions. It was US President Barack Obama may decide to supply lethal weapons Ukraine and that French President F. Hollande, Socialist representative, to solve the issue of helicopter.

However, in Central Europe, Russia's actions are perceived differently. Undoubtedly, an active pro-Ukrainian position occupied Lithuania. We emphasize that it is the President of Poland Bronislaw Komorowski said on supporting Ukraine in its confronting Russian aggression on behalf of Visegrad.

A former Polish President Lech Walesa criticized the inaction of the European leaders in the Ukrainian issue and notes that Europe lacks organization, without which it would be difficult to succeed, and indeed recalls that at one time he foresaw the possibility of preventing future conflicts in Ukraine, namely through Poland's accession to the EU and NATO with Ukraine and Belarus. Moreover, L. Walesa said that it was possible, but did not happen because he had no support. It is likely that policy concept to reality and shows that the founding EU lacks a strategic vision for the future of Europe. Perhaps the European Union, which primarily arose as the European Coal and Steel Community, seeking to achieve significant progress in the economy, a little neglected their political component, pushing for a secondary plan needs a common foreign and security policy. It is significant that this process is evident Polish politicians and imbalance in choosing the priority of safety and economy prompted the famous Polish economist L. Balcerowicz try to explain this to Europeans.

In Ukraine, Poland is perceived positively. According to recent sociological research Poland and Belarus are the leaders in the rating of Ukrainian adherence. In particular, 55% of respondents described their attitude to Poland as "very friendly" or friendly, and only 5% announced its "hostile" or "unfriendly" attitude [2]. The common perception of threats to both countries is the fact that they believe the main threat to Russia. A survey conducted by the American Research Center in different countries showed that only fear of the two countries, while most European countries together with the United States and Canada concerned about the Islamic State [3].

However, it is useful to consider the concept of Polish columnist Yendzheya Bielecki, who rightly argues that Ukraine's relations with Poland losing strategic status. He stressed that during the past year strategic relationship is only a myth. According to Y. Beletsky, it happened because the President of Ukraine Poroshenko concluded on the basis of the policies hauled Poland since the beginning of the revolution in the Maidan. Before this happened, Poland distributed among mirage Ukrainian integration with the EU and NATO. It spread its image "lawyer" of Ukraine and "mediator" between Brussels, Washington and Moscow. When Putin struck the Crimea and Donbas than surprised as Poland and the whole West, the Warsaw suddenly samousunulasya. She did not support Ukraine no significant financial or weapons, not introduced additional sanctions against Moscow. Polish stories about Ukraine's European integration prospects were only a pipe dream. So, faced with the threat of the existence of the state, Poroshenko seeks to negotiate with the state, which may actually stop new offensive Kremlin - Germany. Presumably, he would have talks with America, but she is busy fight with the Islamic state and the rivalry with China and does not want it [4].

Although, according to European Council President Donald Tusk, Ukraine is ready to pay a high price for peace, as evidenced by a vote in the Ukrainian parliament amended the constitution in terms of decentralization and violence that took place outside the Council. Hinder the efficiency of Polish-Ukrainian partnership certain events, such as the fact of embezzlement of eighteen Polish soldiers and civilian military equipment and humanitarian aid for Ukrainian army logistics base in Warsaw. Some changes took place in the Ukrainian request to grant refugee status in Poland in connection with the annexation of the Crimea and events in eastern Ukraine. In particular, the Vice Minister of Foreign Affairs of Poland Rafal Tshaskovskyy said that Poland comes in many Ukrainian who are not refugees, but the situation may change. Reported that in previous years with similar requests addressed about 100 Ukrainian and Poland last year already 4 thousand. Ukrainian filed a request to obtain this status. Although currently with 2014 only two Ukrainian got it [5].

Meanwhile, part of the strategic relationship is a resource complementarity. The components of national power in Poland and Ukraine can vzayemodopovnyuvatysya. This applies, for example, the natural resources of Ukraine and its scientific potential and the economic achievements of Poland in the reform and development of market economy. An example is intended to combine Western experience of Ukrainian facilities by the creation of facilities of an enterprise of the State Concern "Ukroboronprom" together with the Polish company "Lubawa S.A." company. This is stated in the memorandum that the parties signed in the framework of Ukrainian delegation to the International Exhibition MSPO-2015, held in the Polish city of Kielce.

However, the situation in Ukraine weakens this aspect of the strategic relationship because Vyyiv forced to fund both immigrants and fighting, besides being insane inflation, and therefore - the impoverishment of the nation. Under these conditions the question is urgent humanitarian assistance, not resource complementarity. According to the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Poland, Ukraine provided various assistance. In particular, during the last two years only help fund the Polish Ministry of Foreign Affairs has tripled - to 29 million zlotys a year. Completed negotiations on Polish government loan to Ukraine 100 million euros. Assistance received Ukrainian army - two games worth 4 million euros each. In Poland, the Ukrainian officers and sergeants are trained. Warsaw helps to modernize the Armed Forces of Ukraine, especially in the areas of logistics, chain of command, and tactical medicine.

According to the Polish correspondent of the newspaper "Zerkalo Nedeli" Jacob Loginova, 20-30% of Poles are committed supporters of Ukraine and actively support it. But others are either indifferent or nenaykrasche. This Polish expert explains that there are two of his countrymen Ukraine. One is associated with the ideals of the Maidan, European Kyiv and Lviv, Ukrainian literature, Polish-Ukrainian conferences, speeches of politicians. But the rest of the Poles dealing with smugglers and corrupt customs officials. They see that the EU Ukraine does not notice the other does not understand her problems, not solve social issues Mostyska district bordering with Poland [6].

According to international observers, the partnership of Poland and Ukraine are strong. In particular, the French journalist Antoine Renaud Warsaw describes as "a faithful ally Kyiv". He noted that Poland supported the movement for Independence in 2013, accepts NATO troops on its territory and calls for sanctions against Russia. The journalist believes that the policy of Poland in the context of settling the situation in Ukraine is not enough coverage in the Western press.

According to the columnist, the intervention of the Ukrainian crisis is seen in Poland as the return of Russian expansionism, which in the long run threaten the security of Poland. It is in this context Poland has announced its plan to strengthen assistance to Ukrainian government through secondment of additional trainers in the Armed Forces of Ukraine. The fight against pro-Russian separatists in addition to the pressure on Moscow Warsaw is considered as the best protection stability of Poland [7].

Basically common geopolitical goals is part of a strategic partnership. If partners unite to resolve temporary issues, talking about situational partnership. Violation of Ukraine's sovereignty and its borders causes of insecurity in Western partner - Poland. Poles have the historical experience of division between the State's own more powerful states on the one hand but on the other - are quite united in homogeneous ethnic composition of the nation, making it easier to defend their own national interests. In case of a negative scenario in Ukraine Poland will deal with the problem of refugees and functioning of Ukrainian as the eastern outpost of NATO and the EU, which will guard the boundaries of these formations Ukrainian ruins. Therefore, in the interest of the Polish settlement of the situation in Ukraine in the near future, the success of Ukrainian reforms and implementation of the Ukraine Association Agreement with the EU. If in the distant future Ukraine failed to join the EU and NATO, Poland would feel safer and thus block NATO defense boundary moved to the east.

Despite the present difficult situation in Ukraine, Poland statesmen do not forget to remind that Kyiv has the right to be part of the European Community, particularly emphasized in this September 17, 2015 Polish Prime Minister Ewa Kopacz.

According to Arseniy Yatsenyuk, at that time Prime Minister of Ukraine, "the unity of Warsaw and Kyiv is the axis of our common European future."

In this way, the global transformation of the European security triggered annexation of Crimea and Russia's aggression in eastern Ukraine have caused some challenges strategic partnership between Ukraine and Poland:

- First, the problem of readiness of Poland to help Ukraine in the military defense of state borders. Currently, the first not willing to help or soldiers or supplies lethal weapons, but gives humanitarian aid and instructors;

- Secondly, the issue of political participation of Warsaw in resolving the situation. Poland is not the guarantor of the territorial integrity of Ukraine, in contrast to the signatories of the Budapest Memorandum; not a party "Normandy format", although President A. Duda expressed postulate feasibility accession of other countries to "Normandy format", including Poland. This proposal has not found support;

- Thirdly, "challenge" resource complementarity of the two states. The war in eastern Ukraine and annexation of Crimea, the housing problem of refugees and caused a significant impact on the economy of Ukraine, significant inflation triggered a fall in living standards. Thus, in rivnovelykosti potential strategic partners there is a change of potentials of both countries: Ukraine increaseth; despite the association with the EU, and Poland is abundant, being a member. With this in mind decreases the likelihood of adequate cooperation partners in the economic sphere;

- Fourth, the issue of status incomparable partner in purely military realm. Poland is a member of NATO defense unit in case of aggression hopes to protect its borders all the forces of NATO. Against the background of Russian aggression in Warsaw Ukraine supports strengthening the US military presence in Europe. Ukraine, by contrast, was almost alone in conditions of need military protection of the state border. Not being a member of a defensive unit and with the army, weakened by its own previous governments, Kyiv appeared before the urgent need to quickly restore its military capabilities and the fact that only the armed forces can stop or not to stop the seizure of the military forces of other countries;

- Fifth, the dilemma interpretation of international agreements and memoranda. In light of the events in the security realm Ukraine and Poland were the opposite experience. Kyiv faced with the ineffectiveness of the Budapest Memorandum, and therefore - the question of its relevance, which created a pretext for reasons of State which decides to go through the process of nuclear disarmament; Instead Poland - a NATO member, is backed by warranty and strength of the organization.


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European Integration Slovak Republic: main stages and institutional and legislative support

Valerii Koroma


The article deals with various aspects of the integration of the Slovak Republic to the European Union, as well as historical and civilizational prerequisites for the European choice of the Slovak nation. Priority attention is paid to the analysis of the process of preparing Slovakia's accession to the EU in 1993-2004, especially to the use of organizational, institutional, legislative procedures and tools in the context of complex state building processes and socio-political transformations in the country.

Keywords: European integration, historical development, civilization, transformation, state building, reform, experience, foreign policy, Slovak Republic, Ukraine

In the context of the study of transformational reforms and European integration of the countries of Central and Eastern Europe special interest is the experience of the Slovak Republic, which emerged in 1993 and in a relatively short historical measurement period managed to solve complex foreign policy objectives, acquiring in 2004 full membership in EU and NATO. This remarkable event in the life of the young state prior radical reforms in the political, economic and legal areas. Along solved the difficult task of nation-building, political consolidation and society around the idea of ​​returning the country to Europe.

Largely transformational challenges and problems in Slovakia and Ukraine are similar, making highly relevant comprehensive study of this issue. In addition, some aspects of organizational, institutional, legal support SR integration process in the EU may have practical value and used in the Ukraine closer to the EU and preparation for membership in this organization.

The integration of the Slovak Republic to the European Union and other authoritative European and Euro-Atlantic structures (primarily OECD and NATO) from the beginning dealt with the majority of the Slovak political elite intellectual circles and society as a return to the natural civilizational environment from which the country was artificially torn in the postwar period by the communist regime. As noted by the Slovak researcher Yu Alner, Slovakia did not return to Europe, where it has always been. Dealt with the difficult return to the main path of European civilization. [1]

On the other hand, Slovakia has historically always been on the border between Western and Eurasian civilizations, on the border between Western Christianity (Catholicism, Protestantism) and the Orthodox world, which could not but affect the formation of national identity of Slovaks. And so, as the authors of the study "Slovakia on the way into the unknown", characteristic of the historical development and formation of the modern Slovak society is hybridity manifested in the dominance of Western civilization signs of the presence of elements of Eastern European (Eurasian) civilization. As a result, there is preservation of internal conflict between the concepts of a society to civil or ethnic basis - between the ideas of a society of equal citizens, individuals and national collective individual, which are subordinated to the interests of all its members [2].

This situation is largely due to the incomplete process of forming the national identity of Slovaks who, in fact, began in the first half of the nineteenth century. And against the background of national identity and combating violent Magyarization in Slovakia, which was at that time part of Hungary, and associated educational activities of famous Slovak writers, writers and patriots Jana Kolar, Jozef Safarik, ľudovít štúr (codifier of Slovak language), Michal goji and others, and also revolutionary events of 1848, during which the program was developed "Requirements of the Slovak people." This document is encouraged to use the Slovak language in schools, courts, local government, and the Slovak parliament to vote on the basis of universal suffrage. In 1861 it was adopted "Memorandum of the Slovak nation", which contained the requirement of local autonomy. [3]

Peripheral position of Slovakia as a part of Austria-Hungary and Czechoslovakia also was caused to a delay in the processes of modernization of political, socio-economic, cultural and humanitarian life. In addition, the dominance of this time in the social structure of Slovakia idealization of rural vernacular culture, historical myths and stereotypes also hindered the process of modernization and internationalization of Slovak society. On the other hand, the proportion of the population has become a breeding ground for the spread of ideas Slovak nationalism.

Another important deterrent historical formation of the Slovak nation was Slovaks belonging to different camps with different religious worldviews: the dominant Catholic who preferred to preserve the traditions and hierarchy in society, and Protestant (Lutheran), who espoused ideals of freedom, equality and democracy.

The researchers point out that, unlike other neighboring countries and partners in the Visegrad Four (Hungary, Poland and the Czech Republic), Slovakia's integration into the EU had to simultaneously perform the largest number of historical problems. That meant not only a radical transformation in the political, social and economic fields but also on building an independent state in the absence of established tradition and experience, as well as completion of national integration [4]. In addition, compared with the above countries Slovakia was characterized by the largest ethnic heterogeneity of the population. Historically, in what is now Slovakia, particularly during the formation of the modern type states except Slovaks inhabited by Hungarians, Czechs, Germans, Gypsies, Jews, Rusyns, Ukrainian and other natsionalnosti1.

After the dissolution of the Czech and Slovak Federal Republic (Czechoslovakia) and execution of the Slovak Republic in 1993 as a sovereign subject of international faced the task of nation-building, stabilization of the socio-economic situation and restructuring the economy and the continuation of reforms in other areas.

The complex processes of forming an independent state and defining political struggle largely influenced the international situation and the country's European integration course. The question of national identity and statehood issues were a factor that polarized Slovakia at the level of elites and the general public. The list of disputes over economic transformation, including privatization, and on confrontational and authoritarian way of leadership first Slovak Prime Minister Vladimir Meciar and the ruling coalition headed by him [5].

Meciar declared himself a supporter of consistent market reforms and gradual, with the maturing of favorable conditions of privatization, which would help to strengthen the position of the national capital. In fact, during the reign of Vladimir Meciar was marked by extremely opaque redistribution of state property for loyal business environment and the formation of the oligarchy in the country. After the parliamentary elections of 1994. V. Meciar even tried protysnuty in parliament to change the constitution to transform the Slovak parliamentary presidential republic. [6]

All this testifies to the then Slovak rejection of democratic principles transformations of post-communist countries of Central and Eastern Europe and even led in 1997 the then US Secretary of State Madeleine Albright called Slovakia "black hole at the heart of Europe" [7].

An important part of the political struggle in this country in 90 years of the twentieth century was discussion on the priorities of its foreign policy. Amid the declaration of aspirations integration in reputable international organizations (especially NATO and the EU), representatives of the ruling coalition put forward other ideas, including neutrality and the concept that a country considered as a "bridge between East and West." Amid growing pressure on the leadership of the Western European countries and institutions Vladimir Meciar and his political partners actively played the "Russian card" - Slovakia showed a desire to develop relations with Russia as opposed to cooperation with the West. Eventually this led West attentive to the situation in Slovakia [8].

A major obstacle in establishing constructive relations with the West countries were joining the ruling coalition of the nationalist Slovak National Party (SNP) led by Jan Slota, known for its xenophobic rhetoric. Against this background and the worsened international relations, especially in the south of Slovakia, densely inhabited large Hungarian minority (about 500 thousand. People). SNP also opposed joining NATO and skeptical of the idea of ​​integration of SR into the EU. This SNP has played a significant role in the fact that in 1997 Slovakia had defeated a referendum on NATO membership.

Win of broad coalition of democratic forces in the parliamentary elections in 1998 was associated with dissatisfaction large part of society the activities of government Vladimir Meciar. These elections were not just another expression of the citizens, because in fact discussed the strategic direction of development. Lessons from past defeats led to the establishment of cooperation between democratic parties therefore managed to oust Vladimir Meciar and headed by the Movement for a Democratic Slovakia of the political limelight. One of the determining factors of the victory of democratic forces in the elections in 1998 and became their active support of the West, who used all available leverage to change the political regime in the country.

Building on the results of the parliamentary elections in 1998 and 2002 coalition governments headed by M. Dzurinda and the election of 1999 the President of the Slovak Republic R. Schuster, who defeated Vladimir Meciar, created favorable conditions to accelerate political reforms in the country and an adjustment to the foreign policy of the Slovak Republic.

The stages of European integration of Slovakia

Strategically Slovak foreign policy has been defined while being a part of Czechoslovakia. The Federation proclaimed course of integration into European and Euro-Atlantic structures - the so-called return to Europe. So, Czechoslovakia in 1991 signed with the EU Association Agreement. After the proclamation in 1993 of independence of the Slovak Republic first had to determine its own foreign policy priorities. The newly created state immediately recognized all neighboring countries, including Ukraine, as well as influential world powers. Slovakia also quickly adopted a number of global, European and regional organizations (UN, OSCE, Council of Europe, the IMF, the Visegrad Four, CEFTA). Given the close relationship of domestic Slovak Republic with its foreign policy, there are two main stages of European integration Wed: from 1993 till 1998 and from 1998 till 2004, with qualitative differences in terms of the relationship of Slovakia and the EU and internal socio-political and socio-economic transformation processes.

The first major document in the bilateral relations of Slovakia to the European Union signed an October 4, 1993 The European Association Agreement, which entered into force on 1 February 1995.

During the 1993-1998 biennium. Fully revealed major problems of Slovak foreign policy and diplomatic service: the lack of relevant experience, lack of qualified diplomatic personnel and inadequate assessment of the country's geopolitical role. This is what led to the fact that the Western vector of foreign policy was not decisive, but only alternative. Slovak relations with the EU and NATO during this period were largely determined by the Russian factor. The Government was making some steps towards integration declared, but they were mostly formal. In particular, began work of the Council and the Committee of Association of the Slovak Republic - EU. In the MFA SR and other ministries and departments were created units that were responsible for interaction and cooperation with the EU. In 1995 Slovakia also submitted a formal application for EU membership.

However, the previously mentioned features of internal political development during the 1993-1998 biennium Slovakia systematic failure of the Copenhagen criteria for EU membership (especially in the political part) strategy and objectives of individual accession to the EU, the dominant atmosphere of mutual distrust, regular demarches and recriminations that characterized relations Slovakia and the EU at that time led to the exclusion of the country in December 1997 at a summit of the European Council in Luxembourg of a group of countries - the primary candidates to join the EU.

The turning point in terms of integration of Slovakia in the EU began in 1998. On the eve of parliamentary elections in 1998 observed consolidation of society around the then desire to change the direction of the country. Most Slovaks painfully perceived failure of integration of the country in 1997 and lag on the way to Europe from its neighbors - the Czechs, Hungarians and Poles. The consolidation of democratic forces in the country brought to power a government coalition headed by M. Dzurinda, which declared the main purpose of its activities as soon as possible withdrawal of Slovak international isolation and implement radical reforms in the country to speed up its integration into European and Euro-Atlantic structures.

The period from 1998 to 2004 was characterized by generally consistent and coordinated actions of all branches of government to implement democratic reforms and the implementation of its integration policy. One of the first concrete steps the Government was developing the "Plan intensification of the integration process of the Slovak Republic to the European Union" (24 February 1999).

Significantly increased the intensity of diplomatic contacts as the line SR - EU and EU Member States. In particular, during the first visit of Prime Minister of the SR M. Dzurinda in Brussels in November 1998 was created a unique two-way mechanism - a high-level working group EC-CP, led by Deputy Director General of the European Commission for Foreign Affairs F. Lamoureux and Secretary of State, Ministry of Foreign Affairs SR J. Figel. The main objective of the WG, which held in the period from November 1998 to September 1999 five meetings, was to prepare Slovakia before the negotiating accession to the EU [9]. Along intensified cooperation within the Visegrad Group. Instead, become cooler relations with Russia. The European side positively assessed the internal political changes in the country. Thus, the Commission in its regular report on 13 October 1999 noted the progress made by Slovakia towards democratization, and fulfillment of the Copenhagen political criteria for EU membership. In particular, positively assessed the democratic elections in the country, the adoption of laws on direct election of the president and the use of minority languages. Finally, during the EU summit in Helsinki on 10 December 1999 it was decided to start negotiations with the Slovak Republic's accession to the EU. Most negotiations with the countries of the so-called Helsinki Group officially started February 15, 2000 in Brussels and 12-13 were completed in December 2002 inviting them to join the EU. During the Athens EU summit April 16, 2003 Slovakia, together with other candidate countries signed the Treaty of Accession to the EU and May 1, 2004 became a full member.

The key to the success of European integration policy of the EU was the implementation by the Government's ambitious program of radical political, economic, social, legal and other reforms (especially regarding the decentralization of public administration and strengthening the role of local government, privatization of natural monopolies, tax reform, public finance, social and pension security, health, judiciary and armed forces), which later gave rise to foreign experts attributed Slovakia to most reformed countries among the new EU members and call it due to high rates of economic growth "Tatra tiger". An important role is also played by the creation of an efficient institutional system of the integration process and coordination of interaction between different branches of government, a successful organization of the negotiation process, improve procedures for approximation of national legislation to the legal standards of the EU, increased efficiency in the use of pre-accession funds of the European Union, raising the level of professional training of public authorities, who care about European integration, organization wide public awareness of the benefits offered by integration into European and Euro-Atlantic structures.

Legislative and institutional support of the integration process

Conceptual framework integrating SR in the EU was outlined in the adopted in 1998 the National program approximation of national legislation to the legal standards and laws (acquis communautaire) of the EU. In April of 2000. Slovakia gave the EU updated version of the National Program, which was first noted on the practical implementation of the new law. The new program was dedicated to the entire range of issues related to the process of harmonization of national legislation with EU legal norms to 2002, and was to serve as an instrument of control over the implementation of the commitments undertaken by Slovakia after signing the European Association Agreement and the Partnership for accession. The Government of the Slovak Republic on a regular basis (every two months) reviewed the status of implementation of the program.

In terms of adaptation of Slovak legislation with the EU legal system important was the adoption in 2001 of a new Constitution CP [10]. In particular, Art. 7 constitution envisaged the possibility of transferring a number of powers of public authorities CP supranational structures of the European Union established the principle of subordination of national legislation and EU law defines the forms and ways of taking over the European legal norms and standards (through the adoption of laws or decisions of SR). Articles 13 and 120 of the Basic Law created the preconditions for simplifying and accelerating the process of approximation of legislation, as provided by the government the right under certain conditions to decide on the implementation of legal regulations and technical standards of the EU without parliamentary approval (in the form of so-called approximation resolutions). Dealt with the harmonization of the Slovak legislation with EU laws and standards in the following areas: customs law, banking, accounting and taxation, intellectual property, safety, financial services, consumer protection, technical rules and regulations, the use of nuclear energy, transport and agriculture household. So much accelerated legislative process. At the same time, the government was required every six months inform the National Council CP issued on approximation and planned regulations. In turn, the parliament had the right to appeal to the government to prepare resolutions instead of certain applicable laws.

The main government body that ensures the production, coordination, coordinating and monitoring the implementation of the approximation of national legislation to EU norms and standards, became the Institute for the approximation of law which structurally was part of the Secretariat of the Government and subordinate Deputy Prime Minister of the Slovak Republic Legal. The Institute collaborated with ministries and agencies in the preparation of relevant legislation; carried out the analysis of texts and compulsory application of conformity of the bill with the legal provisions of the EU; preparing a response, which contained comments and suggestions for further work on the elaboration and introduction of the bill to the National Council of the Slovak Republic; providing information on European law; provided the organization and coordination of EU technical assistance in this area and so on.

During 1999-2000 Slovakia also improved the institutional structure to ensure the promotion process to the EU. At the beginning of 1999 was created the Council of Ministers of the Government of SR for European Integration - an advisory, coordination and initiative body. He headed the board of the Vice Prime Minister of the Slovak Republic for European Integration. It consisted of the Ministers of Foreign Affairs, Interior, Economy, Finance, Agriculture and Foreign Ministry State Secretary SR. In addition, it established a subsidiary body of the Council - working committee, whose members were CEOs sections (departments) European integration ministries and departments. At the same time they were 29 heads of working groups (10-35 people each) that provide the negotiations with the representatives of the European Commission in certain areas. The Board also acted Advisory Committee of representatives of scientific organizations, trade unions, business associations and other organizations.

As part of the government secretariat was established section (department) European Affairs, which included the department of European integration, foreign aid department and department of formation of institutions and training of the population to join the EU. Section became the main coordinating body for inter-agency cooperation on implementation of "internal" problems preparing the country for EU membership. Section together with the said Institute approximation of EU law subordinate to the Vice Prime Minister of the Slovak Republic on legislation.

MFA SR was introduced additional position of Secretary of State, who was instructed to coordinate European integration Slovak Republic at the international level and to lead negotiations on accession to the EU. From the beginning of 1999 the MFA SR began operating a new unit - Section for European Integration, which consisted of parts of the negotiation process with the EU political relations with the EU and economic relations with the EU.

There were significantly enhanced structural units of ministries and departments who took care of European integration, the harmonization of national legislation with EU legal norms, as well as financial and technical assistance from the EU pre-accession funds under.

The National Council of the Slovak Republic in 1996 was created the Committee for European Integration, which relied features ensure parliamentary control over the process of preparing the country for EU membership. The said Committee interacted closely with parliamentary committees of other countries - EU members and candidates. In March 2000 work began two new committees: the harmonization of national legislation with EU legal norms and for monitoring the implementation of programs and use of funds ISPA, PHARE and SAPARD. Regularly held meeting of the Parliamentary Committee EU-SR, which addressed the implementation of Slovakia's political and economic criteria for accession to the European Union were preparing recommendations for further development of bilateral relations.

Thus, European integration Slovak experience confirms the possibility of qualitative escalation involved consolidated efforts of the socio-political and socio-economic transformation in the country in a significant acceleration of the integration progress. The consolidation of democratic forces and Slovak society around the strategic goal of full integration into European and Euro-Atlantic structures has allowed Slovakia to overcome the late 90's internal problems and recurrence authoritarian regime rule government headed by V. Mechiyarom. As a result, CP will not only caught up, but in many ways ahead of other countries that joined the EU in 2004.

Organizational, negotiation, legislative and institutional experience of Slovakia's integration into the EU seems extremely useful for Ukraine because of similar historical and civilizational, internal and external transformation problems. To deliver this experience is to appropriate consultation and technical assistance of Slovakia the involvement of Slovak experts and politicians who were directly involved in the process of preparing the country to join the European Union.

In particular, in organizational terms of interest turned out coordination mechanisms of cooperation and division of powers between the different branches of government, central and local authorities in European integration, and methods of negotiations on accession to the EU. Special attention deserve implemented in SR measures to optimize and speed up the legislative process in the context of the harmonization of national legislation with EU legal norms. It is reasonable to also study Slovak cardinal on improving the investment and innovation climate and business conditions, structural economic reform and regional development with the active use of financial and technical assistance to the EU. The practical interest for Ukraine could be the experience of Slovakia regarding training of civil servants involved in the framework of the integration process and the implementation of an information strategy to prepare the population to join the European Union in the Slovak Republic.


1.​ Alner J. Slovensko na kľukatej európskej diaľnici / J.Alner // Desať rokov v Únii: Slovenská a česká cesta / Ed. Mesežnikov G., Bútorová Z. - Bratislava: Inštitút pre verejné otázky, Heinrich-Böll-Stiftung, 2014. - S. 13.

2.​ Gál F. Slovensko na ceste do neznama / Ed. Gál F., Gonda P. - Bratislava: IVO, 2003. - S.15

3.​ Kováč D. Dejiny Slovenska // D. Kováč - Praha: Nakladatelství Lidové noviny, 2010. - S.126

4.​ Slovensko: desat' rokov samostatnosti a rok reforiem / Ed. Mesežnikov G., Gyárfášová O. - Bratislava: IVO, 2003. - S.19

5. Martynchuk I.I. Slovakia - member of the European Union accession process features / I.I .Martynchuk // Actual problems of national and world history: Collected Works: Research Notes Rivne State Humanitarian University. - Exactly: RSUH, 2005. - C. 38.

6. Martynchuk I.I. Key aspects of domestic policy of the Slovak Republic in the 1993-1998 biennium. / I.I. Martynchuk // Actual problems of national and world history. Scientific Papers: Scientific notes RSUH. Vol. 11. - Exactly: RSUH, 2007. - C. 189.

7. Duleba O. The influence of European integration on the post-communist transition in Slovakia / O. Duleba // transformation processes in the countries of the Visegrad Group and Ukraine: a comparative analysis / ed. AHEM. Perepelytsya. - K .: Stylos, 2013. - C. 224.

8. L.D. Chekalenko Ukraine's foreign policy: textbook. for students. HI. teach. bookmark. / L.D. Chekalenko / heads. Ed. VN Kutsenko; Ed. OI Tsybulska. - K .: Lybid, 2006. - C. 98.

9.​ Bilčík V. Inštitucionálna adaptácia pri vstupe SR do EÚ / V.Bilčík // EÚ monitoring 2003 - Implikácie prístupového procesu pre politické inštitúcie, právny štát a regionálnu politiku. - Bratislava: FES, SFPA, 2004, S.21.

10. Kuranov A. The Slovaks have changed the Constitution // Nezavisimaya Gazeta. - 2001 - 21 March. - C. 2.

Japan: a portrait of a country

Pavlo Ignatiev


The article deals with post-war reconstruction of Japanese transport infrastructure and analyzes the pecularities of services and industry of this country, which is considered among main partners of Ukraine in Asia.

Key words: Japan, Tokyo, economy, infrastructure, airlines, tourism

Part II.

Despite a chaotic, Tokyo is one of the global capitals of students. The fact that the city ranks third in the world after Paris and London as a center of education and the best of its focus in Asia. Young people like that center serves Asian metropolis of fashion, has the world's largest selection of food and nightlife. The presence of 13 higher education institutions with an average pay of educational services in the amount of 7 thousand dollars a year, and deployment in the city within a large number of corporations and financial institutions where you can find a job after education, identifies significant value in Tokyo in the global education market.

In addition, Japan has the second largest (after the US) industry activities. This country is also trying to export to world markets entertainment products. In particular, exports comics for adults and children, slot machines, video games both on mobile devices and mobile phones that are in great demand in the markets of the "golden billion".

Japan Tourism potential is quite significant, because there were registered 19 monuments under UNESCO protection. The majority of them can be seen on the island of Honshu, near Tokyo and Osaka. An alternative is the Lake District Hakone Reserve, known for its hot springs of volcanic water. At the foot of the Japanese Alps, 200 km north of Tokyo housed Nagano city, next to which stretches Hell Valley with geysers and geothermal sources. Here in the park Dzhihokudani live 200 "snow monkeys" - ordinary chervonomordyh macaques, staying in hot water onsen during the winter season.

Osaka, in turn, provides familiarity with the architectural monuments of Japan since placed next to Kyoto and g. Kyoto with a population of 1.4 million people deserves special attention, because in the period from 794 to 1869 was considered a major political center. Therefore, Japanese and call it "millennial capital." It has not been bombing during the Second World War and therefore has within its 1,650 Buddhist temples and 400 syntoyitskyh. In its north-eastern district Gion geisha are not only, but also traditional institutions for the tea ceremony. Overall 17 Kyoto attractions included in the list of World Heritage sites as the only major cultural facility [1]. Nearby 370,000th city of Nara was only 710 to 784 years. Japan's first permanent capital because of architectural charms are much smaller. It is known central park with 1,200 wild deer that are considered messengers of the gods. The park is well-ji Temple Toda, built in the year 749. Inside its high room, you can see the 15-meter high bronze Buddha. That Toda-ji is the largest wooden structure in Japan.

The country has a high-quality sports facilities, as in 1964, 1972 and 1998 has held the Olympic Games, and in 2002 organized jointly with South Korea World Cup. Many stadiums built for quite specific American sports like baseball and American football, which were popularized by occupation authorities after World War II. However, the political elite continues to fund sports facilities, following the Japanese need to make a healthy nation. In 2019 Japan has to hold World Cup rugby, and in 2020 - one more Olympics, during which the government Shinzo Abe announced his intention to take 20 million visitors [2]. High availability and organization of the Japanese world-class transport infrastructure to transform the country from a favorite of any sports. If the 1964 Olympics was seen as an opportunity to show the world Japan's post-war reconstruction and "shynkanseny", then the Olympic Games-2020 must demonstrate unprecedented economic progress of the country in the twentieth century. In particular, during the competition, some areas of passenger transport will serve trains on magnetic levitation, made by technology "maglev", as in Tokyo foreigners can use taxis without drivers.

In 2015 more than 19 million people visited Japan, so the first time since 1970, when there was a global exhibition "Expo" in Osaka, the number of those who entered the country exceeded the number of Japanese who traveled the world [3]. Among foreign travelers dominate residents of China, Taiwan and South Korea. Especially in Japan waiting for Chinese tourists who come here during the seasonal sales shopping. Their behavior even nicknamed the term "bakugai" - "Explosive purchase" because shop owners treat the Chinese with great respect. Europeans and Americans also began often travel to Japan in recent years as the yen and the euro against the dollar steadily declines, and they can count on cheap travel documents "shynkanseny" a week or two.

However, a big disadvantage hospitality is little comfort rooms for tourists in most cities, because the average hotel rooms here have an average area of ​​10-12 square meters and a traditional ryokan and hotels capsule may not be enough for everyone. Besides, in the Greater Tokyo posted the majority of hotel complexes, and on the periphery of their lack. Because of this, the country's plan to spread the practice of renting to foreigners by individuals known as "minpuku". In addition, Japan is characterized by only two tourist seasons throughout the year, because the best time to travel there are spring and autumn, as summer drops a lot of rain, but winter is quite cold in all regions except Okinawa, and the country can travel only lovers winter sports. Accordingly, during the flowering Japanese cherry blossom (Sakura) and red maple leaves falling prices for hotel services highest. Another problem is that Japan has complex political relations with South Korea and China as tourists from these countries often refuse to tour here for patriotic reasons during aggravation of bilateral relations.

Japan only with its high-quality infrastructure and tourist sights could become an advanced country in the world, but its economic prosperity is concerned primarily with corporations aggressively exported its products abroad. In the 1960-80 biennium. Japanese companies are considered leaders in the consumer electronics market through innovation. However, in 1990 production of the three giants "Sony", "Panasonic" and "Sharp" began to displace the global markets aggressive competition from South Korea, China and Taiwan, which collect televisions, mobile phones and computers are much cheaper. As for smartphones, the number of Chinese manufacturers now offer models for $100 which have much better technical equipment than the Japanese counterparts. For residents of overpopulated China and India is a strong argument. In addition, the call on the European and American markets expensive appliances dropped by Japanese multinationals corporation "Apple". Do not save the situation of Japanese giants carrying plants to China and Malaysia, as components that collect equipment, still made in Japan. As a result, manufacturers of semiconductors and mobile phones now represented only "Sony", which offers revolutionary innovations. In general, it should be noted that Japanese companies made a series of errors, because they are extremely diversified activities in different areas of production, and manufacturing resources for consumer electronics and for its advertising on the world market is not enough. Traditionally a weak feature of the industry is the lack of software and its inability to mass produce cheap components.

On the other hand, Japan is the world leader in the production of cameras and lenses, as there are of "Fujitsu", "Canon", "Nikon" and "Sony", and "Canon", which controls half the world market such products. However, with the improvement of this camera phone market is shrinking only audience of professionals and interested consumers high-quality photographs amateur.

Japan and Switzerland have captured the world market watches. Except for the mass production of "Swatch", Swiss manufacturers offer high quality products at a significant price, while Japanese counterparts come in lower and middle price categories. Another advantage is their availability and their clockworks particular specialization. In particular, "Seiko" makes quartz watch with automatic generation of energy, "Citizen" - products that are recharged by sunlight, and "Orient" produces components of their classic mechanical watches of high quality.

Symbol of the country is car industry. Among its advantages, firstly established worldwide production of spare parts and repair of motor vehicles and their extreme resistance to breakage and safety. In particular, "Toyota", "Honda" and "Subaru" have the best safety record of the cars in the world. Secondly, it is diversity that makes it possible to focus on affluent markets like the US and the EU and to less creditworthy buyers in Asia and Africa. All companies willing to transfer power from car manufacturing to countries with many consumers and verge on more overcrowded state actors. So, "Toyota" has factories in Thailand and Mexico, which enable it to sell cars, not only in these countries but also in the United States and Indonesia. Interestingly, due to Japanese investment Thailand is currently the largest car manufacturer in South East Asia. In turn, "Suzuki" leads in India thanks to the release of small items under the aegis of "Maruti-Suzuki India", very popular among the middle class. In 2014 a joint venture established a record by selling 1.4 million vehicles to Indian customers. The advantage of the largest car manufacturer in the world, which is considered a corporation "Toyota", a wide range of products, presented trucks, SUVs, compacts, hybrid cars and expensive brand "Lexus". Her car "Toyota Corolla" is considered an absolute leader in sales since it gained 40 million users. Products from Hiroshima "Mazda" highly valued for futuristic design and reasonable price. Third, the old Japanese cars sold through auctions are also popular in Africa, Southeast Asia and the Far East of the Russian Federation, as former owners - the Japanese - they were used only occasionally and these products were very meticulously check state engines before selling. In addition, Japan is specialized in the manufacture of motorcycles and scooters, as they are very popular in Southeast Asia, particularly Vietnam and Indonesia.

The traditional sector of economic activity in this archipelago is considered as shipbuilding. Peripheral Japan, as leading trading countries, imports large quantities of raw materials and exports goods vehicles, and therefore must use savings boats of all types of large tonnage - from container to bulk cargo carriers. The important role played in this process of rapprochement with the monarchies of the Persian Gulf that after the nationalization of oil facilities possessed large deposits of energy, but were deprived of their craft for export to international markets. Subsequently, Japan has reached an agreement with representatives of the "Arabian six" that its refineries work on "black gold" from the Persian Gulf, and in return, they will buy Japanese tankers.

By 1999, the country was the undisputed leader in the manufacture and sale of vehicles, but now ranks only third after South Korea and China, which replay it by more moderate price and scale of production, as Japanese shipyards more orders coming from their corporations, not from international buyers. [4]

The fact that the Country of the Rising Sun is a leading importer of oil and liquefied natural gas, so constant need of vehicles for transportation of energy resources. It brings every day to its territory 4.3 million barrels of oil and is its third largest buyer in the world after the US and China. Regarding LPG, the index of import 86 million tons of it is the most important importer of energy. Gas demand increased significantly after the government decided to stop all nuclear power plants by the disaster in Fukushima in 2011. Currently, 70% of orders for the industry worldwide ship liquefied energy carriers account for Japanese companies importing "blue fuel". Shipbuilding is a leading corporation "Imabiri Shipbuilding Group", which specializes in manufacturing a wide range of products, so it is called "ocean Toyota". Among other companies is to provide "Mitsubishi Heavy Industries", which focuses on building savings vehicles, and "Kawasaki Heavy Industries", which specializes in supermistkyh containers for transportation of gas.

There are other industries that helped create its economic miracle. In particular, the development of industry and housing construction in the Kanto and Kansai regions, and the development of transport infrastructure could not be successful without the work of a powerful steel industry. An important role in the domestic market also play companies that produce fertilizers, plastics and gasoline because these products consume other Japanese manufacturers, export-oriented. To prevent crisis situations Japan maintains a strategic reserve of fuel. During the years of its existence there were no serious accidents recorded. That is why developing countries are invited Japanese corporations upgraded storage tanks and refineries.

Japan contributed to the prosperity and building an extensive network of nuclear power, which was in response to the oil shocks of 1973 and 1979. Before the earthquake in 2010 and the accident at the Fukushima nuclear power provided 27% of the country's needs for energy, but disabling 43's NPP was for her energy shock. Now the society debatable appropriateness concerning the preservation of this program, because Japan has 110 active volcanoes and this year recorded 1500 earthquakes, as continued use of nuclear power can be dangerous in this densely populated region of the world.

What is the price the country had to pay for its economic miracle? First, it is a significant reduction in fertility caused by the peculiarities of corporate culture. It decided to work not only during the week, but on weekends. If management is at work, no one dares to go home. Therefore, the large corporations, there is the phenomenon of death from overwork on the job. Employees rarely take vacations, so as not to seem lazy. The country has high real estate prices, which is why the majority of residents at a young age is unable to create a family and pay a loan for an apartment. In addition, many Japanese live more than 80 years thanks to advances in medicine and healthy eating. As a result, the number of elderly country ranks second in the world after Monaco, known as the center of living of pensioners considerable fortune, and the average age is 46.5 years here. By maintaining, the impending demographic to 2060 in Japan can "disappear" 40 million people. Today one woman accounted for 1.4 child, and to preserve the country's population at current levels is necessary that the figure was 1.8. As a result, Japan's growing number of hospitals and factories that manufacture drugs, but also actively closing schools because they do not have children. A number of companies produces goods for pensioners and the film industry employs many movie stars elderly. Companies that serve retirees in Japan called "silver".

The political elite consistently seeks way out of the situation. In particular, now in production actively use robots to reduce the need for working hands. For pensioners create temporary jobs advisers in business and industry, and offer less prestigious jobs guardians or guides with knowledge of foreign languages. Enterprises are moving their production facilities outside Tokyo, where young workers can afford to buy property and build a family. To improve the competitiveness of the economy and slow down the process of population decline should involve at least 200 thousand. Immigrants every year, but Japan did not intend to do, because it will be necessary to invite the "old friends" with neighboring South Korea and China, which are culturally related with the Japanese but have painful historical memory. Of course, you can make citizens work less in production, but it would mean changing the rules by which and there was an economic miracle, which will act against leaders of Japanese corporations.

In addition, the result of excessive borrowing that helped rebuild the economy after the Second World War, was the growth of external debt. Japan ranks first in the world on this indicator as the largest government debt in percentage of GDP, now it is 246% [5]. Moreover, its rating is much higher than in many other debtors like Greece, as it has assets abroad and has huge reserves.

Thus, the post-war reconstruction of Japan took place quite rapidly, so there was established transport infrastructure world-class carrying workers on the island of Honshu to the two alternative economic regions - Kanto and Kansai. The need for the acquisition of patents and loan funding large companies resulted in the growth of foreign debt, but also helped the country become a leader in world trade. But now a significant threat to the welfare of the corporation are from China, South Korea and Taiwan, setting a reasonable price for their products.


1. Michael Lambe. Insider guide: Best of Kyoto//CNN. - 2015. - September 30. - Режим доступу до сайту: http://edition.cnn.com/2015/<wbr>09/28/travel/insider-guide-<wbr>kyoto/

2. 20 million tourists no a pipe dream//Japan Times. - 2015. - February 7.

3. Expanding tourist accomodations//The Japan Times. - 2016. - January 6.

4. Japanese shipbuilders seek to regain edge lost to China, South Korea//The Japan Times. - 2014. - September 29.

5. Японія очолила топ-20 країн з найбільшим держборгом // Зеркало тижня. - 2015. - 28 липня. - Режим доступу : http://dt.ua/ECONOMICS/<wbr>yaponiya-ocholila-top-20-<wbr>krayin-z-naybilshim-<wbr>derzhborgom-180088_.html