Головні статті

№4 / 2016
14.09.2016, 12:45

Geopolitical identity of Ukraine: retrospective and reality

Sergiy Shergin


In this article the issues of the Ukraine's geopolitical identity from a position of the historical retrospective and international realities are considered. Special attention is paid to the process of its transformation under the conditions of new challenges and threads.

Key words: self-identification, geopolitical identity, geopolitical interests, geopolitical and geoeconomical code, globalization, national security.

The historical context of the development of Ukrainian statehood accompanied the transformation of its geopolitical identity. Parallel processing took place scientific and theoretical foundations of national geopolitics. Problems genesis domestic geopolitics and geopolitical transformation of knowledge in the form of effective implementation of the interests of the Ukrainian state has traditionally attracted the attention of political scientists of different schools. This is according to many published books, manuals, and a significant number of scientific articles in specialized journals. [1]

Recently in the scientific revolution of the Ukrainian political and economic sciences were introduced concepts such as geopolitical and geoeconomic code. The application of these concepts in the study of geopolitical and geo-economic processes related to the implementation of internal and foreign policy of Ukraine, enabling a significant increase in their practical importance. This includes studying the phenomenon of geopolitical identity Ukraine in the regional and global level.

Identity - the definition of specific political and socio-cultural features of the national state based on their independent vision. In this respect, national self-identity state Ukraine - a complex multi-mode dialectically interconnected and interrelated political, socio-economic, spiritual, cultural, territorial and regional elements of social consciousness structure is developed in the process and the result of a long historical development of Ukrainian society.

It should be noted that the term "identity" is not an absolute universals inherent in the individual, social group or nation. It is constructed society is born and disappears under the influence of certain sociocultural processes. There is also no evidence to suggest the dominance of a particular type of identity, since each particular situation actualized [2, p. 38].

The hypothesis that the transformation of Ukrainian geopolitical identity is due to the formation in Ukraine of two new types of identity - regional (European) and global (transnational) requires proof of at least two abstracts. First, the emergence of new types of geopolitical identities quite likely. Second, national identities are transformed under the influence of transnational identities, inherent to business globalization.

The functional dimension of regional identity means state participation in the creation and development of the region to which it belongs, its role in shaping the structure of regional security, which is a prerequisite to national security. A similar measure global identity mean state participation in the formation of the international community and global security structure, which has a supranational character. It is clear that the level of global identity is unattainable and unnecessary for Ukraine, which is in a state of "democratic transit", and its state sovereignty and territorial integrity threatened former strategic partner.

The processes of globalization significantly affect the civilizational identity of post-communist societies faced with difficult challenges for social and political stability and sustainable economic development. In Ukraine, the impact of globalization associated with its focus on non-linear transient causing many problems finding a new identity for individual social groups, political parties and society in general. For the current Ukrainian political issue geopolitical identity linked to integral historical heritage and the influence of new factors era of globalization. Therefore, there are unstable geopolitical orientations of the Ukrainian establishment and certain regional and social groups, as well as lack of coordination between supporters and opponents of European integration paradigm of development.

Equally important is to ascertain the impact of geopolitical processes and civilizational identity of the perception of Ukrainian mass consciousness the place and role of the country in the modern world and the attitude to Western political institutions and socio-cultural values. The significance of this problem for Ukraine is determined by the importance of effective cooperation with the West and the mixed results of the pan-European political process.

In this context, it is important to investigate and determine the identity of Ukraine to a certain type of socio-cultural, if not limited notion of its "absolute" European-Christian identity. The historical development of our country observed the presence of several major geopolitical concepts: Western (European), south (Black Sea), eastern (pro-Russian) and synthetic (Baltic-Black Sea, the concept of Pan-Slavism and geocentrism).

Located geographically in Europe, Ukraine suffered mostly European cultural and historical impact. However, its history, culture and mentality of the people have a very visible impact impact "Eastern element" which is, according to prominent Ukrainian scientist and politician Hrushevsky (1866-1934), "envenomed by reagents his western spirit." The result Hrushevsky considerations on this subject is as follows: "We are the one of the most orientated Western nations - even as Bulgarians, Serbs, Spaniards - and we must not forget, and to develop and use what is useful and valuable, that has given us this oriental element "[3, p. 150].

On strong "non-Western elements" in the Ukrainian national type wrote in his scientific writings of historian and political scientist Ivan Lysiak-Rudnytsky (1919-1984). According to him, the Ukrainian history typical synthesis of two traditions - Western socio-political and Eastern Christian spiritual. This famous representative of the statist school in Ukrainian political thought formulated the concept of balance Ukraine between East and West, according to which "Ukraine is situated between the world Greco-Byzantine and Western cultures and legitimate member of both of them, tried throughout its history to combine these two trends in the living synthesis "[4, p. 9].

His contribution to the study of Ukraine as a geopolitical reality did scientist geographer S. Rudnytsky (1877-1937). He believed that the geographical location of our country in the South East Europe caused permanent effect on its territory both East and West. C. Rudnytsky identified influences from the East with Russia and the West - with Poland. This scientist emphasized fatality geographical and political influence of the Ukrainian nation and its territory. Relevant to look abstracts of scientific factors geopolitical position of Ukraine towards Russia, that constant desire to get the latest wide outlet to the Black Sea, the Middle East and the Balkans, using the transit capacities Ukrainian territory [5, p. 416].

Ideologist of Ukrainian integral nationalism D.Dontsov (1883-1973) followed the clearly pro-Western anti-Russian geopolitical orientation and thought that Ukraine is a continuation of Central Europe. Analyzing its geopolitical situation, he noted that "... the position of Ukraine means just the main lines of our policy. When history and geography have made us an outpost of Europe against Russia ..., the first precept of our policy should be: 1. Domestic policy - fostering the principles of Western culture ... 2. In external policy complete separation from Russia. And here and there a brief compound with Europe ... "[6, p. 77].

The original in epistemological sense in geopolitical views of Yu. Lypa (1900-1944), who developed the so-called doctrine of Ukraine Black Sea. The researcher believed that "no East nor the West is the source of Ukraine" in its geopolitical competition. In his view, the strategic task of all politicians in Ukraine from ancient times to the present was defense axle: South - North axis as this ensures communication unity with Ukraine Crimea - the key to a perfect mastery over the Black Sea. This explains the annexation of modern Russia peninsula and disclose geopolitical concepts Great Russian chauvinists on the "Russkaya earth." Geopolitical axis East-West Lypa noted as "the most hostile Ukraine" and did not consider it possible to consider Ukraine as a mediator between Western Europe and Russia [7, p. 235-236].

Academic research of "Ukrainian national type" proven multi-mode influence on the formation of the Ukrainian nation Turkic, Iranian, Arab, Mongol elements. Together, he left his mark in the intellectual mentality and psychology of Ukrainian, in a culture where much that, according to former director of the Institute of Oriental Studies of NAS of Ukraine Academician O. Prytsak, "not part of common culture - Christian or Slavic" [8, p . 42].

In the period on New history, being between Catholic Poland and Orthodox Russia, the Crimean Khanate, on which was Turkey, Ukraine suffered geopolitical pressure from all sides. So, in constant competition for their political and cultural self-realization for centuries formed and developed a deep layer of Ukrainian national culture. External impacts associated with the processes polonization and Russification could not destroy Ukrainian national identity and cultural awareness and establish a politically dominant western or eastern origin.

During the UPR was a time when it sought to protect their freedom by establishing allied relations with European countries, seeing them force capable to protect it from the threat of Bolshevik Russia. However, the question "with whom to be" - the "Ukrainian political hamletyzm" decided then not in favor of independence of Ukraine. Further assimilation Ukrainian people was largely the result of a phase-European political process.

An excursion into the history causes some reminiscences, reveals a pattern if not, then at least one characteristic feature of the historical existence of Ukraine as soon as the development of the state reaches a certain level of self-sufficiency, it loses its sovereignty and become part of eastern neighbor - Russia. External factors that then influenced the course of this process, advocated the policy of Western powers that negative attitude to Ukraine's aspirations to become an equal partner in the European system of international relations. In today's environment where peaceful policy of Ukraine supports almost the entire international community, it has a chance to save its state sovereignty and political independence.

The geopolitical location of Ukraine for centuries transformed into an arena of confrontation between different political players in uncertainty of domestic and foreign policy priorities objectively pushed the country to perform the role of a buffer between East and West. In terms of classical geopolitics Ukrainian geostrategy define two main vectors - Euro-Atlantic and Eurasian. The specifics of geopolitical coordinates Ukraine is its affiliation with two regions - Europe and Eurasia. With that in both regions, our country occupies a peripheral position that does not form a geopolitical space around them that makes it somewhat passive role in regional processes. The logic of geopolitical Ukraine is that if it identifies itself as a "regional periphery", it certainly becomes a "cordon sanitaire" - a base of liberal-democratic West against the totalitarian Russia.

The current international system is qualitatively different, as the factors of its formation, but the risk of losing independence and sovereignty remains rather high. However, the geographic location, the nature of foreign policy priorities, and the socio-cultural identity of the people of Ukraine makes its duality in the matter of attitude towards Eurasianism as a model of social development. In its basic characteristics of our country belongs to the European civilization area. Moreover, unlike the Russian political elite, which attracts almost half a century Eurasian idea, the position of the Ukrainian leadership is clear: Ukraine - a house on the European street, a factor of European politics.

Given the dominant Ukrainian geopolitical view, we can conclude that in today's national scientific community has a negative attitude to the idea of Eurasian integration as the basis of post-Soviet states. Thus, the Ukrainian researcher V. Bogdanovic believes that "the future of Ukraine as a geopolitical phenomenon as a subject of international law, international political and economic relations ultimately depends on the identity of the Ukrainian political elite" [9, p. 102].

In this context, geopolitical code of Ukraine is determined by geography - European location, absence (unlike Russia) "Eurasian Syndrome", a landmark bipolarity (between East and West), internal and external vectors, providing a balance of national interests. The political part of the code is a clear reflection of the historical heritage - the division of Ukraine on the Left Bank and Right Bank. In the socio-cultural and religious dimensions of modern Ukraine still maintains multipolarity titular ethnic group. The foreign factor oriented to provide entry into the Euro-Atlantic community to participate in the system of collective security under the auspices of NATO. It is this line of Ukraine's foreign policy is the only guarantee of its sovereignty and territorial integrity.

However, it is not a geopolitical dilemma West-East, and the ability of the Ukrainian state to defend its vital interests, including in the international arena when it is in the harsh conditions of internal crisis and without effective support from its Western partners. Based on reality, not with the declared principles and doctrines, the Ukraine since independence in fact lost its geopolitical and geoeconomic war. As a result, it has become the weakest link in the global geopolitical crisis, the advantage of its antagonists. It was a violation of the balance of the main vectors of foreign policy of the Ukrainian state, lost benefits of cooperation and communication time for social modernization. As a consequence - the stagnation of logistics of production, industrial and agricultural sectors and scientific potential. And all this happens in circumstances where the Euro-Atlantic community demonstrates its indifference to Ukraine's Euro-Atlantic aspirations. At the time, the issue of membership in the EU in Brussels last transformed into so-called "Eastern Partnership" - an updated version of the European Neighbourhood Policy (ENP), which was extended to our country in 2004.

It is obvious that the "European dream" and Euro-Atlantic strategy of Ukraine are at counteracting factors associated primarily with internal political instability, and outright imitation of reform and social modernization that directly depend on the state leadership. The level of European integration geopolitical and socio-cultural consciousness Ukrainian society is still low. Thus, in 2008, according to opinion polls only 32.4% of Ukrainian citizens to some extent identified themselves as Europeans, and 60.5% - do not consider themselves involved in the European community. However, over the past 7-8 years the situation has changed - in 2014 at least 70% of the respondents identified themselves supporters of Ukraine's European choice.

Given global transformations, spreading crises and armed conflicts bifurcational effect repeatedly amplified, resulting in expected future path of development of any country is impossible. In these circumstances, Ukraine in the near future can not rely on it to take on the role of regional leader. However, geopolitical parameters enable countries to build relations with other countries based on regional partnerships. There is reason to believe that the role of the partner country most in the interests of Ukraine in conditions of regional and international instability.

Place of our country in the international economic system coordinates a day of global crisis adequately illustrate materials annual World Economic Forum (WEF) on the competitiveness of countries. The corresponding figures published in September 2015. In the ranking among 140 countries Ukraine took the 79th place, which is three positions below the last year. Neighbors of our country in this ranking were Guatemala and Tajikistan respectively 78th and 80th place. Most were found anywhere Switzerland, Singapore, the US, Germany, the Netherlands and Japan. [10]

This rating reflects investors' assessment of the prospects of investing in Ukraine. In 2014 foreign direct investment in this country fell by almost three times. Geopolitical risks and the armed conflict in eastern radically affected the volume of direct foreign investments from 47 countries. In 2015 their volume decreased and reached historic lows over the past fifteen years, mainly due to capital outflow of investors based in Cyprus. [11]

In these circumstances, we can talk about the crisis of the national economy, based on the principles of neo-liberalism and monetarism. Of particular importance is the question of whether further use Ukraine Western model of economic and social development, which is currently undergoing a systemic crisis. Equally important is the question of Ukrainian national idea of a nation that has not reached even attribute unity towards the state. According to A. Ermolaev, Ukrainian sociologist, the goal "has become a mirage current policy and national idea took on increasingly mythical outlines secrets."

If we consider the question as either West or East, the choice of effective ways to be limited to the geopolitical and socio-cultural terms. Important for Ukraine in terms of using the experience of western and eastern modernization of social systems is to determine the mechanisms of interaction with national culture that for centuries were with her in the productive interaction. This approach is the most constructive answer to the new challenges and threats to internal and external nature. Overcoming the dichotomy, "East-West" is quite possible to the use of best practices modernization of both civilizations.

The organic symbiosis of Western and Eastern models of social modernization in conditions of intensification of transnational relations has undeniable advantages. Keeping in his basis European socio-cultural values and traditions, it prevents uncritical assimilation of what is produced in this area of western civilization. Active "Westernization" that focus on individualism, is not limited Industrial development and continuous consumption increase social tension and differentiation, which weakens the viability of Ukrainian society.

Equally important geopolitical identity for the national interests, particularly in foreign policy is an obvious fact. However, the question of how the geopolitical transformation of identity in the economic crisis requires a comprehensive research. We know that globalization with its new subjects, among which mention Multinationals, changing geopolitical identity of nations. This process began with the erosion of state sovereignty institution and later became one of the reasons intensification of transnational relations globally. Intensive development of transnational relations significantly limited the role of geopolitical factors in foreign policy.

In modern conditions for effective foreign policy is much more important factors not associated with the geographical position of the state and its spatial characteristics, and with a set of socio-economic and information technology factors inherent in post-industrial society. An example of successful modernization, including through an effective foreign policy, is the experience of different socio-economic characteristics and social systems of China, South Korea, Singapore and Vietnam. Perhaps they were right, American economist L. Thurow and V. Leontyev, who in the early 90s of the last century called political and business elites of the West to learn from the Japanese and Koreans "play by their rules."

It is clear that Ukraine's social modernization only through the use and integration of geopolitical factors are not rational in terms of the historical experience of the struggle for independence. This experience has shown that dilemma Ukrainian "political Hamletism" often stand in the way of independent development and independence. His subsequent geopolitical and geoeconomic competition Ukraine should carry out, based on national development strategies and national identity, taking into account their experience of statehood with all its achievements and mistakes, as well as using the best examples of European and other effective models of social modernization.


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The problem of Ukraine's accession to NATO in the context of Ukrainian-American relations

Olena Vashchenko


In the article the main aspects of Ukraine's accession to NATO are revealed in the light of Ukrainian-American relations. Considerable attention is paid to the factors that affected the strategy of both countries on NATO's expansion to the East, peculiarities of US policy as to development of relations between Ukraine and NATO and their prospects.

Keywords: Ukraine, US, NATO, NATO's expansion.

Part II.

The Iraq crisis and the military option to solve the US intensified centrifugal displays NATO primarily concerned Western Europe. This situation makes Washington to intensify the Atlantic dialogue with the countries of Central and Eastern Europe, including Ukraine. Thus, in early January 2003 K. Pascual in a speech at the meeting of the Working Group in the Washington Center for International Strategic Studies has identified fundamental US position on Ukraine joining the North Atlantic Alliance: This open door policy and at the same time, the policy of five steps - areas to improve cooperation relations (reform export controls activation of contacts at the level of governments and parliaments, support for democracy, cooperation in the military sphere and promote accession to NATO). And a month later K. Pascual during the round table "Euro-Atlantic integration of Ukraine: state and prospects" said that hypothetically Ukraine can expect to join the Alliance in 2008. Overall, during 2003 the highest level in the United States sounded the expediency of accession Ukraine to NATO (speech President George. W. Bush, Ambassador George. Herbst, State Secretary K. Powell, assistant Secretary of State E. Jones and other top officials). However, attention was focused on the necessity of democratization of Ukrainian politicians and society [1, p. 37].

It should be stressed that the deployment of the military operation in Iraq, Washington is considering Ukraine as an ally in the issue of solving the Iraq problem. In particular, the United States welcomed the decision of the President of Ukraine to host NBC protection battalion in the Persian Gulf. Just rapprochement contributed to the Memorandum of the Supreme Soviet of Ukraine for NATO forces right quick access to the territory of Ukraine (March 2004). The sign of the intensification of the integration process of our country to become a NATO and deepen cooperation in military-technical sphere.

Considerable influence in the US position on Ukraine in general and its participation in the system of collective security of NATO had the events of autumn 2004 and the coming to power of President V. Yushchenko. Washington is perceived as a sign of readiness of Ukrainian society and politicians to more clearly define its foreign policy interests. This was aided and correlation legislative and legal field of Ukraine, in particular the Presidential Decree of 2 April 2005 on military doctrine. In further documents joining the North Atlantic Alliance was defined as the most important priority of domestic and foreign policy of Ukraine. In parallel was established a number of institutions that have become the tools of implementation of the policy, including the Interdepartmental Commission on preparation of Ukraine to join NATO.

The US position on Ukraine's integration into Atlantic security structures during the period 2005-2009 traced by analyzing a series of steps both at the international level and in the field of bilateral relations. Strategic importance for the prospects of Ukraine Euro-Atlantic traffic was joint statement of Presidents Clinton and Yushchenko "agenda of the Ukrainian-American Strategic Partnership in the New Century" (April 2005), which outlined the main tasks of bilateral cooperation, including security. Specifying the issue of Ukraine's joining to NATO took place during a working visit to Kyiv of the Ministry of Defense USA D. Rumsfeld (September 2005), Deputy Secretary of State P. Dobriansky(March 2006), Assistant to the President, Deputy Adviser on National Security US President J. Crouch (May 2006).

Further dialogue was held at the international conference "Common Vision for Common Neighborhood" in Vilnius in May 2006: Yushchenko called for the intensification of the process of accession of Ukraine to NATO by the conclusion of MAP, as Washington has traditionally emphasized the readiness to convince its allies of the need for such a step, but asked that question, depending on the position of the new Ukrainian government, which had confirmed the Euro-Atlantic integration. In general, the administration of George Bush expressed interest in the expansion of NATO to the East, but rather pay attention to the ambiguous position of the Ukrainian politicians and the public. A striking example of this was the failure of NATO exercises in the Crimea. Washington also saw the appointment of Prime Minister V.Yanukovych as the possibility of slowing down the process of progress Ukraine into NATO and the significant change foreign policy orientation, but stressed that respect the democratic choice of the Ukrainian [2]. From the same implication accepted the request for a new prime minister, made during his visit to the US in December 2006, that Ukraine is not forsuvatyme process of joining the alliance because of the unwillingness of society [3].

In Washington know that adopted by the 2007 National Security Strategy of Ukraine included "the benefit of Ukraine international collective security mechanisms" and declared "the creation of conditions for Ukraine's accession to NATO," but increasingly sounded skeptical comments on this rhetoric, not backed by concrete steps. However, in April 2007 George. W. Bush signed the "Act on the NATO Freedom Consolidation", which indicated the US position to facilitate Ukraine's membership in the Alliance.

For intensifying the dialogue Ukraine-NATO contributed to intensification of relations between Ukraine and the United States and the adoption of a number of important bilateral documents. First, it signed during the visit of George Bush in Kyiv "Priorities of Ukrainian-American Cooperation (Road Map) from 1 April 2008". Roadmap provided that Ukraine will deepen cooperation with NATO and the US will help its entry into NATO membership. Another important step was the decision of the Bucharest Summit in April 2008 of a clear prospect of Ukraine's membership in NATO, made with the direct participation of the United States.

A significant influence on the dialogue on Ukraine's membership was the Russian-Georgian conflict in August 2008. In particular, during the September 2008 visit of Yushchenko to the US attention was paid to enhance security cooperation, and discussed the possibility of inviting in December of this year, Ukraine and Georgia to MAP. In support of this decision in 2008 both houses of Congress approved three resolutions that supported the prospect of signing the Membership Action Plan with Ukraine.

Election presidential campaign in the US has shown the importance of the issue of NATO's role in American security system in this context and considered policy on Ukraine as a possible partner in the Alliance. The main presidential candidates Barack Obama and John McCain expressed this opinion. The victory of Democrat Barack Obama and the proclamation of the course to "reset" relations with Moscow will not change the strategic direction of the support by Washington desire of our country to join the Alliance. A positive signal was signed - Ukraine Charter on Strategic Partnership (December 19, 2008). The paper main focus areas related to security and highlighted the fact that the "deepening of Ukraine's integration into Euro-Atlantic institutions is a mutual priority" of both countries.

However, the results of the North Atlantic Council at the level of Foreign Ministers Alliance (December 2008) to Ukraine produced a slightly different format MAP preparation of NATO membership - annual national programs. Thus the US stressed the comprehensive assistance in the implementation by Ukraine of all necessary conditions, but the Ukrainian side had recommended a more systematic work with both the public and the opposition, first carry out an intensive information campaign. Thus, from 2009 the US provide assistance in the implementation of annual national programs as a unique tool for the progress of Ukraine to NATO, in particular as regards reform of the Armed Forces of Ukraine. Special attention is paid to safety issues and Ukrainian-American Commission on Strategic Partnership inaugural session took place in autumn 2009. However, at the official level US officials always stressed that Ukraine itself will determine the dynamics of implementation of the Euro-Atlantic course. Therefore, Vice President J. Biden in July 2009 stressed that Washington understands the complexity of the transformation of public consciousness in Ukraine in NATO matters because it is her determination pace, time and depth of reforms necessary for joining the Alliance.

Overall, the period 2005-2009. In the history of Ukraine's relations with NATO, most analysts called the future of unused capacity, as Kyiv has received a number of preferences of the member countries of the Alliance, and above all - the US, but did not use them.

The fundamental change in the strategy of Ukraine's accession to NATO marked 2010: on July Parliament proclaimed neutral status of Ukraine, as adjusted by Presidential National Security Strategy of Ukraine "Ukraine in a Changing World", adopted in February 2007, no longer included Euro integration, focusing only on the economic aspect of integration with the EU. US reaction was reasonable, particularly during a visit in early July 2010 to attend the second meeting of the Ukrainian-American Commission on Strategic Partnership H. Clinton said that Washington respects the decision on Ukraine's neutral status. Similarly, S. Pifer noted that Ukraine must independently determine the prospect of joining NATO, which door should remain open. Ambassador J. Tefft voiced a similar view in summer of 2011 [4]. In view of this, the 2010-2013 dialogue on Ukraine's cooperation with NATO was transferred to the plane of Ukrainian participation in peacekeeping operations under the auspices of NATO and discuss the prospects of such cooperation. In particular, Washington on Ukraine begins to use the definition of "Euro-Atlantic orientation" and not "Euro-Atlantic aspirations." Back to joining the Alliance as a general course did not allow as a team Yanukovych rapprochement with Moscow, such a separate decisions, including the extension of the Russian Black Sea Fleet in Ukraine (Crimea).

Fundamental change in foreign policy of our country took place in conditions of social and political crisis of late 2013, worsening relations with Russia and the deployment of anti-terrorist operations in the east during the 2014-2015 years. Specifically, in December 2014 the Verkhovna Rada of Ukraine supported the President Poroshenko submitted a bill to repeal the non-aligned status. A National Security Strategy of Ukraine approved by the Presidential Decree of May 2015 provides task of "creating conditions for joining NATO" in conjunction with efforts to "create an effective security sector and defense" and the general increase in defense of the state. No significant changes were also common Ukrainian political rhetoric and public opinion - the belief that NATO could become a guarantor of the preservation state of our country.

The US position on the events of 2013-2015 in the Ukraine and the participation of the Russian Federation observed in a number of official statements of officials and impose sanctions on Russia. The key thesis is: the peaceful pro-European assembly on Independence Square in December 2013 and the inadmissibility of the use of force against demonstrators; Moscow to intervene in the internal affairs of Ukraine; abuse of a number of international agreements and the Budapest Memorandum in connection with the Crimea to Russia; Moscow of escalating instability in the east of Ukraine and supporting anti-Ukrainian paramilitary forces and others. In general, the situation in our country is seen as a threat to US allies in Eastern Europe, in direct violation of international security and stability.

In this regard, Washington has stepped up financial assistance to Ukraine, involving international financial institutions and partner countries in NATO. United States provided significant help our country to improve its defense and security forces uniforms, equipment, medicines, etc. [5]. A significant further demonstration of support and strategic relations began joint exercises, including "SEABREEZE" and "RAPIDTRIDENT".

Assessment of the situation in Ukraine from the United States position entirely in unison with NATO, and in some moments are more rigid and resolute. In January 2015 E. Secretary General Stoltenberg said that Russia should immediately stop the escalation of the conflict in Ukraine [6], as NATO did not recognize the referendum in the Crimea and its accession to the Russian Federation [7]. NATO and US efforts to support partner countries, but officially neither Washington nor NATO leaders are not ready to give Ukraine the membership in terms of standards and inconsistency of conflict on its territory. Emphasis is made on the full support of both Ukraine and Moldova and Georgia that they may assert their independence. However, Moscow's position on the Ukrainian question aimed at inciting conflict was the challenge for NATO and pushing for measures to improve its efficiency, especially for large-scale exercises, strengthening contingents in the member states bordering Russia dialogue on development Rapid response, etc. [8]. Indicative in this context is the signing in September 2015 of three documents on deepening cooperation between Ukraine and NATO, as well as the visit of J. Stoltenberg (22 September 2015), which showed support for our country and became the signal of a new format of cooperation. In particular, it highlighted the fact that Ukraine can independently work with individual NATO member states and their allies out of joining the alliance. [9] In the same plane at the Munich Security Conference February 13, 2016 discussed further close cooperation between Ukraine and NATO in reforming the security sector and defense. It should be noted that the situation in the country prompted the United States and NATO to significant correlation foreign policy strategy and new approaches to mitigate conflict that shook the foundations of the modern world. Thus, in early December 2015 MFA heads of NATO member countries decided on the need to develop a new strategy for NATO in terms of hybrid wars and the last invitation to Montenegro.

Analyzing a long period of relations between Washington and Kyiv Ukraine search in the context of its security model, indicate that the United States recognize the importance of our country because of its geostrategic location in Europe and a place in the Black Sea region. First of all, it concerns security issues. Subject to its accession to NATO members already have Turkey, Bulgaria and Romania, its position in the Caspian-Black Sea region will grow significantly.

It should be emphasized that an important factor that actualized the issue of Ukraine's accession to NATO was unconditional support for the process from the US. However, the problem of attracting Ukraine to the system of collective security in the form Alliance has always projected the possibility of strained relations, and even real military conflict with Russia.

The probability and mainly causes the difference in positions and approaches to the process of Ukraine's relations with NATO and Russia between the European and American Allies parts: European Member States, especially it concerns the countries of Western Europe, taking a more cautious stance due to the proximity of the RF and power factor; but the US consistently supported dialogue on Ukraine's accession to NATO uzalezhnyuyuchy the intensity of the political situation in the country.

Among the main preconditions for joining to NATO in the US traditionally called: clear determination of the Ukrainian government on foreign policy; consensus government and society on this issue; reforms aimed at democratizing the social and political sphere and market reforms in the economy; fighting corruption; substantial reform of the Ukrainian Armed Forces (professional army, democratic control of the armed forces, the formation of open military budget, optimization of the system of military education).

Taking into consideration the complex internal and external factors, the progress of Ukraine to NATO has been slow and inconsistent, and events 2014-2015 biennium. Defer accession to the Alliance for solving the current problems. However, it is important to emphasize that the most important partner that consistently supports Ukraine remain in the United States. This intensification of dialogue and output relations with the leading countries at the highest level is an important factor in implementing the Euro-Atlantic vector foreign policy of Ukraine.


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6. Statement of President Barack Obama on Ukraine on February 28, 2014 [electronic resource]. - Access: ukrainian.ukraine.<wbr>usembassy.gov/uk/statements/<wbr>obama-02282014.html

7. Joint Statement of the 2 meeting of the Ukrainian-American Strategic Partnership Commission July 2, 2010 [electronic resource]. - Access: photos.state.gov/<wbr>libraries/ukraine/164171/pdf/<wbr>clinton-yanukovych-statement-<wbr>ukr.pdf

8. V. Kaspruk Euro-Atlantic choice of Ukraine through the eyes of American strategists // Emergency. - 2002. - № 7-8. - P. 48-51.

9. Statement of NATO Secretary General E.Stoltenberg [electronic resource]. - Access: rian.com.ua/video/<wbr>20150126/362591756.html

Ukraine - Belgium: relations and cooperation

Lyudmyla Chekalenko


The article reviewed and analyzed comprehensive relations between Ukraine and Belgium. Refers to the reserves of increase of level of cooperation between the two countries.

Keywords: Ukraine, Belgium, policy dialogue, and investments.

Belgium recognized Ukraine on 31 December 1991. Diplomatic relations between the two countries were established on March 10, 1992 [1]. The legal basis of relations is an interstate agreement on mutual understanding and cooperation between Ukraine and the Kingdom of Belgium, the French community of Belgium, Flemish Community, the German-speaking Community, Walloon region, the Flemish Region and the Region of Brussels - capital of Belgium on April 23, 1997, which came into force on December 10, 2000. In the Belgian parliament, which was re-elected in June 2010, there was a group of friendship Belgium-Ukraine headed by Senator Rick Daems. The group included 10 parliamentarians. There is Parliamentary Friendship Group Ukraine- Belgium in the the Verkhovna Rada of Ukraine. The legal basis for bilateral cooperation has about 30 intergovernmental, interdepartmental and interregional agreements.

Ukrainian-Belgian cooperation realized within the roadmap of bilateral relations between Ukraine and the Kingdom of Belgium, its regions and communities being developed, usually for several years and is based on the most important document of bilateral relations - Statement of Understanding and Cooperation. The Foreign Ministers on November 19, 2008 in Brussels signed a roadmap of bilateral relations between Ukraine and Belgium for the period 2009-2010. The next step is the foundation of cooperation served as a road map of bilateral relations between Ukraine and the Kingdom of Belgium, its Communities and Regions for the period 2012 2014, initialed in October, 2011.

The political dialogue at the highest level was began by an official visit of the President of Ukraine Leonid Kravchuk to Belgium on July 7-8, 1992. In June 1995 were held negotiations of President of Ukraine Leonid Kuchma with King Albert II. President of Ukraine Victor Yushchenko and Prime Minister of Belgium G. Verhofstadt discussed the Ukrainian-Belgian cooperation during events marking the 25th anniversary of "Solidarity" (Gdansk, August 31, 2005) and the Summit of the UN (New York, September 16, 2005). On February 22, 2005 during a visit to Brussels to attend the NATO summit, President Victor Yushchenko met with the Head of the Senate of A.-M. Lizin and on March 19, 2009 at the summit of the European People's Party - with Prime Minister of Belgium Herman Van Rompuy. The first official visit in the history of bilateral relations of the President of Ukraine Victor Yushchenko to the Kingdom of Belgium took place on October 15-16, 2009, during which the Ukrainian President held talks with King Albert II, the Prime Minister of Belgium Herman Van Rompuy, President of the Senate of A. De Decker and the House of representatives Mr. Deval. President of Ukraine expressed satisfaction with the dynamics of bilateral relations, progress of bilateral relations Roadmap for 2009-2010. They agreed on cooperation in the framework of EU-Ukraine relations, particularly in view of the Belgian EU presidency in the second half of 2010.

A Memorandum of Cooperation between Odessa and the port of Antwerp was signed in Antwerp. The Belgian government delegation in 2011 took part in the events dedicated to the 25th anniversary of the Chernobyl disaster, particularly in the Kyiv Summit on Safe and Innovative Use of Nuclear Energy.

In the commune Iksel (Brussels) the President of Ukraine unveiled a plaque in honor of the first diplomatic mission of Ukraine in Brussels - Emergency diplomatic mission of the Ukrainian People's Republic in Belgium and the Netherlands (1919-1923). Embassy of Ukraine in the Kingdom of Belgium and the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg (concurrently) on December 22, 2014 on the Day of Diplomatic Service of Ukraine in Brussels traditionally commemorated the first Ukrainian diplomatic mission in the Kingdom of Belgium [2]. Governmental and parliamentary meetings are occurring regularly.

Political dialogue at the level of foreign ministers began an official visit Belgian Foreign Minister E. Dereyke to Ukraine in May 1996. The next year, Foreign Minister of Ukraine G. Udovenko visited Belgium. Since the meeting of heads of the Foreign Ministry were regular. Only in 2008 the foreign ministers of both countries met 5 times in Brussels, Kiev and New York, discussed current issues of bilateral relations, current topics of global processes and international security. In Kiev on March 3, 2008 was Minister Karl de Gucht led a delegation of Belgian businessmen and football functionaries to represent the experience of countries in Euro 2000 Belgium and opportunities to contribute to the preparation of Ukraine for Euro 2012. During the visit, an international seminar attended by representatives of the Football Federation of Ukraine and businessmen, and representatives of business circles of football and Belgium.

During the official visit of President of Ukraine to Belgium on October 16, 2008 was meeting of Minister of Foreign Affairs Mr. Poroshenko with Minister of Foreign Affairs of Belgium I. Leterme. They discussed topical issues of bilateral relations, support Belgium European aspirations of Ukraine, issues of regional security. In Brussels, on March 27, 2010 Minister of Foreign Affairs of Ukraine K. Gryshchenko discussed the prospects of further development of cooperation between Ukraine and the EU institutional reform process of the EU, the priorities of the Belgian presidency of the EU in 2010, including the provision of Ukraine Action Plan on visa-end negotiations on the Association Agreement and free trade. Since 2002 there is political consultations at the level of executives and directors of departments of the two countries, which held, as a rule, every year. In 2010 there were began consultations in the format of the Benelux countries and Ukraine.

During a visit to Brussels of Minister of Foreign Affairs of Ukraine on July 23, 2012 were discussed the prospects of political dialogue after the new Belgian Government, issues of bilateral cooperation and European integration of Ukraine. On March 2014, Minister of Foreign Affairs of Belgium, along with foreign ministers of the Netherlands and Luxembourg visited Kyiv, where were meetings with Acting President, Chairman of the Verkhovna Rada of Ukraine, Minister of Foreign Affairs of Ukraine and other Ukrainian officials. In December 2014, Deputy Prime Minister, Minister of Foreign Affairs of Belgium visited our country on a working visit. During the visit, the head of Belgian Foreign Minister - Chairman of the Committee of Ministers (till May 2015), held talks with Foreign Minister of Ukraine Pavlo Klimkin, Prime Minister of Ukraine, First Deputy Chairman of the Verkhovna Rada of Ukraine.

Bilateral cooperation based on a number of existing documents, such as the agreement between the State Tax Administration of Ukraine and Ministry of Finance of Belgium in the field of data exchange and simultaneous checks (17 March 2003); Memorandum of Understanding between the State Department for Financial Monitoring, which operates within the Ministry of Finance of Ukraine and processing financial information Unit of Belgium on cooperation in combating the legalization (laundering) of proceeds from crime (19 September 2003); Agreement on cooperation between Ukraine and Poltava region Hainaut province of Belgium; Technical Agreement between the Ministry of Defense of Ukraine and the Ministry of Defence of the Kingdom of Belgium on the participation of Ukrainian troops in international peacekeeping operations tactical group under the command of Belgian (3 December 2002); Agreement between Ukraine and the Belgium-Luxembourg Economic Union on the Reciprocal Promotion and Protection of Investments (May 20, 1996); Convention between Ukraine and the Kingdom of Belgium on freedom of movement (7 July 1992); Protocol between the Government of Ukraine and the Government of the Kingdom of Belgium on the legal basis of cooperation (10 March 1992); Agreement between the Government of Ukraine and the Government of the Kingdom of Belgium to establish diplomatic relations (10 March 1992) and others.

Economic cooperation is developing quite actively: in 2011 the turnover of goods and services between Ukraine and Belgium amounted to 1 billion 445.7 million dollars, including export - 725.5 million (increased by 22% compared to last year), import - 720.2 million dollars. (By 11%). The figures of 2.8% exceeded the pre-crisis 2008 (1 billion 406.72 million dollars.). This balance of Ukraine for the first time in several years was positive and amounted to 5.3 million dollars by trade in services. According to the State Statistics Service of Ukraine for 9 months 2014 export of Ukrainian goods to Belgium increased compared with the corresponding period in 2013 by 22.5% and amounted to 352.32 million dollars. Import of goods from Belgium decreased by 20.9% and amounted to 406.30 million dollars. The negative balance of bilateral trade in goods - 53.99 million dollars. For the first 9 months 2014 Ukrainian export of services to Belgium decreased compared to the corresponding period in 2013 to 77.6% and amounted to 57.99 million dollars. Import of services in Belgium decreased by 20.2% and amounted to 41.26 million dollars. Positive balance of bilateral trade in services reached 16.73 million dollars.

The main products exported are cereals; seeds and oleaginous fruits, mineral fuels; oil and products of their distillation; Inorganic chemical products; steel; Textile clothing; wood and wood products. The main imported goods are pharmaceutical products; plastics, polymers; transport means (except railway); chemical products; nuclear reactors, boilers, machinery; electric cars; meat, mineral fuel, oil and products of their distillation; Alcoholic and non-alcoholic beverages and vinegar.

Direct investments from Belgium to Ukraine according to the State Statistics Service of Ukraine, as of January 1, 2014 are 73.8 million. Dollars. By this measure Belgium ranked 32 among investor countries. Belgians are investing mainly in industry - 65%, including food - and 32% Engineering - 6.3%; real estate, leasing, engineering and services businesses - 16%; trade; repair of motor vehicles, household goods and personal consumption - 12%; transport and communications - 4.5%; agriculture, hunting - 3%. It should also be borne in mind that most Belgian investment in Ukrainian economy not come directly but through third countries (for example - the company "SUN InBev Ukraine").

Belgian company, present in Ukraine:

 Belgian-Ukrainian joint venture "Vatra-Schreder", founded in 1990, is the oldest company of this state in Ukraine, has a factory in Ternopil (about 100 workers), produces lighting.

 company Bosal Group of Belgium - one of the world's leading manufacturers of car exhaust systems; created in 2006 with the joint venture Zaporizhzhya Motor Plant for the production of automotive exhaust systems.

 company Alers ( "Alers Logistic and Maritime Services") is engaged in providing logistics, working on the Ukrainian market for several years, has offices in Kharkiv, Kyiv and Odessa.

 Joint Ukrainian-Belgian company "Mazhik", located in Odessa; main activity - retail sale of pharmaceutical products.

 French-Belgian-Dutch banking and insurance group BNP Paribas, Fortis; acquired in 2006 for 7.6 million euros Ukrainian insurance company "Standard Life", whose share in the Ukrainian insurance market is 5.2%.

 ING Bank in 1994 opened an office in Kyiv in December 1997 - registered as a bank with 100% foreign capital; commenced banking operations April 3, 1998, but because of the crisis in 2008 decided to reduce its activities in Ukraine.

 "Meleksis" - the manufacturer of semiconductor integrated circuits for automotive and consumer electronics, has a subsidiary in Ukraine "Mazhi" - "Country"; involved in the production of more than 70 employees.

 Since 2006 in Kharkiv was established company with Belgian investments "JSC Periprotect", which is engaged in distribution and installation of security systems production facilities from leading manufacturers, such as "Betafence" (Belgium), "Beninca" (Italy), "Cominfo" (Czech Republic), "Gallaghereurope" (The Netherlands). The company also has offices in Odessa and Kiev. In 2007 signed a contract to participate in the preparation of Ukrainian sports facilities, including the stadium in Odessa for Euro 2012.

 Since 2000 in Kiev is a Belgian company "Kvadroks", which manufactures CCTV systems and software for them to retailers (supermarkets, gas stations), traffic management, in the medical field.

 "SUN InBev Ukraine" is the undisputed leader of the Ukrainian beer market in 2000, a subsidiary of the largest international brewing company Anheuser-Busch InBev; comprises three breweries: Chernigov ("Desna"), Kharkiv ("Rogan") and Nicholas ("Amber") branch of "SUN InBev" country (international brewing corporation "AB InBev"). Part of Belgian investments present in the insurance companies "AXA Ukraine" and "Standar".

Prospective investment projects: the Belgian company Euro Immo Star (100% of shares are state) is studying the possibility of investing in Ukraine modern rail terminal and logistics center (about 30 million euros). Belgian company BSA International (consisting Lactalis Group) received permission to acquire a controlling stake of "Milk House 1" in Pavlohrad (Dnipropetrovsk region), Ltd. "Milk House 2" in Gnivan (Vinnytsia region) and LLC "Sakura" (Dnipropetrovsk).

The priority tasks of economic diplomacy in Belgium and other countries is the promotion of Ukrainian export market of the country perebuvannya1. Given the need to reduce the negative foreign trade balance of Ukraine should pay attention to the promotion, which is positive for the balance of bilateral trade. In this example, Belgium seeds and oleaginous fruits (rape - a group of 12 for NB) with a volume of 137.7 million euros on the results of 2009, which is almost entirely exported from Ukraine to Belgium. However, considering the long-term negative impact of this culture on the quality of soil, further development of these exports require further examination and approval of the Ministry of Agrarian Policy of Ukraine.

The perspective is to promote exports from Ukraine of steel products, the supply of which in Belgium increased significantly. Positive group added such products as ready to wear with a positive balance. In more than 53% increase in shipments from Ukraine to Belgium by-products of the food industry with a share of 3.6% of exports and a positive trade balance for Ukraine at 5.3 million euros.

Requires activation exports of wood and wood products, which is 5.2% of exports with a positive balance of 8.9 million euros. At 78% the export of 26: ores, slag and ash - the surplus of 5 million euros. Active rapidly developing export of 63, other made up textile articles, sets, recycled where growth was 78.3% with a positive balance of 2.9 million euros. Demand notes Ukrainian exports to Belgium Chapter 84: Nuclear reactors, boilers, machinery, apparatus and mechanical appliances, parts thereof; and Chapter 90, optical instruments, precision machines and instruments, including medical-surgical, had growth (data from 2009), respectively, 3.6% and 32.9%.

However, there are also negative indicators on imports to Ukraine. This applies primarily pharmaceutical products (Chapter 30), which is 14.7% of Ukrainian import from Belgium to Ukraine with a negative balance of 54.6 million euros. True, Ukrainian exports to Belgium this production increased in 2008 by 5 times, accounting for 0.732 million euros, but its share remained at 0.3%. The important part of Ukrainian imports are engineering products (groups 84, 85, 87 and 90): the negative balance of 105.8 million euros in total.

The practice of Ukrainian diplomats in the economic field confirms that most proposals for Ukrainian exports insufficiently processed and readied requiring appropriate development and implementation of common forms of export applications Ukrainian producers.

Important moment in export work is promotion of domestic products, especially at exhibitions. As an example the experience of care Ukrainian diplomats in the presentation of Ukrainian wine industry in the annual exhibition "Wine and tastes" in Dinan (7-9 May 2010). The exhibition were attended by about 100 Ukrainian enterprises - producers and wine-alcoholic beverages, meat, dairy, confectionery and brewery products. At the annual awards ceremony of awarding the International Institute of taste Ukrainian production company "Nemiroff" (vodka Nemiroff LEX Ultra) received a silver award. From March 2009 production of "Nemiroff" is represented in Belgium trade chain Makro/Metro Cash&Carry. As a result of agreements with Belgian farmers there was presentation of Ukrainian agro-industrial potential at the international agricultural salon "Agribex" in Brussels (December 2009) and others.

On the eve of Euro 2012 special emphasis diplomatic missions of Ukraine has focused on attracting foreign institutions and business organizations to implement projects in preparation of Ukraine to European football. In particular, Euro 2012 was the topic of discussion of the President of Ukraine Victor Yushchenko with Belgian entrepreneurs (16 October 2010). The issue of Euro 2012 were devoted several presentations prepared by the cities of Ghent and Courtrai. Within the framework of projects involving Euro 2012 Embassy provided assistance in carrying out visits to the Ukraine the business delegations and more. This Representatives of foreign investment projects encouraged not only in the sports field but also in other, aerospace, energy, energy, transport and tourism. Belgian companies also showed a strong interest and participation in economic projects within the framework of Ukraine's preparations for the finals of the European Football Championship 2012. In particular, the Belgian technology in the field of sports infrastructure were involved in the construction of a number of stadiums in Ukraine (Donetsk, Kharkiv, Kyiv) and carrying out some work on the arrangement of adjacent areas.

Within the framework of technical assistance to Ukraine by the example of Belgium important to develop joint projects funded by the government of the Flemish region ("Flemish Projects"). As a result of active work of the Embassy of Ukraine was received approval for funding six projects worth 432 thousand euros (2009). In the context of agreements with the Prime Minister of Belgium in the autumn of 2008, making the 1st meeting of the Joint Intergovernmental Commission (31 October 2008) and the provisions of the roadmap of bilateral relations between the renewed cooperation of arms now "FN Herstal" (c. Liege ) and Lugansk cartridge plant. Belgian companies were involved in the aircraft building projects; resume cooperation with Ukraine coke now "RÜTGERS Belgium", which was to invest in building its own production in Ukraine. Granted assistance for cooperation in the textile industry ("NeTTex"); initiated cooperation with STC "IMEC" (m. Leuven) in the field of nanotechnology and more.

Given the energy needs of Ukraine, great attention pays to developing cooperation in the field of energy, particularly renewable energy. Being considered several proposals for construction in Ukraine wind power and setting up joint production of solar cells for industrial and domestic use; Drawing heat-generating technologies (Belgian company "Shecco"), expansion of cooperation in the field of nuclear energy. In particular, Belgium confirmed its decision to grant Ukraine Chernobyl fund of 1 million 194 thousand. 540 euros.

Initiated development of the draft intermodal transport between Ukraine and Belgium. Provided an annual exchange of licenses for transportation under the bilateral Agreement on the motor connections and so on. There is close cooperation between ports. In Antwerp Port Training Centre only in 2009 Ukrainian experts probation 15 ports. In the framework of regional cooperation during a visit by the President of Ukraine Odessa city leaders Antwerp and Antwerp ports signed a memorandum of cooperation between the two ports. An agreement on the establishment and development of cooperation between other ports of Ghent - Mykolaiv, Ostend - Sevastopol, Liege - Dnepropetrovsk, Zeebryuhhe - Illichivsk.

Considerable interest within the economic diplomacy is also working with the local Chamber of Commerce (hereinafter - CCI) and export-investment agencies. This collaboration with the Chamber of Commerce "Benelux - CIS" with regional export and investment agencies of Belgium: AWEX, FIT and "Brussels-Export" and the economic agency "Eno developman" Walloon province of Hainaut. The project started production of business information bulletin "Flesh Letter Ukraine".

The legal basis for military cooperation is a framework agreement between the Ministries of Defence, signed in February 2002 during a visit to the Belgian Minister of Defense of Ukraine. Military cooperation is based on annual programs containing concrete measures of cooperation between different types and families of the Armed Forces, education and training, visits at the level of defense ministries and general staffs of the armed forces of the two countries.

An important component of diplomatic activity is the deployment of host countries in scientific and technical cooperation (NTS). Some interest in this plan have the ability Belgian side, as you know, the Belgian international research spent 7% FS budget emergency countries or about 513 million euros. Recall that the Ukrainian researchers involved in joint research with the European Union, from 1991 48 specialists from Ukraine got the scholarship (second after Russia among the countries of the former Soviet Union). NTS develops mainly within the decentralized (direct) relations, including the Royal Museum of History and Art Belgian Institute of Archaeology NAS of Ukraine and Lviv branch of the Museum of Archaeology NAS of Ukraine. Active cooperation with the city administration. Antwerp on the organization of the participation of Ukrainian specialists in international seminars Antwerp Port Training Center with the financial support of the Flemish parties. Since 2000 this training were more than 100 experts from 10 Ukrainian Ukrainian ports and the Ministry of Transport.

Cooperation in the cultural sphere based on the provisions of the Treaty of Understanding and Cooperation between Ukraine and the Kingdom of Belgium, its regions and communities of April 1997, which entered into force in December 2000. The main directions of cooperation in 2013 focused on further deepening of direct bilateral contacts, organizing art shows and promoting the participation of Ukrainian artists in cultural events held in Belgium. In 2013 State Archive Service of Ukraine and the State Archives of Belgium signed an agreement on cooperation. The parties agreed to provide employees free access to public archival documents, as well as supporting both published and unpublished information, which will cover the topics of their research.

Attract attention to achievements in science and technology between Ukraine and Luxembourg based on an agreement between the Government of Ukraine and the Government of the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg on Cooperation in Culture, Education, Science, Youth, Sport and Tourism on December 2, 1994 In order to implement the agreements parties drafted a cooperation program for 2009-2011. Diplomatic Mission of Ukraine has established appropriate dialogue with experts the world famous telecom company ASTRA, which owns a network of 16 satellites. At the same time contributed to establishing contacts National Research Fund of Luxembourg (NED) from Odessa National University named by I. Mechnikov.

There is special development in cooperation at the interregional level received by the establishment of direct contacts between the provinces of Luxembourg and Cherkassy region of Ukraine, which signed a cooperation agreement (17 June 2009); Agreement on cooperation signed as Ukraine Poltava region and Eno province (April 28, 2009, m. Mons). Under this agreement, the parties agreed to cooperate in economic, scientific, educational, cultural and other spheres. Informing readers about the activities of Ukrainian diplomats would be incomplete without mention of the work in the humanitarian and cultural spheres. Thus, among the significant events Ukrainian presence in the Kingdom of Belgium only in 2008 - of the Ukrainian community in a series of information events: the 22th anniversary of the tragedy at Chernobyl, the celebration of the Day of Ukraine, the 90th anniversary of the feat heroes of Kruty, 194 anniversary birthday of Taras Shevchenko, etc.

Ukrainians in Belgium. Before World War in Belgium lived small number of Ukrainian - workers and students have created in. Liege first Ukrainian organization. During the Second World War, most Ukrainian left the territory of Belgium. In 1945 the latter moved from Germany about 2 thousand. Ukrainian exported there for forced labor. In 1947 the number of Ukrainian increased to 10 thousand. By persons who, while in the camps for displaced persons, signed contracts to work in Belgium for two years. After the expiration of these contracts a significant portion returned to Germany or traveled to the US and Canada.

Today in Belgium, according to official data resides about 4.5 thousand people who have Ukrainian citizenship. Most of them live in cities of Ghent, Liege and Brussels. For years stay in Belgium Ukrainian organizations have gained considerable experience of public and artistic activities aimed at preserving cultural identity by promoting Ukrainian folklore, Ukrainian history and language, which helped to preserve their national and ethnic identity. Established in 1945 Ukrainian Relief Committee Belgium had 26 branches and 3 village, more than 4 thousand. Members, about 10 choirs and theater and dance groups. Belgian-Ukrainian Choir. Shevchenko, vocal-instrumental bands "Dawn" and "Jawor" contribute to the education of young Ukrainian. Medium and younger generations with dignity continues to Ukrainian traditions. Since 1966 in the Ardennes established Ukrainian Center Frankopole. The center of education and entertainment that takes young Ukrainian from different countries of Western Europe, is an ideal place for living and learning, sports and cultural events. Today, traditional Ukrainian of Belgium actively collaborate with the new Ukrainian diaspora.


1. See. Official website of the Foreign Ministry of Ukraine. Embassy of Ukraine in the Kingdom of Belgium. - Access: belgium.mfa.gov.ua/ua/<wbr>ukraine-be/trade

2. See .: Embassy of Ukraine in the Kingdom of Belgium and the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg (non-resident). - Access: belgium.mfa.gov. ua/ua/press-center/news/30950-<wbr>posol-ukrajini-v-korolivstvi-<wbr>belygija-igor-dolgov-ta-<wbr>predstavnik-ukrajini-pri-jes-<wbr>kostyantin-jelisejev-<wbr>zdijsnili-pokladanya-kvitiv-<wbr>bilya-memorialynoji-doshki-<wbr>prisvyachenoji-pochatku-<wbr>ukrajinsykoji-diplomatiji.

3. See .: www.ukrexport.gov.ua/<wbr>ukr/torg_econ_vidn/blg/3454.<wbr>html

4. Embassy of Ukraine in the Kingdom of Belgium is also responsible for cooperation with the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg.

5. Ukrainian diplomats have made significant efforts in developing friendly relations with Ukrainian Belgium, providing them with assistance and support. - See .: /www.mfa.gov.ua/<wbr>belgium/ua/8514.htm/.

Chernobyl-1986: updating semantic codes in memory space

Alla Kyrydon


Chernobyl-1986 has become one of the greatest environmental disasters in our time terms. The discourse of memory evidence that "Chernobyl" of the real historical events gradually turned into a word-symbol or symbolic event categories. It's associated with various socio-cultural and political meanings.

Keywords: Chernobyl, cultural memory, an event, the symbolic category, cultural meanings.

The thirtieth anniversary of the Chernobyl accident and the fifth anniversary of the accident at Japanese plant "Fukushima-1" on March 11, 2011 marked in 2016. They are the largest nuclear disasters at nuclear power plants. The accident in Ukraine on the night of 25 to 26 April 1986 was one of the greatest environmental disasters. As a result of the explosion of the fourth power unit of NPP held an unprecedented release of radiation into the environment, which is several million times the radioactive contamination, formed after the famous at the time of accidents at nuclear facilities: the explosion at the plant "Mayak" (Chelyabinsk region of the USSR, 29 September 1957), a fire at the plant "Vinksdeyl" (United Kingdom, 10 October 1957), melting reactor core nuclear power plant "Three Mile Island" (USA, 28 March 1979). Ukraine suffered the greatest technological catastrophe in history. More than 8% of our territory affected by direct radiation officially affected about 3 million people. Emergency emissions settled in large parts of the territories of the Russian Federation and Belarus. Chernobyl should be touched almost the entire northwestern Europe, North Africa, Japan and even reached Canada.

The Chernobyl disaster was a shock and a tragedy not only because of man-made disasters - but also through the concealment of information about the real danger of the situation at Chernobyl and around it. Only after the Scandinavian countries have found an increased background radiation, the Soviet leadership recognized the fact of "accident" at Chernobyl. "What is really the explosion of the reactor there was a maximum design accident; people in Western Europe have learned a few weeks. In the Soviet Union passed away about three years before it was made public data on the true scale of the disaster, and in newspapers published maps of contaminated areas. That is why the response was different"- emphasizes the analyst Astrid Zam [1].

Then update the collective imagination meanings of Chernobyl due to temporal, local, political, social, international, security and other factors. Note also that the further we move away from this event, the less it resonates, weaker becomes the "concern" of society, but "Shadow of Chernobyl" always present. At the same time, we should recognize the fact that in Ukraine decline concern Chernobyl problems associated with not successful policy to overcome, and exit at the forefront of other important social issues.

Memories of the tragic events of thirty years ago give rise to variability models and interpretational schemes. Cultural forms are formatted at the intersection of the last traditional Soviet, modern, postmodern and, to some extent, postpostmodernoyi cultural forms (which include, in particular, "Postchernobyl"). It should take into account the presence of a certain exposure to individual representation and the corresponding socio-cultural expectations of such important variables as age, residence, education and aesthetic preferences, taking the assumption their decisive influence on the processes of personal sensoutvorennya and inculturation in a given situation violation stable channels broadcast semantic codes [2, p. 45].

Under the concept of French sociologist M. Halbwachs collective memory provides significant mizhpokolinnyevu broadcast group knowledge about the past. Endurance time of collective memory depends on the effectiveness of its efforts to maintain this memory (kommemoratsiynyh practices), and the contents of this memory may vary due to changes in prevailing ideologies. In the collective memory "historical figures and events are transformed into characters appeared and values ​​..." [3, c. 52, 100]. Collective memory uvyraznyuyetsya through the continuum of meanings, symbols, rituals and so on. At the same time cultural meanings (as a kind of symbolic codes of cultural memory) is a philosophical construct, reflecting the structure of value-semantic representations of the individual / society, and embody the ideals broadcast era.

In today's terms, we can say that "Chernobyl" of real historical events gradually become a word-symbol symbolic event categories, it is associated with various socio-cultural and political meanings.

A researcher Ya.Yakovleva gives five traditional images of Chernobyl tragedy that radically function in Ukrainian cultural sphere "of Chornobyl" time [4]:

1) Informative;

2) Aesthetic and poetic;

3) Social;

4) Semiotically-mythological;

5) Apocalyptic.

In our view, we can say quite branched (though interrelated) space real and symbolic meanings of "Chernobyl":

- Man-made disasters, which catalyzed a lively discussion of the problems of atomic energy. In the public debate around the disaster was an argument for abandoning the use of nuclear energy, as decided by referendum in Italy (November, 1987). In Germany, in response to the Chernobyl disaster was created by the Federal Ministry of Environment, Nature Conservation and Nuclear Safety, and the formal decision to abandon nuclear energy was adopted in 1998. In France, the use of nuclear energy in public order is not placed in doubt, while Sweden and Switzerland Chernobyl was another argument in the heated debate over the use of nuclear energy.

- "Chernobyl" as the apocalypse. Military Front Desk accident and revival of apocalyptic visions of nuclear war, nuclear actualization of discourse. In this tragedy of the Soviet people associated with World War II. In Germany, where the spread strong anti-nuclear movement, disaster perceived as a confirmation and fear associated with future risk of global technological society. Canned food stores were sold out, crops destroyed, dug a sandbox, children forbidden to walk on the streets to reduce radiation dose. Although the German public reaction to the Chernobyl catastrophe, perhaps, was the strongest and the fallout if stopped on the border with France, this event in other Western European countries has caused public concern and an occasion for public safety measures. For example, in Sweden, subject to the destruction of hundreds of tonnes of reindeer meat in England, Wales and Scotland for another 20 years after the disaster on several hundred farms maintained a ban on the slaughter of sheep and so on. However, distinct differences in the perception of the Chernobyl disaster East and West, already during the first meetings in 1988 and 1989 under the so-called public diplomacy revealed that the accident has caused people around the same fears and anxiety (especially on health I have children).

- Chernobyl zone as a place of memory. Recall that the fullest concept of "places of memory" developed by French researcher P. Nora. He treated them not from the standpoint of spatial, geographical and historical determinism, and quite well, as certain segments of the cultural space where memory crystallizes, concentrated, preserved. "Places of Memory" - a "people, events, objects, buildings, traditions, legends, geographical locations, which are surrounded by a special symbolic aura. Their role is primarily symbolic, is a reminder of the past that fills the meaning of life in the present." Value, meaning and emotional content formats suitable places of memory development contexts collective/national identity. Note that the symbolic value of places of memory temporally addicts.

- Chernobyl tragedy as a social and cultural phenomenon. The closed area as suspended nuclear plant surfaced with concrete, called "sarcophagus" over the destroyed reactor of the third block is now used commercially as a tourist attraction. The origin of innovation "Chernobyl aesthetics." Thus, considering the nature of Yakovlev deviation Chernobyl, Chernobyl vandalism in the context of post-Soviet crisis of morality, noting that "Chernobyl vandalism" is also the demonstrative example, firstly, the destruction of the moral attitudes of the USSR, and secondly, tumors national narrative Ukraine. As for the actual "Chernobyl vandalism" probably should result, at first, thought A. Goldstein, which provides incentives of dominant vandalnyh action forethought, destructiveness and assertion of ownership of the destroyed facility ;, secondly, to mention some positions experimental aesthetics B. Alain and D. Greenberger, who view the phenomenon of vandalism as a process that brings aesthetic pleasure.

- Chernobyl tragedy as a cultural trauma. Postchernobyl time showed persistent violations of broadcast channels semantic codes pam'yattyevoho discourse. Overall, the researchers emphasize that it is the cultural change is the most travmohennoyu where traumatic situation destroys "the cultural fabric of society" and, like all cultural phenomena, the strongest momentum there longer than other types of injuries, sometimes generations is preserved in the collective memory occasionally manifesting themselves. In this context, it should focus on the fact that the cultural trauma of the Chernobyl accident, in turn, has generated posttraumatic phenomenon of "loss" and "victims" who have found themselves in a axiological reflections on the changes in social identities of citizens of Ukraine [2, . 49].

- "Chernobyl" as array of modern catastrophic consciousness. As she Chernobyl disaster, and it generated postkatastrofni contributed to the steep break their traditional way of life, values ​​and everyday behavior. Studies show that there is deepening dissatisfaction of people, almost all aspects of life and work, growing distrust of the authorities and lack of faith in their ability to effectively overcome the negative effects of radioactive pollution associated with the exacerbation of social tensions. One of the biggest problems that caused the Chernobyl confidence in the region is "excess pessimism". "Chernobyl disaster victims still perceived as a personal tragedy, solid crash - world view, lifestyle, life plans, - stated almost a decade after the accident sociologist Yu. Sayenko, fixing appearance of special" community doomed" - 90% of these people are focused only on their own health and the health of their children and loved ones."

We also note that in connection with the accident contaminated areas experienced population than radiation, exposure to other negative factors, among which are prolonged emotional stress (stress), disruption diet restrictions associated with radiation environment and so on. According to the annual clinical examination in the first decade postavariyne persons who were deemed healthy adult contaminated areas declined by half, and 87% of people of working age rated their health as poor [5, p. 125].

- "Political Chernobyl". For example, in France, this metaphorical expression used in connection with electoral success of Martin Le Pen.

- The Chernobyl accident as a catalyst for the collapse and the turning point of the Soviet system, but also light new configuration of Europe. Jean Baudrillard uvyraznyv role of the Chernobyl disaster in the new configuration of Europe. First Chernobyl explosion meant an explosion inside of the Soviet system, that it undermined faith in modernization in socialism that for over half a century, carried out by overexploitation of mind and physical human force and violence against individual freedom, nations, sexes, social status, culture. According to Western researchers, the Chernobyl disaster occurred at a time when the break finally matured minds of the totalitarian system of the former Soviet society.

- Chernobyl as the starting point of a new era/epoch. French philosopher Paul Virilio asks: "Why Chernobyl experience casts doubt on our view of the world?" Philosophers in the West are trying to find an explanation for the changes that have brought tragedy. Frederick Lemarshand thinking about this: "It seems that we are facing the emergence of a new world. (...) The world that emerged from Chernobyl, conceives another era, an era of narrowing the inhabited world, the era of the world, regresses, world, formed a technical "progress", originally nuclear, and later - and the genetic manipulation and living beings."

- Topos "spiritual Chernobyl" crystallized through victimization events and history. Generation of representation of collective and individual experience formed in conditions too difficult content object disaster, lack of perceptual orientation and deploy reliable information. So people did not exist neither cognitive nor figurative representations of the consequences of the accident, which could be built productive behaviors [4]. This led to the formation of several behavioral strategies. This is an important consideration that even a single traumatic experience can affect ideological beliefs. Traumatic experiences, which people suffered for centuries, inevitably affects the outlook of the media culture.

- The Chernobyl accident takes consolidation a peculiar role in the Ukraine and Belarus; the appearance of special "community doomed." Recall that among the functions of collective memory - defining group identity, as the collective memory captures and transmits / transfers of value and important group behavior patterns. This is typical for the collective memory "exclusion from it everything that contaminates crisp black and white image" [3, p. 53, 100].

- Chernobyl as a time of being new situation and new ways to describe. Chernobyl explosion also marked an era when information symbolic signs are virtual items on reality itself - which is why pislyapostmodernu day is so painful reality and return values ​​of the body, biographies, history. The origin naratyvizatsiyi national identity (nationalization disasters - traumatic events). In general, you can listen to the arguments Mark Anderson, who stressed that "catastrophe stimulate rethinking and modification of individual, local, national and collective narratives that give social and political life values."

We believe that the formation of meanings "Chernobyl" conditionally divided into several periods temporally addicts. Distance time horizon of the change in the hierarchy of values ​​and character interpret meanings event. Skorelyuyemo a statement of reasons Yu Shvalb theory on stress. The researcher notes that can not be seen as consequences of the Chernobyl disaster in constant time. In terms of the perception of the public, the radiation accident and radiation have a number of features, which respectively resulted svidomisnyy cut its perception in the 1986-1988 biennium. In a real stressful situation and further mythologizing consciousness. So mistakenly regarded multifaceted effects of the event and its one-dimensional representations or the theory of stress. The latter works well only in the first phase after the accident - two or three years when people need direct psychological assistance and support in stressful situations. The second stage involves the adaptation of people to new conditions of life. In this strategy should be based on psychological support, information and methodologies. The third phase - to develop compensatory reactions and behaviors in new conditions. The strategy should be aimed at restoring the minimum required level and quality of life. And finally, the fourth stage is connected with the need to restore their traditional way of life.

Thus estimated semantic-scale of events evolved. In particular, dealt with the tragic events of the Chernobyl nuclear power plant as the embodiment of progress and advanced scientific technology after them - the "accident", "tragedy", comparing them with nuclear war. A few years later began to speak of "the Chernobyl disaster." As noted by T. Hundorova "tragedy" and "catastrophe" have different connotations and different types of programming discourses. The concept of "Chernobyl Tragedy" mostly dominated during Soviet times, but it happens now and in the journalistic discourse and mass consumption. Instead, the West dominates comparison of the Chernobyl disaster and catastrophe in that incarnation of this event is included in the European culture of memory. This perception extends in modern Ukraine. Understanding the events of the early 2000s is due to the concept of "cultural trauma".

Because the collective memory related to the scope of the senses, according to the collective memory of the Chernobyl outlines the events are updated in the memorable anniversary, and still largely associated with the contamination, disease and so on. One reason for this decline anxiety is to strengthen adaptive processes and "addictive" and then "nepomichannya." Another reason is the "mechanism of repression": the rapid development of perestroika processes and real size and substance catastrophe rapid advance by independence, a number of events of the first decade of the XXI century. Ultimately - the Russian-Ukrainian war. So strong stressful situation Chornobyl suffered a kind of "substitution" real events, equally strong emotionally. However, "Chernobyl" has become one of the structural component of the identity of society.

As noted A. Zam, the use of "Chernobyl" as a metaphor, and rethinking in different mass media shows that he was part of a strong memory. The anniversary of the Chernobyl disaster not only catalyzes the space of memories, but also leads to a deep understanding of various segments of the event.


1. Zam A. Chernobyl disaster in the context of the European culture of memory // Crossroads. Magazine study Eastern Borderland. - 2010. - № 1-2. - S.131-147; Deputy Astrid. How to remember the Chernobyl disaster in Belarus and Europe [Electron resource]. - Access mode: n-europe.eu/topics/<wbr>2011/04/08/kak_vspominayut_<wbr>chernobylskuyu_katastrofu_v_<wbr>belarusi_i_evrope

2. Ya. Yakovleva Chernobyl tragedy as a "cultural trauma" of Ukraine// Anthropological dimensions of philosophical studies, 2014. - Vol. 6. - P. 43-53.

3. Shatska B. Past - memory - myth. - Chernivtsi: Books XXI, 2011. - 248 p.

4. Shvalb Yu. Dynamics of social and psychological status of people in communities affected by the Chernobyl disaster (residents of the contaminated areas evacuated settlers)//Intern. nauk. and practical. Workshop "Psychological Aspects of overcoming the consequences of large-scale accidents and disasters. The experience of Chernobyl and Fukushima "(December 9, 2013, m. Kyiv). - [Electronic resource]. - Access: www.niss.gov.ua/public/<wbr>File/2013_table/1209_Shvalb.<wbr>pdf

5. Baranovska N.P. The impact of the Chernobyl disaster on the transformation processes in society (to the 25th anniversary of the tragic events)//Ukr. East. Zh. - 2011. - №2. - S. 123-142.

Britain in the European political integration: the historical origins of the "special" position and nowadays

(70 anniversary speeches of Winston Churchill in Fulton and Zurich)

Andriy Grubinko


The article research of UK participation in European integration process in historical perspective with analysis the contemporary condition of country's relations with the European Union, current policy of the British government is presented. The role of Great Britain in European political integration from the post-war period to the present is considered.

Keywords: the United Kingdom, European political integration, the EU, Winston Churchill, David Cameron.

European Community in today's complex and unpredictable international realities is experiencing one of the most difficult periods in its history. This, along with external challenges are many unresolved internal problems, among them - the continued participation of Great Britain. As a result of coming to power in 2010 the Conservatives led by David Cameron dream yevroskeptychno minded majority of British political elites to review the conditions of the country's membership in the European Union has become an end in itself policy of the ruling party. After defeating the Conservatives in the general election to the House of Commons on May 7, 2015 D. Cameron confirmed the election pledge to hold a nationwide referendum on EU membership. The decision of the summit of the European Council of 19 February 2016, which recorded the results of a compromise agreement between Britain and the Community has not completed several years of political epic that the press got a good name "Brexit" (British exit). Inspired by the results of negotiations premier declared the referendum on June 23, 2016. To this end, a consensus emerged in the political circles of the country. Eventually it became a matter of honor and political future of the head of government and the ruling Conservative Party.

European policy of the current government of the United Kingdom has a strong historical background, based on cultural, mental, social, political and state-legal traditions, including the tradition of foreign policy, which tried to follow all British governments from the mid-twentieth century. It is important to investigate the origins of the "special" position of the country to participate in European integration, in particular its political dimension (foreign and security policy), which date back to the first decades after World War II. This is a good opportunity for this, because 2016 is the 70th anniversary of the proclamation of the Winston Churchill of his most famous speech in Fulton (USA) and Zurich (Switzerland), the contents of which laid the conceptual foundations of modern foreign policy of Great Britain.

The issue of participation of Great Britain in the European integration is well covered in publications modern Western scholars. In domestic science virtually no analysis of current European policy of the British government. In general, historiography lacks comparative studies of historical sources and prerequisites of modern relations between Great Britain and the EU, prognostic assessments effects withdrawal from the union.

After World War II the main objective of British diplomacy was to preserve the country's position as a world power and leadership in Western Europe in the formation of new global centers of influence the United States and the Soviet Union. The participation of the country in the war as a part of three leading anti-fascist allies Government provided additional arguments to justify the global role of the United Kingdom would have prevented accession to regional organizations [1, p. 57]. Local politicians aware of the economic and military weakness and dependence on US support. Distancing from direct participation in the European Union enabled Britain to perform the role of a bridge between Europe and the United States.

During the war and post-war decades leading ideologue foreign policy is rightly recognize Winston Churchill. In a series of historic speeches that have global resonance, policies developed his ideas on the post-war global and regional political structure of European unification and the international role of the UK. In a speech on March 5, 1946 at Westminster College, Fulton British American figure among the problems of world politics has identified the main trends of Europe at least until the end of the "Cold War": the division of Europe into Western and Eastern ideological and military-political Iron Curtain; the need to create "a new, united Europe" (dealt with the Western Europe) as a prerequisite for postwar peace and security with the possibility of joining other European nations; rejection of the doctrine of the balance of power and transition to a Western policy of international alliances. European unification had become a means of opposition to communism on a regional scale. However, the emphasis on the need speaker "fraternal union of English-speaking countries" on both sides of the Atlantic showed superiority of British-American relations in the UK's foreign policy. The new global security space for autonomous regional European security was not. European partners have offered to join the British-American military alliance [2].

In a speech in Zurich on September 19 of that year, Churchill elaborated on a project "European unification" aktualizuvavshy its long-standing commitment to the concept of a "United States of Europe" as a guarantor of peace and security in the region and the world, which was scheduled for promote Britain, but without its direct involvement. Britain, with its Commonwealth nations and other major powers (US, USSR), was to promote the association to become his "friend and patron," but not part of the participants. At the heart of the "European family" had become a Franco-German alliance. British politician urged to accelerate the formation of this association and to promote the gradual accession by a wider range of countries. [3]

In the postwar decades, representatives of regional political elites hoped to launch political integration alongside economic. The growth of bloc confrontation and American aid intensified the integration movement in Western Europe. The political and financial circles of Britain opposed the unification of the continental countries, fearing the loss of economic independence and the elimination of trade preferences with countries of the British Commonwealth of Nations. Under such conditions was the logical next historic speech Winston Churchill Conservative Party conference in Llandudno (October 1948). The politician made the right prediction that in the future the kingdom will be at the intersection of three spheres of influence - the British Commonwealth, the United States and United Europe [4]. Over time the scheme was transformed, and the late 1960s, Europe has established itself as a "concentration zone" British international interest while maintaining the primacy of British-American relations. British rulers developed a specific strategy for participation in European integration, which makes it possible to balance domestic political interests and international interests of the state and the interests of communitarian cooperation within the Community.

Trying to seize the initiative supporters of European federalism, to ensure the UK leadership in the region in the postwar years, London made a major bet on the establishment of the Brussels Treaty (1948), which became the first historically in Western Europe multilateral interstate integration associations. Its creation in the interests of the United States that were able to control the further process of European integration. The failure of the Anglo-French agreement Dyunkerskoho 1947, projects of the European Defence Union and European Political Union in 1954 were the result of official reluctance to London to participate directly in the development of independent European integration structures with elements of supranational governance. It is worth to recall Winston Churchill article published in the weekly "Saturday Evening Post" in 1930, where the following words: "We have our own dream and our own task. We are with Europe but not of it. ... We are interested and associated but not absorbed "[5, p. 15]. The basic rate was made dependent on NATO Western European Union in which the United Kingdom has taken a leading role. The idea of ​​European political union was postponed to more favorable times. In 1950 the British government effectively ignored the attempts of Europeans to establish integration mechanisms. The policy for some time prevented them from prospective epicenter of integration processes in Western Europe. London overestimated its international influence that showed the Suez crisis in 1956 and the complex process of accession to the EEC in 60-70 years.

During these periods of Great Britain in the European integration process, even after joining the EEC in 1973, there was a certain distancing the country from continental unification process and have their own, often different from the continental partner strategy that gave grounds to determine unofficial status in EEC as "awkward partner" [6, p. 350]. London tried to use its international political and military capabilities as the main argument influence the association in order to adapt it to their needs and interests. However, the delay was given effect. The country had to win a place in the European community of states cohort. Attempts to actively participate in the mechanism of European political integration (ENP), established in 1970, was intended to realize the international ambitions of the country, to compensate for limited participation in other areas of integration, to ensure its development at the international level. Benefits intensification ENP appreciated even Margaret Thatcher, who conducted a tough confrontational line in relations with the EEC. However, even the "Iron Lady" that became known as the leader of euroscepticism not supposed possibility of withdrawal from the European Union.

After the creation of the EU and its Common Foreign and Security Policy (CFSP) strategic imperatives of foreign policy of the United Kingdom have undergone significant changes. T. Blair's pro-European politician, including support for the Common Security and Defence Policy (CSDP) of the EU, was the response to the new conditions of international relations, the functioning of the European community and the transformation of US foreign policy, another project of strengthening the position of the UK in Europe.

The strategy of European government policy D. Cameron generally corresponds to the traditional policy of his predecessors. Certain European specificity is a tactic aimed at revising relations with Brussels in the direction of liberalization and decentralization communitarian standards, supplemented statements about the possibility of unilateral withdrawal from the association. In difficult times for the British Community management is usually keenly aware of the threat to national sovereignty and trying to avoid leading position in solving pressing problems of the European community, as in the postwar years, giving the initiative continental partners, especially France and Germany. Periodically re-appear a long tradition of "splendid isolation", which nostalgically subconsciously cherish British politicians. The Conservatives raised from the historical practice of Thatchers's era thesis about the need to return to the union of "Common Market" and decentralization of decision-making in the Community. The British made their first worry "special" American partners that the statements of government heads expressed concern European government policies D. Cameron.

In terms of political integration of traditionally British side is not satisfied primarily strengthen the powers of supranational institutions and the creation of a European army, an idea which is updated periodically in yevrochynovnytskyh offices since the late 1990s. It was in the United Kingdom CFSP objective remains the leader of the EU, both in terms of international status, diplomatic and military capabilities, the best among the member associations and in view of the practical logistical and personnel costs. Thus the existing functional paradox. The British government is an active participant in the process of forming a common EU position on the international scene, but one of the areas of appropriate budget cuts association is considered CFSP. During the summit the European Council on Security Policy in Brussels on December 20, 2013 D. Cameron said that London will block any initiative to create a European army and military resources of the EU, calling them "fantasies" [7].

The policy of the current government in terms of problems of European political integration and economic problems, the emergence of new threats to the security of Europe created uncertainty not only in the future of Great Britain in the EU as a key state in the field of foreign and security policy, but also reduces the chances of the Community on the development of an effective system of political influence internationally. As a result of the decision to withdraw from the European Union, the United Kingdom will be forced to leave CFSP mechanisms. It will put an end to the Anglo-American "special relationship" in their current form. The positions of the US and NATO in Europe diminished. The political system of the united Europe is undergoing significant imbalance.

At the same time, it can be argued that the problem was the manifestation of Britain's membership total EU political crisis, uncertainty further the development of the association as a "pooled sovereignty" or a federal superstate. However, today it is impossible to accurately predict what future awaits community because of possible withdrawal of the United Kingdom - more united Union and more disjoint groups of influence and interest areas of cooperation. The results of the referendum may have unpredictable consequences for Britain itself, society and politics, even the ruling Conservative Party, have unity on this issue. The country is going through difficult times transformations constitutional and political party systems, national and state identity, socio-economic changes that are among the main reasons for revision of relations with the EU [8, p. 15].

UK Agreement with the EU, achieved on February 18-19, 2016 at the summit of the European Council, provides benefits for the country migration, changes in the EU treaties on the non-use links to the country at the request of "greater unity" as a guarantee against further participation political integration, refusing to join the euro zone and the Schengen agreement, the right to participate in selective integration in the areas of justice, justice and social policy [9]. In fact, the field of foreign and security policy, which the agreement expressly states was the subject of bidding in the political game between yevroinstytutsiyamy and the British government. Neither increased powers of supranational EU institutions, much less create a European army, even in the medium term is impossible. The agreement officially recorded implementing the concept of "two-speed" integration. London voluntarily chose for himself the "second speed" confirming "special" position in the EU.

Announced referendum on membership in EU will be the second in the history of the United Kingdom. Like the first referendum in 1975, organized by the Labour government G. Wilson, whose results have confirmed the country's membership in the union referendum in 2016 will be rather a tactical tool of the government in the fight for trade and budgetary preferences veiled general statements about the impossibility of participating in enhanced political integration. However, the conditions of both referendums are not comparable due to the different levels of European integration and the involvement of the UK in these processes in the 1970s and 2010's. The contents of this agreement between Britain and the EU on 19 February 2016 confirms the importance for the Community and its Member States to preserve the United Kingdom in its composition. At the same time, he realizes premier high price out of the EU for local businesses and international position of the country, and therefore hastened to declare in advance that agitate voters for maintaining membership, calling out the EU "adventure age". [10]

In the political twists and turns around the British EU membership was a place Ukraine. Among the reasons why Britain should maintain membership in the EU, David Cameron called external threats, including Russian aggression in Ukraine. UK supports our country in this conflict for political and logistical levels as a supporter of European integration. However, a country from the EU to reduce its influence in Central and Eastern Europe, which in recent years greatly weakened by conflict with European partners on migration restrictions and increasing influence of Germany in the region. Uncertain position of the EU reduces the attractiveness of the UK as a key ally of Ukraine in Western Europe. Meanwhile, the British leadership is aware that internationally the first dividends from its exit of the country from the EU will Putin's Russia.

The current leadership of the United Kingdom, as Winston Churchill and political elite the postwar decades, sees his country at the epicenter Functioning of the European union and the strategic policy of distancing prefer. The whole saga around Britain's participation in the European Union demonstrates the historical continuity of the regional policy. D. Cameron Government desired compromise reached with the EU, probably because the UK remains in the Community. At least this is the necessary external conditions. However, after the expected referendum remain unresolved important historical question of European policy, "Britain finally in Europe or with Europe?"


1. Yakovenko N.L. United Kingdom in international organizations: Tutorial / N.L. Yakovenko. - K: Kyiv University, 2011. - 400 p.

2.​ Sinews of Peace, 1946 (Iron Curtain Speech) / National Churchill Museum. URL: https://www.<wbr>nationalchurchillmuseum.org/<wbr>sinews-of-peace-iron-curtain-<wbr>speech. html

3. ​ Winston Churchill, speech delivered at the University of Zurich, 19 September 1946 / Council of Europe. Documents and Archives. URL: https://www. coe.int/t/dgal/dit/ilcd/<wbr>Archives/selection/Churchill/<wbr>ZurichSpeech_en.asp

4.​ British Political Speech. Speech Archive. 1948. Winston Churchill (Conservative). URL: www.<wbr>britishpoliticalspeech.org/<wbr>speech-archive.htm =99

5.​ Larres K. Integrating Europe or Ending the Cold War?

Churchill's post-war foreign policy / K. Larres // Journal of European Integration History. - 1996. - Volume 2. - Number 1. - pp. 15-50.

6. M. Heffernen Meaning of Europe. Geography and Geopolitics / M. Heffernen; [Lane. from English.]. - K .: Spirit and Letter, 2011. - 464 p.

7.​ European Council December 2013: David Cameron's press conference. Brussels, 20 December 2013. URL: https://www.gov.uk/government/<wbr>speeches/ european-council-december-<wbr>2013-david-camerons-press-<wbr>conference

8. ​ Oliver T. A European Union Without the United kingdom. The Geopolitics of a British Exit From the EU / T. Oliver. - London: LSE Ideas, 2016. - 20 p.

9.​ European Council. Brussels, 19 February 2016 (OR. en). - CO EUR 1. - CONCL 1. - EUCO 1/16. - 36 p.

10.​ David Cameron: Brexit Would be "Gamble of the Century" // The Telegraph. - 2016. - 13 March.

"Another India": Kerala

Volodymyr Golovchenko


The article spotlights peculiarities of civilization, cultural-historical and political development of Kerala state, which on a number of social indicators is a leader in Republic of India. Also the factors that contributed to the emergence of perspective "Kerala's model" modernization of the country and to overcome negative effects of colonial rule and the policy of isolation from gaining the Indian independence were clarified.

Keywords: autarchy, economy, policy, reform, tolerance, government, state.

Despite urgent, but far from solving, the problem of India, such as: significant overcrowding (with an estimated demographers in July 2015 - 1.252 billion people, or 17.25% of the inhabitants of the planet in the territory, which is only 2.2% its land), environmental degradation, high poverty, high levels of corruption started in the 1990s. market reforms - resulted in the acquisition country the status of a regional and global power with nuclear and missile capabilities that reasonably claim to a permanent seat on the UN Security Council. The Republic of India has developed in an open market economy, although traces of previous policy of autarky ("Swadeshi movement") remaining. However, measures of economic liberalization, including industrial deregulation, privatization of public enterprises and reduction of government control over foreign trade and investment have provided annual GDP growth at 6-7%. According to volume, calculated at purchasing power parity (in 2015 - 8.027 trillion dollars.), India ranked third in the world (after China and the US), far ahead of Japan and reached gold reserves of 370.7 billion dollars. (7th place among 169 countries), although the first billion reserve has been accumulated only in 1991 [1].

In the public understanding of the fellow Asian giant "elephant" is influenced by experience gained after a visit to the Aryan North India (with its magnificent architectural monuments of Muslim dynasties and terrible infestation), or the white beaches of Goa. But there is another India - South, Dravidian ethnic groups that inhabited and fundamentally different from the rest of the country. Among the half-dozen states in the region stands Kerala - "land of coconuts", the local official language of Malayalam.

In edicts (inscriptions) famous emperor of ancient India - Ashoka the Great (304-232 years. BC) mentioned several times ruler named Kerala-bond. However, Medieval merchants and travelers mostly called this country, given its mountainous terrain, "the land of mountains": Byzantine merchant Cosmas Indicopleustes to visit South India in 522, wrote about the country Mala (in Malayalam - "hump"); Chinese monk Xuanzang, who traveled to the Indian subcontinent in 630-645 wrote about the country-Mole Kew-cha; Khorezm scholar and lexicographer Al-Biruni, who participated in the Indian campaigns of Sultan Mahmud of Ghazni in the 1017-1026, and Venetian merchant and traveler Marco Polo - the Melibar (in Farsi bār - land, beach). Folk etymology sometimes turned this place name in Manibar - "pepper coast" which mentioned the Persian historian and vizier Mongolian Ilkhanate in the 1298-1317 Rashid ad-Din, or simply - Malabar Coast.

One of the smallest in terms of area (38,852 km2) state Kerala, established November 1, 1956, took 12th place (among 36-of the Indian federation) of population (33,406,000 people according to the census 2011). Because population density (860 people per km2) there are almost 2.5 times more than the average in the country. However, the growth rate of population in Kerala are the lowest in India (three times lower than in the country), and it - the only state in India where more women (1084 women per 1,000 men). Natives of Kerala that are descendants of the ancient pre-Aryan population of India have the highest literacy rate in India - 93.91% and the longest life expectancy - 75 years for men and 78 years for women, about to that of Greece, Portugal or Romania. Thanks to a solid literacy workers keralski desired in the Arab states, especially in the UAE. Therefore, their remittances from abroad constitute a substantial part of state revenue and almost a quarter of its GDP, and workers return home after becoming the backbone of social stability in Kerala. Almost a fifth of adults keraltsiv get higher education, double the average in India and China an even powerful progressive, and women make up more than 60% of students and trainees, also the highest in the country. Only State University in the capital Tiruvanantapurami (one of the first 16 universities based in independent India) has 198 affiliated colleges enrolled 100 thousand students, and some colleges are located 140 km from the campus of the University. And established in 2008 autonomous Indian Institute of Science teaching and research in the same Tiruvanantapurami regarded as a leading national university.

It is believed that Kerala in terms of providing health care ahead of many states in the US and is a pure and "most healthy" state of India [2, pp. 120-121]. According to a study commissioned by Lien Foundation (a charitable organization based in Singapore), Kerala is considered the best place in India to provide state of palliative care for patients with serious illnesses. UN Children's Fund (UNICEF) and the World Health Organization (WHO) to mark the effective government policy to encourage breastfeeding infants admitted Kerala the world's first "country friendly to the child." Since the early 2000's. 95% of newborns came into the world in hospitals, and the state had the lowest infant mortality rate in India. For the third national survey of family health in 2005-2006 put Kerala in first place in "Institutional Delivery" 100% of births in health facilities.

Equally impressive are the achievements of the state in the field of the fight against poverty and the poverty of the population. Rural poverty in Kerala decreased from 59% in 1973-1974. To 12% in 1999-2010; total (urban and rural) poverty rate for 1970-2000's decreased by 47% compared to 29% of the country [3]. The state has the lowest percentage of homeless people in rural India - 0.04% and seeks to achieve its main goal - to become the first "state of zero homeless" (in addition to hands-free "project with zero landless") with the assistance of private organizations and foreign communities of immigrants Kerala, funding housing for homeless people. A low positions in the State hunger index, India is second only to Kerala Punjab. In 2015 she became the first "fully digitized state" due to the successful implementation of initiatives in e-governance. Then completed the entire telephones in rural areas of the state.

Especially impressive are the results of a survey conducted by Transparency International in 2005, when Kerala was the "least corrupt state in India." While it is clear that it is active keralski media that rapidly discuss internal events and processes that promote transparency and high enough (by Indian standards) level of integrity in state government. Is it because, as of 2014 Kerala received the highest in India Human Development Index (HDI) - 0.790, that in the category of "high" (more, say, than in Bulgaria, Malaysia or Serbia) and the highest in the country consumption ( based on HDI) - 0.920, which is better than in many developed countries [4].

Clearly, these impressive achievements would have been impossible without systemic social policy oriented state governments. The question of alleged political paradox: Kerala became the first country in the world (without taking into account the Apennine tiny enclave - the Republic of San Marino), where the Communists came to power in a peaceful democratic way for fair elections. Yes, April 5, 1957 the first state government headed by a local native - one of the founders of the Communist Party of India (after the split in 1964 - the leader of the Communist Party of India (Marxist), CPI (M)) Nambudiripad, which launched a sweeping land and educational reforms. It initiated Nambudiripadom "coconut communism" has provided almost continuous Kerala literacy, financial support for farmers, decentralization of power and resources, redistribution of income in favor of the poor, who turned to state the national leader for social reasons ( "keralska model"). Since then, in turn, depending on the results of parliamentary elections run led by CPI (M) Left Democratic Front and the Indian National Congress. However, the focus of domestic policy Kerala governments remains unchanged; making the most economically developed subject of the federation in terms of GDP ranks 9th among the 29 states you. Meanwhile, Kerala missed the "industrial revolution" in India. In addition, despite ongoing communists in the 1960s, land reform and low population growth rate in the state is acute problem of agrarian overpopulation. From agricultural sectors more or less developed only the production of rubber cultivation of coconuts, bananas and cashew nuts as well as the processing of copra and fishing.

In an effort to overcome the traditional nature of the sector, Kerala government first resorted to the creation of "technology parks", hoping to make the state attractive to the rapidly growing information technology sector in India. In 1990 in Tiruvanantapurami opened a "technology park", but the "Indian Silicon Valley" and the focus for companies with IT became the capital of the neighboring state of Karnataka - Bengaluru (Bangalore). However, in Kerala due to the lack of significant pollution established the optimal conditions for a successful tourism industry, that's why the state is unofficial motto slogan "land of God".

Prior to the 1990s Kerala was virtually unknown among foreign tourists and their main routes then concentrated in northern India. However, mild sub-equatorial climate Malabar coast, lush vegetation (evergreen forests occupy a quarter of Kerala), 900-kilometer system of lagoons and lakes along the Arabian Sea (floodplain Aleppo - "Venice of the East"), a unique culture and tradition of the state, which is the home healthcare Ayurveda practices, attracted a huge number of visitors from abroad. The famous American magazine "National Geographic Traveler" Kerala named one of the "ten paradises of the world" and one of "50 places to visit in the life." Kerala is impressive and unusual to the rest of India's religious diversity, according to the census in 2011 in the state were 54.73% Hindus, Muslims 26.56% and 18.38% of Christians, and in the commercial capital of the state - Kochi Christians accounted for 38.03% population and districts Idukki and Kottayam - even more than 43%. The degree of tolerant relations between different faiths Kerala can serve as an example not only for other states of India, but also for many developing countries. This again has a positive effect on the prospects for tourism development.

According to tradition as European Orthodox churches and Orthodox and Malankarskoyi Syro-Malabar Catholic Christianity was brought to India apostle Thomas, who landed on the Malabar coast about 52 years. But modern scholars suggest that it is a trader and missionary of Edessa (now - Turkish Şanlıurfa) Thomas Cannes, not accidentally identified with him Apostle Thomas, was the founder of Christianity in India. As directed by the Patriarch of Antioch in 345 he was. Went to three large ships along with the 72th Christian families from Baghdad, Nineveh and Jerusalem to India, moored to the Malabar Coast, where he founded the Christian community [5, p. 92-93]. Thomas and his companion Cannes - Bishop Joseph of Edessa asked a local king Cheramana Perumaly political asylum to escape the persecution of Iranian shahynshaha skewer II the Great. Syrian-Malabar community of Kerala was in Syrian canonical unity with the Church and the jurisdiction of the Patriarch of Antioch until the arrival of the Portuguese in the late fifteenth century were second wave of Christians. In 1500 the Portuguese admiral Pedro Álvares Cabral, after the discovery of Brazil, visited Calicut (Kozhikode) and founded the first European settlement in India. Two years later the discoverer of the sea route to this country around Africa - "Admiral of the Indian Ocean" Vasco da Gama discovered in keralskomu Kannuri first Indian trade a factory (explorer died of malaria in December 1524 in Kochi and was buried in the local church of St. Antonio (now - the church of St. Francis), only in 1539 his body was shipped to Portugal) and in 1503 Afonso de Albuquerque, with permission from the Raja of Kochi, the Portuguese built a fort. Portuguese missionaries actively in contact with local Christians and the Church of St. Thomas contributed to the formation of the Roman Catholic community in Kerala.

From ancient times to the Malabar Coast existed Jewish community, which, according to one version, was in the days of King Solomon davnoizrayilskoho when developing closer trade ties between the Arabian Peninsula and the Indian subcontinent. Later there were other waves of migration of Jews, after the destruction of the First Temple in 587 BCE and the destruction of the Second Temple and the capture of Jerusalem by the Roman armies in 70 BC. According to another version, the Jewish community of Kerala dates back to the first century not during the XVI-XVII centuries it joined the refugees from Spain, the Netherlands, Germany, Eastern Europe and the Ottoman Empire, although the total number of Jews kochynskyh hardly exceeded 2.5 thousand. people. Until now preserved in Kochi built in 1568, but still functioning synagogue Paradeshi, although the vast majority of Jews have emigrated to Israel (in Kerala left them no more than fifty).

For centuries, the dominant caste in Kerala brave and warlike Naira (Nayar), which is known lexicographer - a native of Cossack Slobozhanshchina Nikolai Yanovsky in his "New tlumachnyku words" (1804) naymenuvav "Indian nobles." British anthropologist C. Fuller claimed that one of the first mentions of the Naira is contained in the "Natural History" ('77) Roman historian and geographer Pliny the Elder, who casually mentioned "nareyiv (Nareae), locked in the mountains Kapitalis (Capitalis), - the highest ridge among Indian mountains. " Fuller concluded that Kapitalis - is the Western Ghats, is 1600 km long mountain range that separates the plateau from the plains Dean coast of the Arabian Sea and runs through the states of Maharashtra, Goa, Karnataka and Kerala.

At the time of Pliny the Elder in Kerala Tamil rules Chera dynasty that led a lively trade in spices, ivory and precious stones from Arabia, Egypt, Phoenicia, Hellas and Rome. The most renowned of reliable rulers Naira was Rama Varma Kulashekhara, who was on the throne in the 1090-1102 biennium, And finished with a predominance of South Indian Chola aggressive state. "From ancient times nairski soldiers were armed with a sword and a small round shield - bare head nairskoho Ashram Kerala Guru Balachandran Nair. - Naira created a system of martial art Kalari-Payyatu - is one of the oldest martial arts. Nairski boys learned martial arts from the age of 9! "A prominent French geographer Jean-Jacques Eliza advertising, to write a 19-volume work "Land and People" visited almost all countries, stressed: "Protect cows and Brahmins!" - That was the only attitude that fencing teacher gave a young Nair, handing him his sword." Nair played an important role in the fight against the colonialists, particularly in 1741 in a battle near Kolachela nairska infantry Travancore King - Marthandy Varma utterly defeated Dutch troops and their commander - Eustache de Lannoy shamefully surrendered. However, after the defeat of the Muslim rulers of Mysore from British invaders in 1792, Tipu Sultan was forced to cede Malabar District Empire, but then Raja of Kochi and Travancore signed an agreement on its accession to the British Empire in exchange for the preservation of autonomy. However, after the territory of Kerala organized rebellion broke out, in which the "first violin" played a freedom-Naira. After the independence of India Nairska crew from the "indigenous principality", Travancore joined the army and became a division of the republic 9th Battalion Madraskoho regiment - the oldest battalion of the armed forces.

Traditional theater of Kerala gained international recognition and - kutiyattam that can be translated from the language of Malayalam as "combined action". It is believed that this statement nearly two thousand years ago kutiyattam - the latest example of the ancient Sanskrit theater has been preserved to this day. UNESCO has recognized this art masterpiece of oral and intangible cultural heritage and made in 2008 on the List of Intangible Cultural Heritage of Humanity. The same status in 2010 received a ritual dance drama of Kerala Theatre - Mudiyettu.

Thus, free from inherent Aryan Indian caste remnants and population explosion, religious hatred and religious conflict, gender inequality and functional illiteracy public Kerala, with its rich tourist resources, successfully working on the formation of positive image of the leading states of South Asia, which has every chance to go global in world politics and become a reliable partner of Ukraine.


1. The World Factbook. India [Електронний ресурс]. - Режим доступу: https://www.cia.gov/library/<wbr>publications/the-world-<wbr>factbook/geos/in.html

2. Mani Sunil, Kochar Anjini. Kerala's Economy: Crouching Tiger, Sacred Cows. - Thiruvananthapuram: D.C. Books, 2006. − 232 р.

3. Regional poverty estimates for India, 1999-2000. Angus Deaton Research Program in Development Studies Princeton University. August 22, 2003 [Електронний ресурс]. - Режим доступу: www.princeton.edu/rpds/<wbr>papers/pdfs/deaton_<wbr>regionalpovertyindia.pdf

4. India Human Development Report − 2014 [Електронний ресурс]. - Режим доступу: www.iamrindia.gov.in/<wbr>ihdr_book.pdf

5. Ishwar Sharan. The Myth of Saint Thomas and the Mylapore Shiva Temple / Third Revised Edition. - New Delhi: Voice of India, 2010. - 407 p.

Japan: a portrait of a country

Pavlo Ignatiev


The article deals with post-war reconstruction of Japanese transport infrastructure and analyzes the pecularities of services and industry of this country, which is considered among main partners of Ukraine in Asia.

Key words: Japan, Tokyo, economy, infrastructure, airlines, tourism

Part I.

Japan is known for its economic miracle, which took place in the period of the Cold War. However, over the past 25 years it has experienced some profound crises. How a country without commercial mineral deposits and the infrastructure that has been created mainly in the 60-70 years of the twentieth century operates today?

Japan is located on the periphery of Asia and has 6852 islands, of which only 430 are inhabited area at 377 thousand. Km2 inhabited by 126 million people, most of them living on Honshu, known for the title of "Japanese mainland." Within the archipelago there are different climatic zones, from northern Hokkaido, the climate in the Russian Vladivostok and long winter to tropical islands of Okinawa, where you can swim and relax on the beach throughout the year. Business card country that belongs to the Pacific Ring of Fire, is the increased seismic activity and the presence of 119 active volcanoes. Therefore, it is considered to be symbols not only with snow-capped mountains, but volcanic springs - onsen, with high temperature minerals rich waters. Continuous volcanic eruptions, earthquakes and tsunamis determined religious interest residents of the rising sun to the forces of nature, therefore an important role in public life play religion worship spirits called Shinto, harmoniously complemented by Buddhism.

Visiting the country drew the attention transport infrastructure. Japan has an efficient railway network, the operation is associated with maintenance of large populated regions of Honshu - the capital Kanto Tokyo and Kansai from economic center in Osaka. The distance between them is 515 km, and in 1950 overcame her usual train for seven hours. From 1 October 1964 this route can travel on the trains-balls "shinkansen" which linked Tokyo and Osaka railway route Tokkaydo and now travel time was reduced to 2 hours 20 minutes. For high performance of the system needed to build thousands of tunnels and bridges to ensure the movement of trains in the hill country of the minimum number of turns and not to take the ups and downs. However, such a move paid off, because from 1964 to 2014 there have been no accident that would result in the loss of human life despite the fact that during this period "shynkanseny" transported 5.6 billion people.

Trains are divided into 16 railroad cars, with 1,323 seats for passengers and 8 carload, with twice as fewer places, so the platform can always see the marks of different colors that indicate exactly where you need to be to get in your car. They also differ in the number of stops. In particular, expresses "Nozomi" did not stop, "Hikari" make only two or three stops in major towns, as "Kodama" serve a large number of plants and thus require twice the time for one trip versus "Nozomi". Interval busiest traffic areas in 15-20 minutes, and delays "shinkansen" is a rarity. All cars are in place so that passengers looking only forward, there is also no noise and vibration. In 1999 the country began to use the new locomotives of the series "700", and from 2007 and 2013 - under the series "N700" and "N700A" with high safety standards and with reduced emissions of harmful substances into the atmosphere. Interestingly, the "Japan Railways" control of commuter trains in major cities, 8 bus regional companies and ferry transportation, because buying a ticket on the train-bullet Japanese gets access to different transport services, to pay for that can at any railway station.

"Shinkansen" significantly influenced the demographic situation in Japan. Not all residents can afford to live in Tokyo with his expensive property, but many vacancies were only here. Therefore, Tokkaydo route around the city began to emerge for workers who want to work in the capital. [1]

Until recently, the bullet trains plying only on Honshu and Kyushu, and Shikoku less populated islands of Hokkaido and had such a high-speed connection to the "mainland Japan." This negative impact on tourism and the economy, as Hokkaido occupies 22% of the country, but is home to only 4% of its residents. He is known for ski resorts and six national parks, acts as a natural destination for crowded Honshu in winter, which lasts six months. As for the summer season, the Hokkaido No heat and moisture as on the other islands of the archipelago. In 2016 "shikansen" have finally connect Honshu and Hokkaido through an underground tunnel "Seikan" that will increase the number of visitors to the north of the island, not only from other parts of Japan, but also from Taiwan and southern China, where residents have never seen a real winter.

Japan has become a model for countries that intend to use trains globe. Typically, designers drew their technical decisions and principles of the system, but did not buy locomotives and wagons. Only in 2007 the Japanese consortium has created the infrastructure for the "shinkansen" in Taiwan and sold there locomotives, but the project has proved to be unprofitable due to a small population of the island. Currently, among the potential buyers of these technologies is India with 505-kilometer route Maharashtra - Gujarat, which is considered a major industrial and transport corridor in the west, as well as Singapore and Malaysia who intend to combine their capital 300-kilometer rail [2]. The basic condition for investment in the project is the presence of two large settlements with several million inhabitants, the distance between them does not exceed 800 km, and otherwise "shinkansen" lose the race airliner overcome route in less than an hour.

The transport system is a priority infrastructure development in Japan, as evidenced by some of the world's largest train stations. Their difference is a large area of ​​territory, availability of automated ticketing cameras and three types of storage - for low-, medium- and large-size luggage. Near them are multi-department stores and catering establishments that sell dishes from all regions of the country. They also combined with dozens of bus stops and metro stations, the output of which is directly in the underpass near the station platforms.

Examples of Tokyo shows that the bullet trains are well integrated with other modes of transport, including trains and subway. The main station for service "shynkanseniv" in the city is considered Shinjuku, located in the business district of the capital with the same name. It has 200 outputs daily and serves about 3.6 million people, as a world record for this indicator. Interestingly, the whole country there are 45 of the 50 busiest railway stations in the world [3]. Directly in Shinjuku can ride the famous "green" branch Yamanote Bahn, which is a circular line with 29 stations, all located in central areas of Tokyo. To drive the green express its 35 km, to spend an hour. Areas within the Yamanote considered the most expensive in the country, because here there are the lion's share corporate offices, entertainment centers and shops. All transport starts at 4.30-5.30, and for office workers who missed the last train at the station are capsule hotels. They have two-meter capsules arranged in two tiers, which can sleep cheap. It is known that the first such institutions appeared hospitality in Osaka in 1979 and became quite popular along with urbanization Tokyo.

Train Yamanote duplicates subway, which has 13 branches, each endowed with its own symbolic color and name, to make the city, within which it related to the four prefectures live 38 million people, function normally. At 179 subway stations during stop playing music that awakens the passengers fell asleep after a busy day. Unlike the subway in Seoul, station wagons and old in Tokyo and a low ceiling on aprons. In addition, the cars literally full of advertising on the walls and on the arms. All workers both underground and on the branch Yamanote well know English and willing to help residents of the country and foreigners. If the passenger has not purchased a ticket or not paid for the travel document was not fined at the exit of the transport facility, but only politely offer to pay. Through long underpass, same station just go to popular tourist attractions and tourists need not walk down the street in bad weather.

In addition, both the capital's Haneda airport (located within the city and is mainly used for domestic flights) and Narita (located 65 km from Tokyo and serves primarily international passengers) related to effective transport links with the capital. Private Express "Keisei Skyliner" for 41 minutes delivers passengers from Tokyo Narita to the center developing speed of 160 km per hour, and the competition it is slower national carrier "Narita Express", which is known for its discount prices. In turn, thanks monorail road in 15 minutes you can get from Haneda to the Yamanote stations ring branches, moving the train of Tokyo.

Interestingly, the airports have repeatedly been on the list of the world's best, because they have organized and punctual staff, cleanliness, free drinking water, many souvenir shops and restrooms room with high-tech equipment. In 2015, Haneda was in fifth place among the leading airport facilities and has been recognized for exemplary such indicator as servicing domestic flights and airport in Nagoya - in seventh place and was also proclaimed "the most effective regional airports". In addition, users noted Haneda and Kansai (Osaka) for the extraordinary quality of the workforce and found them among the cleanest in the world. Finally, Haneda - the only major airport in the world, which in 2015 91.25% of all flights took place or time or with a delay of only 15 minutes.

Japan has also developed air transport industry. The two largest airlines "Japan Airlines" ("JAL") and "All Nippon Airways" ("ANA") traditionally are among the safest in the world. The first one has 223 airliners and has provided its services in 2014 29.4 million people. Accordingly, the same year "ANA" used 245 aircraft and carried by 117 Japanese and 73 international directions 50.4 million passengers, and therefore was recognized by the Japanese leader in air transport. A large number of planes associated with the Japanese habit to travel abroad, and the proximity of the world's largest Chinese tourist market and the markets of ASEAN such as overcrowded Indonesia, Malaysia and the Philippines. In recent years, the industry brings stable income because fuel prices have decreased significantly, and the depreciation of the yen against the dollar and the euro has led to an increase in foreign tourists.

Both airlines prefer airliner "Boeing", as related Japanese companies in the field of aircraft are technical partners this manufacturer. Over the years, they were among the first carriers ordered planes famous series "747" and "777". Given the accumulated during the collaboration with "Boeing" Technology after entering into a strategic alliance in 2001, the company "Mitsubishi" in 2015 introduced the public its first medium-passenger plane "Mitsubishi regional jet" for 78-92 passengers with a range of flight 3800 km. He should come into production in the summer of 2017. Also on sale is a small jet airliner business-friendly entitled "Honda Jet". In Japan, there is a long tradition of aviation, because before and during the Second World War, the company built the country's 100 thousand. Various types of military aircraft, but later the American occupation authorities banned the development of this sector [4].

Tokyo, within which live 13.5 million people, while the metropolitan area of ​​four prefectures - 38 million Japanese are in first place among supermist. Along with New York, London and Paris, it absorbs 30% of capital invested in the 30 largest urban centers in the world, is the focus of international investment capital [5]. Indeed, the Great Tokyo annually generates goods and services worth more than 1.4 trillion dollars, and the number of customers within it even exceeds the number of residents in the other three supermistah. It is the Asian headquarters for multinationals location half of 3500 large Japanese companies and the largest shopping center in the world.

Foreigners prefer to have comfortable housing in the capital and in other cities, because Japan is a relatively safe country to live decent people. So, after the tsunami in 2011 are unknown left in public places rolls of hundreds of thousands of dollars and euros for victims of natural disasters, and cases of looting were never registered. The Japanese often hid their cars and do not follow their own things in the crowd, because theft cases there is an extraordinary rarity. In 2014 the country was the second largest in the world after Iceland on this indicator as "the lowest number of murders" and second only to Canada for the safety of the streets. [6]

In addition, Japan, famous for its cuisine. For example, Tokyo, which is called "the culinary capital of the world", had in 2015 217 restaurants with stars Andre Mehelina, which proves the highest quality of service and quality of food. Every large city located by the ocean and therefore has a fish market where they sell tuna carcasses and meat of whales, salmon roe and sea urchins. At the famous Tsukiji market in Tokyo's Ginza permanently employed 15 thousand people, and he has become a focus of marketing not only seafood but also products from farmers Kanto region. It is believed that the square is 23 hectares of land sell 480 species of fish and 270 types of fruits and vegetables. Prices for food in Japan is quite democratic and cold green tea and sliced imbirna generally can be offered in unlimited quantities when ordering a main course. Meanwhile, exotic products such as puffer fish, Yubari melons of Hokkaido and Kobe beef marble have to pay heavily. Interestingly, fugu poison 200 times stronger than potassium cyanide, so foodies dream taste of its meat for visual sensations. Despite the constant need to import ingredients for food industry in Japan indicated a high level of development. Thanks companies "Nikka" and "Santori", the country is a leading producer of whiskey in Asia. Besides rice and plum wine, beer are also common. Brewery produced 200 types of intoxicating drink, what do the four major conglomerates - "Asahi", "Kirin", "Sapporo" and "Santori", independent producers and small towns in the so-called kraftove brew beer and sell it at higher price to tourists. There can also be purchased cold teas, mostly borrowed from the Chinese "Sencha" (tea leaves with the smell of burning) and expensive "hoykuro" with sweet flavor. They often buy food in vending machines that produce the same company that engaged in production of beverages, cigarettes and sandwiches. By their number per capita, Japan is the world leader, as machine-work will not have to pay salaries, and it can be around the clock in any place - from Mount Fuji to the Pacific coast. However, they are essentially free advertising the company and its products. Machines are also dining where you choose a dish, throw into money and has come to check out the waiters to get the order.

At the same time, the agricultural sector of the economy of Japan is in deep crisis, because the country is only 40% self-sufficient in food. In 2014 it was involved 1.7 million people, including 515 thousand. Farmers were aged over 75 years. In addition, a significant percentage of land for cultivation on the island of Hokkaido, where few Japanese people ready to live through difficult climatic conditions [7]. It should also be noted that imports of food products increased significantly after the Chernobyl nuclear Fukusimskiy when the northeast of Honshu and adjacent waters were in the midst of radioactive contamination.

The feature of Japan is a small area of apartments and private homes because the land here is extremely expensive. This is especially true for Tokyo.

In historical retrospect capital suffered twice: first an earthquake destroyed it in 1923, and later - the powerful American bombing of "B-29" during the Second World War. When in 1960 the country began an economic boom, the city built up very quickly, despite the need to preserve older neighborhoods. As a result, the capital of Japan is a relatively new settlement without major tourist attractions, but flats covered with neon advertising. Today Tokyo isa plexus of small houses 80-120 m2 area, high-rise skyscrapers and railroads that run on bridges over the private sector. Located in an area of ​​high seismic activity, it has many skyscrapers over 100 meters high. But despite this, the Tokyo ranks third in the world in number (415) after Hong Kong and New York. He posted the highest northeast telebashta world "Tokyo heavenly tree" height of 634 m. However, there is not much historical areas, in addition to Ueno Park in 1873 and Asakusa temple, which is the oldest in the capital and was built in 628.


1. How the Shinkansen bullet train made Tokyo into the monster it is today//Guardian. - 2014. - September 30.

2. First stop India, next stop Singapore-Malaysia for Japan's bullet train sales campaign//Japan Times. - 2015. - December 16.

3. World busiest train station: Shinjuku//Tokyo Fox. - 2014. - April 28.

4. Mitsubishi regional jet takes flight//Japan Times. - 2015. - November 19.

5. Mumbai, Delhi figure in world's top-30 'super cities'//Economic Times. - 2016. - January 3.

6. Staying safe in Japan. - Режим доступу до сайту: www.tofugu.com/2015/04/<wbr>15/staying-safe-japan/

7. Karl Spitzer. Japan struggles to save shrinking, aging agriculture industry//USA Today. - 2015. - November 25.