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№3 / 2016
22.07.2016, 17:51

The problem of Ukraine's accession to NATO in the context of Ukrainian-American relations

Olena Vaschenko


In the article the main aspects of Ukraine's accession to NATO are revealed in the light of Ukrainian-American relations. Considerable attention is paid to the factors that affected the strategy of both countries on NATO's expansion to the East, peculiarities of US policy as to development of relations between Ukraine and NATO and their prospects.

Keywords: Ukraine, US, NATO, NATO's expansion.

Part I.

Ukrainian foreign policy strategy period of independence includes such important area as relations with NATO. Thus, the Ukrainian realities NATO appears not only an instrument of collective security, but also an important element of cooperation with the United States. Analysis of the relationship allows highlight the main aspects of the complex process of progress of Ukraine to NATO through the prism of politics in Washington. The article focuses on the factors that influenced the formation of a strategy the US and Ukraine in the NATO's eastward expansion and acceptance of him post-Soviet countries, the position of the United States on the development of relations between Ukraine and NATO, the issue of granting Ukraine the MAP; at the same time disclosed some aspects of military-technical cooperation the United States and Ukraine to the North Atlantic Cooperation, outlined the evolution of Ukrainian and American positions on Ukraine's membership in NATO.

Proclamation and internationally legal registration of independence of Ukraine held against the background of significant geopolitical transformations caused by the collapse of the Yalta-Potsdam system of contracts and designing new models of world order. Significant role-played in these processes USA, which in the end of the period of bipolarity become virtually the only wealth that has potential for world leadership.

Formation of foreign policy orientations Ukraine and adjusting US foreign policy strategy under new circumstances was considering a number of external (geopolitical) and internal factors. One of them during the period was the policy of Russia on the post-Soviet space in general and Ukraine in particular. The essence of this policy - the preservation of political and economic influence and status of absolute leader in the region. However, the efforts of Russia in this direction depend on the position of the US, the EU and the alignment of political forces in Ukraine itself. Thus the United States is often demonstrated rusotsentrychnyy approach in its policy towards the new independent states (NIS) including, in the early 1990s were willing to transfer responsibility for the situation of Russia in the post. Overall, in the first half of the 1990s can be traced Moscow policy support, security is other NIS linked to their relations with Russia and Moscow's opposition to NATO's spread eastward perceived by many US politicians as a natural desire to avoid isolation in security [1]. In particular, the analyst B. Scowcroft, one of the advisers to George W.Bush, has traditionally emphasized the pointlessness of Ukraine joining NATO, as it will provoke Russia to more action that is drastic. Special ambassador S. Talbott also expressed caution about Atlantic prospects of Ukraine, but at the beginning of 1995 rather sharply criticized Russia for its imperial ambitions [2]. Consistent supporter of the idea of ​​Ukraine joining NATO is well-known American political scientist and analyst Z. Brzezinski.

It should be emphasized that the US strategy of reorganization of NATO in the early 1990s, the question of the inclusion of former communist and post-Soviet countries coincided in time with the intensification of discussions among the major European powers to create a European security system. Some Ukrainian politicians support this format of peace and stability in Europe. In such circumstances, the active position of the US, new areas for cooperation between NATO countries and countries that have received the status of the partner countries. The first project was the North Atlantic Cooperation Council (NACC), which joined in the work and Ukraine (January 1992 - participation Ukrainian representative in the meeting of the High Level Working Group, and an official invitation to the NACC Ukraine gained during the first visit to Kyiv by NATO Secretary General M. Werner in February of that year).

So in Washington are formed along two lines: one regarding post-socialist countries of Eastern Europe who have selected and consistently followed a strategy Euro other - regarding NIS. Accordingly, the nature and intensity of cooperation with the NIS were different. This policy is due not only to the Russian factor, but the degree of transformation and the dynamics of the political, legal and economic structures in the post-Soviet area (except the Baltic states), which carried out quite contradictory and slow.

Despite the fact that the construction of the US strategy regarding Ukraine's participation in NATO was against the background of the project of NATO enlargement to the East, the dominant issue of US relations and Ukraine in the period 1992-1995 was the problem of nuclear weapons. It is the presence on the territory of Ukraine considerable nuclear potential linked essential aspects of security in the region. Therefore, the issue of cooperation, and especially for NATO membership, although were discussed, considered as pure potential. Some researchers note that in this period the US has become quite popular definition of Ukraine as a buffer state [2, p. 62].

Including to the orbit of its influence the territory of Western Europe, the US deepen cooperation within NATO partner countries by offering a new format - the program "Partnership for Peace" (Clinton announced the initiative at the Brussels summit in January 1994). Peace, on the one hand, some served as an alternative to full membership in NATO, on the other - made it possible to intensify cooperation in all spheres, including the military, with the countries, which are important components of European and global security. In general, the PfP was designed as an effective tool in relations with NATO partner countries in the context of the new political and military strategy of the Alliance. According to M. Albright, this program was to be in Eastern Europe something of a "Marshall Plan" for post-war Western Europe [3, p. 331]. Ukraine signed the Partnership for Peace Framework Document in February 1994, but only in September 1995 the parties signed an Individual Partnership Programme. This US position on the possible participation of our country in this program was a key [4, p. 263]. The importance of cooperation under the program and sides stressed the "Charter of Ukrainian-American partnership, friendship and cooperation" signed in November 1994.

Since the mid-1990s Washington's plans to expand NATO to the East and the projected dialogue with Ukraine on this issue. In particular, during his visit in 1995 to Kyiv Clinton talked about NATO expansion. Kuchma said that Ukraine is not against expanding NATO, but should take into account the interests of its security. It is this focused and Clinton, adding that the US will support a strong democratic and Ukraine, which have "strong ties with the West." At the same time, Washington has increased aid to deepen cooperation with NATO PfP [5].

The US position on the issue of deepening relations between Ukraine and NATO in the second half of the 1990s. Determined considering the geostrategic condition and Ukrainian realities of the socio-political situation. In particular, the Ukrainian politicians mainly focused on Moscow, caution, and partly reacted openly hostile to the prospect of joining the Alliance, while offering their traditional designs reorganization of security. Thus, during a speech in London in 1996, Minister of Foreign Affairs G. Udovenko highlighted the need for a new strategy for NATO, the transition from the concept of common defense in the concept of collective security. Emphasizing the importance of the principle of Ukrainian foreign policy, as non-participation in military blocs, he said that Ukraine is not against the idea of ​​NATO enlargement, but this process should take into account the interests of national security of Ukraine itself.

However, the experience of NATO relations and post-socialist countries of Eastern Europe shows that the geo-strategic issues prevail over political and economic: the standards discrepancy quickly eliminated through investments and helping the US or offset some issues. Certain proof of this is the policy of Washington on Ukrainian issues in the context of enlargement. In particular, the first term of President Clinton designated the assistance of our country to dialogue on the strategic concept of the Alliance, which was developed on the basis of fundamental geopolitical changes in the early 1990s. During this period tends to determine the essential role of Ukraine in matters of regional and global security.

In the context of this course of US, in July 1997 a "Charter on a Distinctive Partnership between NATO and Ukraine" was signed. The conclusion of the document received high marks both Washington and Kyiv, but the issue of Ukraine's membership in NATO remained out of practice. Furthermore, such a document (Founding Act) was signed with Russia earlier (in May 1997). According to the American professor P. D'anyeri a long time, the US advanced to the Ukraine and Russia are different standards - too high for Ukraine. In addition, the status of NATO for a long time was more significant for the Ukrainian through a much greater potential of Russia. Along with that, in his opinion, in the field of military cooperation in the context of cooperation with NATO Ukraine gained significantly more preferences.

It should be emphasized that although the special partnership involved the expansion and deepening of cooperation in the political, military, economic, scientific-technical and other levels, but did not give such guarantees Ukraine, having Allies. Laying Charter with Ukraine invested in the construction of the US policy of expanding NATO's borders, because the document contained the thesis that "Ukraine welcomes the continued active NATO's adaptation to the realities of Euro-changing ..." So, the conclusion Charters of the Russian Federation and Ukraine on the eve of joining the Alliance Poland Hungary and the Czech Republic (March 1999), was highly symbolic step and another proof of US readiness to cooperate with our country in this direction. In parallel, prominent representatives of American politicians constantly emphasize that Ukraine is a very important economic and political dimensions of security is entirely dependent on the political situation and policies of the ruling circles. [6]

Against the background of a moderate cooling in bilateral relations in 1999, caused sharp statements Verkhovna Rada of Ukraine on NATO operations in Yugoslavia, an important event was the participation of Leonid Kuchma in the jubilee summit (23-24 April 1999) and the meeting of the NATO-Ukraine Committee at the highest level. Traditionally, the issues of cooperation within the Partnership for Peace.

At the beginning of XXI against the background of a significant strengthening of EU-active dialogue on the need for a purely European security in Washington confirmed the thesis of strengthening relations with the Eastern European NATO partners considered possible further expansion of NATO by Ukraine and Georgia. This would save NATO's influence in Europe, grouped around a number of politicians in Washington State and implement a plan for a NMD system, which George Bush announced in Congress in late February 2001.

Adjustment strategies related to the arrival of the White House Republicans, who traditionally pay much attention to preserve US leadership in the world. However, the President of Ukraine at the legislative level contributed to the deepening of relations with NATO. In January 2001 approved the State Programme of Cooperation with NATO for 2001-2004.

Taking into account the international situation during May - June 2001 is the formation of new leadership course for Ukraine. Traditionally seen support policy of our country in terms of building a market economy mechanism and the introduction of Euro-Atlantic course subject to effective reform. An example was the performance of George. W. Bush at Warsaw University June 15, 2001 .: President stressed that the US is interested in Ukraine's integration into Euro-Atlantic structures and facilitate this process, however, Ukraine's path to NATO will depend entirely on her personal decisions and internal capabilities. [7] Similar trends certified visits of senior officials of the United States (June 2001 - Secretary of Defense D. Rumsfeld, July 2001 - Presidential Advisor on National Security Condoleezza Rice).

However, after the events of September 11, 2001 changed the situation somewhat, Atlantic perspectives of Ukraine once again go into the plane of concepts. An important reason - against the declared US combat global terrorism has affected new perspective in relations between Moscow and Washington. In particular, discussed the acquisition of Russian associate member of NATO, with the possibility of involvement in decision-making. Such attitude contributed to the US to Russia, according to Borys Tarasyuk, fast and strong position in Moscow and Ukraine as a strategic partner, not fully used its potential strategic relations with the US to combat terrorism.

In September 2002 the Administration gave the Congress "National Security Strategy", which differed from the post-communist policies of the late twentieth century. Thesis cornerstones of the new strategy, the fight against terrorism, the spread of free and open societies, democracy as a guarantee of stability and peace, economic assistance as an important factor for the destruction of the basis of terrorism. One form of struggle was to be the expansion of NATO to democratic nations. [8] In the context of such intentions question Ukraine's joining NATO is increasingly discussed American politics. This is due to the new mood and Ukrainian officials, including Kuchma, the support which was made for a number of fundamental Atlantic course of Ukraine documents NSDC decision "On Strategy of Ukraine regarding the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO)" (May), supported by Presidential Decree (July) Resolution Verkhovna Rada "on recommendations of parliamentary hearings on relations and cooperation between Ukraine and NATO" (November), which radically changed the direction of the foreign policy strategy of Ukraine, declared the need to intensify the process of preparation of Ukraine for membership. This document is the key concept of "Euro-Atlantic integration."

The US reaction to the decision of NSDC of Ukraine's accession to NATO as a strategic goal was restrained, emphasized the need to implement reforms this course and turn Ukraine into an influential state. So, S. Pifer stressed support closer relations with Ukraine, which gradually deepen relations with Euro-Atlantic institutions, and K. Pascual in December 2002 stressed the expediency policy of small steps to advance Ukraine in NATO. In late 2002 A. Zlenko stressed that support from the United States in Euro-Atlantic integration of Ukraine is coherent and important [9, p. 17].

This decision enabled the launch of a new instrument on the path to NATO-Ukraine Action Plan of NATO. J. Herbst insisted on the US assistance in the implementation of this document, occasionally noting that the democratic electoral process in 2004 is an important prerequisite for progress towards Euro-Atlantic community. Continued military cooperation NATO and Ukraine, and Kyiv and Washington, was seen as the first significant basis for Ukraine's accession to the collective security system. Instead, after the deployment of "Kolchuga scandal" reduced the level of the Commission "Ukraine-NATO" alliance refuses Program "Intensified Dialogue" with Kyiv, which were initiated precisely the United States.

However, some American experts at the beginning of XXI rather cautious approach to the issue of Ukraine joining NATO. In particular, senior researcher at the Institute for National Strategic Studies Yu. Ramer stressed the importance of shared values, which are the basis of Alliance, progress thus forced Ukraine to NATO could be devastating for both sides. American analysts warned that a significant obstacle to Ukraine's joining NATO is being a Russian military base in Sevastopol and Crimea in general.

To be continued ....


1. President Obama's speech at a press conference at the NATO summit Selected issue of Ukraine on September 5, 2014 [electronic resource]. - Access: ukrainian.ukraine.<wbr>usembassy.gov/uk/statements/<wbr>obama-nato-ukraine-05092014.<wbr>html

2. Parahonskyy B., Korniyevsky A., G. Jaworska, A. Mishin, Chekalenko L. Kubelius O., Makarenko L. Major trends in international Security (January-March 2003) // International Politics. - 2003, June. - P. 3-5.

3. O. Shamshur American-Ukrainian relations (2008-2009) // Scientific Bulletin of the Diplomatic Academy of Ukraine. - Vyp.15. - Kyiv, 2009. - P. 70-77.

4. The National Security Strategy of Ukraine [electronic resource]. - Access: zakon0.rada.gov.ua/<wbr>laws/show/287/2015

5. The Joint Statement of the President of Ukraine Leonid Kuchma and US President J. Clinton during Summit 11-12 May 1995, the parties signed on 12.05.1995 [electronic resource]. - Access: zakon3.rada.gov.ua/<wbr>laws/show/840_048

6.​ Ukraine can rely on NATO, Secretary General says in visit to Kiev [Електронний ресурс]- Режим доступу: www.nato.int/cps/en/<wbr>natohq/news_122690.htm

7. ​ President George W. Bush. Remarks by the President in Address to Faculty and Students of Warsaw University Warsaw, Poland. June 15, 2001 [Електронний ресурс]. - Режим доступу: http: usa.usembassy.de/etexts/docs/<wbr>bush150601.htm

8. In the US Congress propose to consider Ukraine as a "major non-NATO ally" [Electron resource]. - Access mode:www.segodnya.ua/<wbr>politics/pnews/v-kongresse-<wbr>ssha-predlagayut-rassmatrivat-<wbr>ukrainu-kak-glavnogo-<wbr>soyuznika-vne-nato-603229.html

9. Joint Statement by President George W. Bush and President Viktor Yushchenko on April 4, 2005 The agenda for the new century Ukrainian-American Strategic Partnership [electronic resource]. - Access: www.usukraine.org/06-<wbr>02-US-Ukraine_Relations_Press_<wbr>Release_Ukr.pdf]

Integration of the Czech Republic to NATO: the main stages and consequences

Iryna Androschuk


The article deals with the events that preceded the Czech Republic to join NATO, relations NATO and the Czech Republic, examines the benefits of the Czech Republic's membership in NATO, highlights the problems that emerged in the country since joining the alliance, and examined the work of NATO information center.

Keywords: NATO, the Czech Republic's foreign policy, the information center of NATO.

The collapse of totalitarian communist regimes defined a new era in the political structure of Europe and the world in general. It was gone two poles and confrontation through the "East-West", against which rose a wave of national liberation movements. The most active of these processes were republics of the former Soviet Union, Yugoslavia and Czechoslovakia. The new way of Central European region are numerous, which confidently won their place in Europe and worldwide. Ex-socialist countries adjusted their economic policies and the principles of the democratic West, joined the Council of Europe, walked their way to the EU and the accession in 1994 to the program "Partnership for Peace" took the first step towards NATO.

In 1989 Czechoslovakia turned from the path of socialist development as a result of "Velvet Revolution" that led to the 1993 peace partition of the country into two states - the Czech Republic and Slovakia. The same year the Czech Republic as an independent state was admitted to the North Atlantic Cooperation Council. Since then, joining NATO was the purpose of the foreign policy strategy of the Czech Republic.

From the first applications of the West on the possible expansion of NATO to the East Czech Republic has become a leader among the most likely candidates. It is necessary to pay tribute to the Foreign Office and the Ministry of Defence of the Czech Republic, which are always promptly, efficiently and in most cases the first among candidate countries prepare documents and carried out the necessary steps for future accession to the Alliance. [1]

Towards relatively stable promote the Czech Republic to NATO in autumn 1996 was the first serious barrier - the offer on 1997 state budget was not increased spending on the reform of the Czech army. In addition, the West and in the Czech Republic began to appear on the unwillingness of the Czech army for NATO [2].

Among the problems West also often called the lack of so-called crisis management, which would coordinate the activities of the army, police and transport in terms of the nuclear disaster, technical unreadiness of military governance structures (no computer information systems), poor communication, lack of coordinated policy the military-industrial complex and insufficient learning English in military educational institutions, the crisis state of aviation and air defense, etc. [3].

No less serious problem is literally catastrophic falling public support of the Czech Republic's accession to NATO. According to the study YUSIA American agency, in 1996 public support for this process significantly lagged behind similar indicators in Hungary, Poland and even in Romania. Thus, only every 15th citizen of the Czech Republic agreed to increase the budget of the army by spending on health and education [2].

According to a poll conducted by the Czech agency "Factum" in 1997, the country's accession to NATO supported only 37% (compared to 1994 - 56%, 1995 - 53% 1996 - 39%), 38% - against and the rest - are undecided. [4]

Reducing the number of supporters of NATO expansion in the Czech Republic specialists explained several reasons. Among them have been named, fears that the military budget will absorb a significant portion of expenditures on social needs and alertness, which is the placing of the country's nuclear weapons NATO. Polls show that against the latter at the time acted 3/4 of the population [5]. Meanwhile, Chairman of the Senate of the Czech Republic P. Pitgart believed that the attitude most Czechs to NATO due, rather, their doubts about the Czech army than in relation to the Alliance.

Some observers called low compared to other aspirants support the Czech Republic's accession to NATO different levels of "sensation threats" in the region, meaning that for the Czech Republic, located westernmost other applicants, the threat from Russia is less real than , say, Poland.

Despite the outward restraint and confident behavior of the Czech government, the issue of public support for joining NATO has caused serious concern. This was especially noticeable after joining the Alliance came to the Czech real shape and there is a need to objectively assess the country's readiness for this step.

In this connection is particularly acute in government circles in the country faced the need for targeted outreach with the public to ensure broader public support for Czech accession to NATO. Such work is undoubtedly carried out before, but mainly by journalists and political commentators, while official circles argument was unconvincing Czech Republic [6]. Yes, periodicals, whose position inclined to the center-right parties coalition government (which is the vast majority of national media), over the last few years before the Madrid Summit conducted a broad information campaign to ensure that not only convince the public of the country in need of its entry into NATO and the West and prove that the Czech Republic has matured all political, economic and social conditions for such a step.

Their main arguments in favor of the Czech Republic's accession to NATO was that:

- The Alliance is one of the main guarantors of security and stability in Europe, which provides its members with such important guarantees a "nuclear umbrella" and collective security;

- NATO has no alternative in view of the proposed safeguards;

- Is the only organization capable of effective military action;

- Given the unpredictable development of the international situation, NATO membership is "win-win option";

- Alliance is the only counterweight to the return of Central and Eastern Europe to the Russian sphere of influence;

- NATO membership will require less money than spending on self-defense;

- The Alliance is based not only on common economic, political and security interests but also on common democratic values ​​of Western civilization;

- Accession to NATO is part of the European integration, an important step towards membership of other European organizations, particularly in the EU;

- NATO membership would strengthen the democratic forces in the country;

- NATO is an example of an organization that is not related stereotypes and is aware of the peculiarity of each country;

- Joining the Alliance will be an act of historical justice restoration Czech fact of belonging to Western civilization. [1]

Although this argument in the Czech press is clearly dominant critical of the country's future membership in NATO, the latter focused on the most vulnerable moments, causing significant part of the public wary of the prospects of accession. The paradox of the situation in the Czech Republic was aggravated by the fact that the level of public support for the country's accession to NATO opposite support this step by Czech political parties. The majority of the parliamentary parties of the country, including the largest opposition Social Democratic Party, somehow favored the introduction of the North Atlantic Alliance. Exceptions were only two parties left extreme of the spectrum - the Communist and Republican who strongly objected to the Czech Republic's accession to NATO. [7]

Public awareness, which was conducted primarily by ministries of foreign affairs and defense, in the Czech Republic subjected to sharp criticism at all levels. In an interview with reporters, Czech President V. Havel of the Czech Republic suggested that the contents had explained why the country wants to join the Alliance. He expressed concern that the country's percentage of supporters of NATO membership is much lower than in Poland and Hungary. Referring to those who underestimate the Czech Republic's accession to NATO, V. Havel stressed that their position is extremely short-sighted, while blaming inaction of those who understand the importance of such a step.

March 12, 1999 was made one of the main foreign policy objectives of the Czech Republic - to become the most powerful member of the transatlantic organization that provides security and stability in Europe. Czech Republic joined the first group of former socialist countries that joined NATO after the fall of the Berlin Wall and the end of the "Cold War". For the Czech Republic's membership in NATO means a significant strengthening of its international position. The country believes that the entry into NATO of external security will be protected. The best way to ensure security of today, according to the Czech political leadership does not exist. However, the Czech Republic had the opportunity to participate in shaping and carrying out policy plays a key role in ensuring security in Europe.

Accession of the Czech Republic to NATO fundamentally influenced the foreign policy of the country; there have been major changes in the relationship with the outside world. Standard bilateral relations with the countries of Europe and North America have become allied.

In return policy of the government of the Czech Republic, adopted in July 1996, stated that one of the priorities of the government is to guarantee the external security of the state, including the necessary tools to defend and events. The Government is aware of the fact that defense is the basis of its reliability, in addition, clearly defined desire to defend the country. The declaration states that the defense of the country is a challenge not only the armed forces but also society as a whole "and each citizen individually. It has therefore focused on the approval of the relevant strategic, conceptual and legal framework necessary for further development of defense" [8]. In carrying out its obligations, the Czech government in 1997 approved the following conceptual documents in defense and security, as a "national defense strategy" and "Constitutional Law on the safety of the republic".

In general, the main objective of national security, which is formed with the ordering data analysis and prediction of the situation in Europe and the world in general and related risk factors (such as political instability in Central and Eastern Europe (CEE), the Balkans, the unresolved ethnic and territorial issues, exacerbation which may cause new conflicts in some regions of Europe, Russia's attempts to recreate and enhance the impact of the former Soviet Union), is developing semi, highly-functional, non-partisan army, which will have conventional weapons and be able to participate in peacekeeping UN and NATO processes as equal and equivalent forces of the Alliance.

Membership in NATO provides more active policy of the Czech Republic in other organizations dealing with security and cooperation. Foreign policy based on the fact that effective problem solving and addressing new challenges not afford one, even a very powerful organization.

The foreign concept comes from the fact that NATO membership Czech state provides the highest level of security and favorable conditions for peaceful development. The country has assumed some responsibility and with the signing of the Washington Treaty. Realizing the high estimate adaptation programs of national armed forces and bodies of NATO standards, the Czech leadership focuses on measures that are political in nature (participation in peacekeeping operations, support for candidate countries for membership in the alliance of the NATO summit in Prague in 2002).

This approach of Czechs to fulfill allied commitments did not go unnoticed in the governing bodies of NATO. In the critical spirit went to visit the Czech Republic in March 2001 NATO Secretary General George. Robertson. Despite the overall diplomatically restrained tone of his negotiations with the Czech leadership, NATO Secretary General made it clear that the Czech Republic does not pay adequate attention to all components of the reform of the armed forces, admiring expensive projects, including purchase of supersonic fighters. Yes, John. Robertson said that deep inner need reform Czech armed forces in terms of reduction and increased mobility of ground forces. In his view, needs a radical overhaul of the system of military planning. Deputy Secretary General E. Buckley was frank. He said that new members assigned to military development targets are not met. [9] Referring to the Defense Ministry, the Czech media pointed out that with 132 targets of NATO really are only 26 [10].

Finally, integrating the NATO military forces have been reduced from 132 thousand. People in 1993 to 35 thousand. - In 2010. It was also written off a significant amount of obsolete weapons with full transition from 1 January 2005 to contractual manning. Reduction of the Armed Forces of the Czech Republic saved a lot of money and at the same time offset the inclusion of the country into a single system of collective security of NATO and obtaining new modern armament and military equipment. In this process the Czech Army was integrated into the combined forces of the Alliance. Air control system integrated into the country's integrated air defense system of NATO in Europe.

Czech experts say that despite the reduction of armed forces of the above activities of the country's membership in the alliance significantly increased its military potential. It also enabled the country to enforce its commitments to NATO in terms of strengthening Europe's security and participation in international military operations, including in Iraq and Afghanistan.

In the frames of the concept "Smart Defence NATO" Czech Republic specializing in exercise of radiation, chemical and biological protection troops Alliance and manufacture of electronic, armored vehicles and aircraft, which positively affects the development of the Czech defense industry. Thus, in 2000 the government approved the concept of "Fundamentals of interaction between government and the defense industry of the Czech Republic" and the agreement "On cooperation between the Ministry of Defence of the Czech Republic and the Association of Defense Industry," which optimized the work of defense of the country in the new geopolitical conditions.

Positive indicators of the Czech Republic's membership in NATO caused a high level of public support for the process of European integration. Thus, in 1999 the Czech Republic's accession to the Alliance supported no more than 30% of the population, now the figure is 80%. Thus 70% of respondents consider NATO membership the most reliable guarantee of security. Alliance has the support of young people and supporters of the ruling Czech Civic Democratic Party. Rejects cooperation with NATO elderly and supporters of the Communists. In recent years increased the number of citizens who are entrenched in their opinion that the Czech Republic is a full member of NATO. In March 2007 this was sure 52% of people now - 66% [11].

A special role in shaping positive attitudes of Czech citizens play activities of NATO Information Centre, established at the initiative of the Foreign Ministry of the country.

This information center was the first such structure in NATO countries. Czech Republic joined NATO in the first wave of enlargement after the "cold war." Then there was the need to give the public the widest information about the North Atlantic military bloc. Since the launch of the Center has become a long-term nature. It was decided for the purpose of separation of executive from the process of information transfer work center in the hands of a non-profit, non-governmental organizations. Since 2003, the work of the NATO Information Centre, funded by the Foreign Ministry, manages JAGELLO 2000. Infocentre has and constantly expanding specialized library provides the information portal, is engaged in the publication of their printed materials. [12]

Consequently, the Czech Republic's accession to the alliance is consistent and prudent step that will positively affect change in the European balance of power, ensuring the country's progress in the field of security and new opportunities in the economic, social and political development. Czech Euro-Atlantic integration ensures it peaceful and safe development in the long-term democratic, legal basis and, therefore, its experience deserves attention Ukrainian officials and NGOs.


1.​ Kasik V. NATO Bezpečnost pro Evropu / V. Kasik. - Praga: Ministerstvo obrany CR. - 1997.

2.​ Tisovic F. Madridsky summit Severoatlantickej aliancie ... / F. Tisovic // Slovenska republika. - 1997. - 11 ju'la.

3. Current Archive of MFA of Ukraine for 2001 Policy embassy letter on acceptance of the concept of development of MoD CR 3 September 2001

4.​ Politická scená na Slovensku / Bratislava: Focus - januar, 1997.

5.​ Havel V. Česka Republika v NATO / V. Havel. - Praha, 1999.

6.​ Krejčí O. Mezinárodní politika. 3. aktualizované a rozšířené vydání / O. Krejčí. - Praha: Ekopress, 2007. - 744 s.

7. Current Archive of MFA of Ukraine for 2001 Information on changes in the socio-economic situation of the Czech Republic since NATO membership.

8.​ Czech national interests: Contribution to discussion / [ed. by M. Had, J. Valenta]. - Prague: Institute for international relations. - 1996. - 437 p.

9.​ Ekonom. - 2001. - № 14. - S.29.

10.​ Hospodarské Noviny / Economia. - Praha. - 2001. - 21 listopadu.

11. The European integration of the Czech Republic [Electron resource]: Independent Analytical Centre for Geopolitical Studies Borisfen Intel. - Access mode: bintel.com.ua/ru/<wbr>projects/evrointegracija-<wbr>cheshskoj-respubliki/

12. Over NATO's image in the Czech Republic has a specialized center [Electron resource] / Radio Praha. - Access mode: www.radio.cz/ru/<wbr>rubrika/demokrati/nad-imi

Syrian conflict and geopolitical interests of the Russian Federation

Oleg Kondratenko


Expand the problems of the Russian Federation in the Syrian conflict. The reasons and goals of Russia's military presence in Syria, which are to establish a geopolitical bridgehead and a military base in the Middle East by maintaining the Syrian regime of B. al-Assad. It is proved that the expansion of Russia's geopolitical influence in the Middle East is to ensure the Kremlin's control of the oil and gas market and the energy supply to the EU.

Keywords: Middle East, the Syrian conflict, Russia, armed conflict, the interests of the great powers, geopolitics, anti-ISIL.

The transformation of the world order is accompanied by geopolitical turbulence, manifested in the dynamics of the spread of local and regional conflicts. The Syrian conflict has become one of the hallmarks of world politics, in which the major powers defend their interests at the expense of other participants in international life. One such example is Moscow's policy in the Middle East, pursuing their own geopolitical interests, trying to recover at least part of the former Soviet influence. However, their participation Russia seeks to rebuild the world order according to the strategy, in which the leading role is not international law, and the right strong discretion.

The Syrian conflict is another challenge to global security, and its settlement - a major challenge for the world's leading players. In this situation, Russia demonstrates equal responsibility for the situation in the Middle East, together with the US and EU. Representing thus the importance of participation in peace processes worldwide, Russia has positioned itself as a state, without which it is difficult to solve the key problems of the transitional world order. Although the subject of the Syrian conflict and participation occupies the front pages of the world press, publishing academic nature of this issue is still rare.

Events in Syria, qualified not otherwise as a war of "all against all" has its origins in July 2011, when mass anti-government demonstrations against President B. Assad, turned into a real armed confrontation. The conflict is mainly between government forces, whose actions support the Lebanese paramilitary organization "Hezbollah" and a number of Arab (nationalist), Islamic (Shiite) and Kurdish (rehionalistskyh) paramilitary groups, and the fighters Syrian opposition. Consequently, interest in overthrowing the regime of Assad share various Islamist organizations operating mainly independently. If we consider internal and intra schedule of political forces in this conflict, it is clear that the fight against the Syrian regime of B. al-Assad are two opposition forces - the moderate and radical. The first are "National Coalition for Syrian Revolutionary and Opposition Forces" and "free army forces" are the second - Islamic fundamentalist organizations like "Islamic Front" and "Army of conquest." However, the most massive force that opposes the president's regime is a terrorist organization - the Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant (ISIL) and its allies "al-Nusra Front" linked to al-Qaeda. ISIL strategic goal is to establish full control over Syria and neighboring countries. The ultimate aim is to create a global Islamic caliphate. [1] In a third side of the conflict are the Kurds are in the northeast and northwest Syria actually created their autonomous region, which is also not controlled by government forces. Kurdish rehionalisty lead a double game - combined with opposition forces and with government troops for a joint struggle against ISIL [2].

Syria, like Ukraine, is the subject of a clash of strategic interests of major world powers. Therefore, the external dimension of the Syrian conflict defined support of a number of powerful geopolitical players. Thus, among the countries that support the government of B. Assad, should be called to, providing military assistance and arms. Assist government forces and supplying weapons, finances and energy - North Korea, Venezuela and Iran. Tehran, as "Hezbollah" is an ally of Assad regime B. because, as in Moscow, he has interests in the Caspian Sea region and the Caucasus. Turkey, Saudi Arabia, Qatar, as Western coalition opposes the government of B. Assad. On the common interests of Russia and Iran in Syria shows a series of meetings in Moscow concerning the coordination of support for the regime of B. al-Assad and increasing military presence of Russia. Another proof of a common strategy for these two countries have a secret visit to Moscow, the Iranian Major General K. Suleiman, who is the head of the special forces of the Islamic Revolution Guards "Kods" that actively supports the Assad. [3].

Finally, enlisted the support of the opposition forces led by the USA and their coalitions States (all 65 states), which also struggles with both IDIL and assists opposition forces in the fight against B. Assad. Thus, the United States and Western orchestra NATO operate on the principle of "double exclusion", as they are not acceptable as the continued existence ISIL and stay Assad as president of Syria controlled by him. Washington, in addition to training and instructing military supplies arms. Assistance in the preparation of the moderate opposition fighters gives Turkey. Qatar, Libya, the UAE declared their participation by funding antyAssad opposition. Significant logistical support to Syrian opposition forces gave Saudi Arabia, which has a religious conflict on the basis of Assad regime ally - Iran [4]. Overall, Syria fully passed into State controlled from the outside. However and this administration rather points to the uncontrollability processes rather than real support order. In addition, the Syrian conflict has caused serious destabilization in neighboring states Syria - Iraq and Libya.

Quite unconventionally is involved in the Syrian conflict Russia. Since the beginning of the armed conflict off the coast of Syria is a group of Russian military boats. With the point of logistics of the Navy in the port of Tartus (former sea port facilities, leased USSR until 1991, is now used to house troops), Russia from September 2015 launched here the construction of infrastructure airbase in Latakia for receiving heavy military transport aircraft, and create a database in Safita. Russia's active position in confronting government forces Assad against the Syrian opposition increasingly exacerbated the situation involving the civil war. Placing a limited military contingent in Syria, the Kremlin seeks to demonstrate the ability to send troops to any part of the world, not only limited with the zone of its strategic responsibility [5]. Actions of recent years, Russia is testing West for strength and contributes to undermining Euro-Atlantic security system, trying to force Washington and Brussels see in it an influential world power with great geostrategic interests.

Politics Russia was supplying Syria mostly in the arms and the direction of limited military contingent, which serves as trainers government troops. Evidence of this was the activation of the movement of Russian military boats, whose arrival in 2015 in Syria has increased almost threefold. In August 2015 the Russian military bases in the Black Sea through the Bosporus toward Syria Tartus was about ten Russian warships. On some boats, military vehicles placed directly on the upper decks, which indicates their extreme congestion. According to some estimates, during the first half of 2015 the so-called Russian Express (unofficial name system supply arms and military equipment from Russia to Syria) made nearly 40 flights. Parallel to supply material support was by air.

Evidence of the presence of Russian troops in Syria, Tartus particular, are selfie Russian soldiers from the Syrian government flags and portraits of B. Assad posted on social networks. While Russian troops are not a major part in direct hostilities at the forefront, nevertheless, their participation becomes more noticeable. This is evidenced by a series of military successes of government forces, have recently expanded control over the area Syrian-Turkish border in the province of Latakia. The criterion for open support of the Assad regime B are joint operations with government troops by air support against their opposition. The consequences of such actions is the mass death of civilians as a result of Russian bombing aircraft areas controlled by opposition forces. In addition, government forces captured the city of Sheikh Maskin, Sheykun Khan, Salma, and with the support of the Russian Air Force launched the attack on the main opposition city - Aleppo in order to further his passion.

It should be noted that according to experts, Russia's policy in Syria aimed primarily at creating a buffer against radical jihadists on its southern flank by maintaining the regime of B. al-Assad. This buffer is intended to curb Muslim influence in the Eurasian space and is able to provide potentially increasing Russian presence in the Middle East to further geopolitical competition with the West in this region [5]. The structural component of the conflict is also the power factor. For example, Syria plays a key role in regional energy transportation, because borders with Iraq and Turkey and has access to the sea, which makes it a perfect transit corridor for Middle East gas to Europe. We know that the beginning of the Syrian crisis, Iran and Qatar considered the draft gas pipeline to export energy resources to the European market with their powerful joint South Pars field. This project was assigned a key role Syria transit country Middle East gas to the European Union.

Qatar gas pipeline had to pass Saudi Arabia and Jordan, and Iran - in Iraq, and then through Syria to Europe. As a result of religious differences (Qatar profess Sunni branch of Islam, while the Syrian elite - Shiite) Damascus in 2011 chose to project Tehran, which aroused strong dissatisfaction of Doha. After power confrontation reflected the positions of the leading regional players during the Civil War. As a result, Iran has remained an ally of Damascus and Qatar started to finance anti-government opposition.

The participants of the conflict, and especially Russia, are trying to take control of Syrian oil-producing facilities in the northeastern part of the country. Moreover, after the aggravation of Russian-Turkish relations and delay the project "Turkish Stream" indefinitely, Moscow actually lost perspective-included Syria in its gas transport corridor project, which had to pass through Turkey and ensure delivery of gas to the EU. In particular, the Kremlin favorable support instability (because of the Syrian conflict) in the Middle East to prevent the implementation of any future energy projects of hydrocarbon supplies to the EU can make additional competition "Gazprom", which is already losing its monopoly position in the European energy market . Strategic Kremlin calculation is that the destabilization of the region would lead to a gradual increase in oil prices. A conflict that lasted for as long as possible, needs to maintain the supply of weapons to crisis regions.

Speaking about the information aspect of the conflict - Russia's foreign-language media, such as channel "Russia Today", permanently focus on the negative coverage of opposition. The conflict is actually a tactical move Putin in his geopolitical confrontation with the West as one of the objectives is to create video Kremlin, which, though virtually but portrayed Russia to global power and military force. Thus in Russia understand that preserving Syria's borders before the civil war in March 2011 are not available. The Kremlin has a strategy to support preservation and further education with the code name Alavistan - current territory controlled by the regime of B. al-Assad. So, is not the main goal of multidimensional strategy in Syria, Putin is both anti-government forces defeat the Syrian opposition - "National Coalition for Syrian Revolutionary and Opposition Forces", "Free Syrian Army" and ISIL, while maintaining the Assad regime BA as the only legitimate and one that suits the Kremlin. In general, intervention in the Middle East will make the Gulf increase support for anti-government Sunni insurgent groups in Syria that threatens to further the deployment of regional conflict with the risk of transition to a global war.

Political experts from different countries united in the fact that the Syrian gambit was needed of at least three reasons: First, Russia wants to force the West to accept the Kremlin's rules; Second, Putin is trying to maintain its high rating among Russians; thirdly, the following is an attempt to break out of diplomatic isolation in which Moscow came after inciting the armed conflict in eastern Ukraine. Indeed, primarily Russia hopes that the West will soften rhetoric on the Ukrainian question and gradually abolish the sanctions in return for their help in the fight against ISIL.

Relatively successful information geopolitics (hybrid warfare) Russia in Europe, including the lifting of sanctions, enables it to achieve notable success. So, after the bloody events in Paris on 13 November 2015 the French leader Hollande said on ability to restore broad cooperation with Russia on the issue of combating ISIL and devoted to this issue his official visit to Moscow. The French establishment then started talking about forming a broad anti-terrorist coalition with the EU, US and Russia. Such convergence will no longer exclude the possibility mitigate or full employment and economic sanctions from Russia, but recently changed the official Paris rhetoric toward Russia.

At the same time, Russia wants to enlist the support of new allies in the Middle East seeking to use Syria as a bargaining chip leverage the West, because the US is trying to expand as geopolitical bridgehead in the area of ​​special interest in Moscow. In addition, it allows the Kremlin to divert Russian citizens from domestic problems, the sharp economic decline.

Equally, important strategic task in the Syrian conflict is Moscow's attempt to return to the world leaders able to influence the geopolitical processes demonstrate its part in the optimization of the modern system of international security.

Many experts say that by launching a military operation in Syria, Russia regained its status with global interests. This suggests that latter task is joining the coalition leading countries that are responsible for the fate of the world order. An example or ideal person for such participation Putin's so-called new Yalta as a mechanism to participate in a new redistribution of the world (or rather, spheres of influence) between major geopolitical players - the US, EU and China.

Of course, in the draft of "new" bipolarity such states as Syria and Ukraine the Kremlin assigns the role of tertiary facilities/extras new world order. However, a broad anti-terrorist coalition with Russia, which Putin spoke to the UN rostrum last year, did not happen. It is worth noting that Washington has its own coalition, he is unlikely to be reflow soon. This coalition, which constitute the core of the next NATO partners are the US, Russia, if they are willing to accept, then only the rights of junior partner. Also, the likelihood of the United States to join the alliance antyISIL Russia - Iran - Iraq - Syria, according to most experts, is zero. To this should be added that Saudi Arabia as a loyal US ally in the Middle East has created a coalition, which is mainly aimed at curbing partner Russia - Iran. However, despite the fact that the positions of Moscow and Washington disagree regarding the political future of the regime of B. al-Assad, Syria's military presence in Russia as a necessary means of pressure on the US to equal participation in the fight against the Islamic-terrorist ISIL [6].

So, in the end nearly five years of confrontation, Syria virtually ceased to exist as a political organization of society or a sovereign state, because its territory is under the control of a number of political forces and terrorist groups of all persuasion. Today, the country follows the fate of Iraq, who, after long opposition political and religious groups de facto disappeared from the political map of the world. As noted, for Russia than a distraction from the conflict in eastern Ukraine, a major objective in Syria is to preserve its latest geopolitical outpost in the Middle East by supporting the regime of B. al-Assad.

Changes in the geopolitical situation in the Middle East region after the incident occurred with shooting down a Russian Su-24 November 25, 2015, which violated the airspace of Turkey. As we know, the latter is a member of NATO and the case was the first since the Korean War, when NATO air force shot down a Soviet / Russian aircraft. Russia called this incident to as "stab in the back", accusing the Turkish side in supporting ISIL. In response, Ankara convened an emergency meeting of NATO, expressing willingness to defend its territorial integrity. According to experts, the confrontation with Turkey is unlikely to turn into open war for at least two reasons: First, Russia is economically unable to participate in yet another armed conflict; secondly, military resources are not sufficient for admission to the open armed confrontation with the serious geopolitical rival as Turkey. These are even lower quantitative and qualitative characteristics of the Russian Navy, which makes it difficult to fully ensure the movement of a significant number of Russian armed forces, vehicles and equipment to the Middle East region.

The above incident resulted in trade and economic confrontation between the two countries that led to a complete boycott and blockade of Turkish goods at the Russian border. It should be noted that the prolongation of this situation disadvantageous especially Moscow, as Russia's establishment will have a relatively long time to forget about the implementation of its strategy to diversify energy supplies to the EU. This refers to the implementation of the energy of the "Turkish Stream", whose construction has stopped due to unprofitability before the deterioration of relations between Ankara and Moscow.

Experts believe that the Russian-Turkish conflict marked the beginning of a gradual ousting Russia from the Black Sea, causing Russia to lose the status of a regional power and cede its place Turkey.

In turn, Ankara could play an important role in de-occupation Ukrainian Crimea. These are the statements of Turkish officials during meetings with Ukrainian counterparts in Ankara. Thus, Turkey has assured our country in its support for the sovereignty, independence and territorial integrity of the Ukrainian state. However, Ankara has expressed concern about the situation of the rights of Crimean Tatars - the Turkic peoples, whose big diaspora lives in Turkey. Ankara too concerned about the behavior of the military in Syria, aimed primarily at supporting the regime of B. al-Assad. In particular, Russian air strikes on areas of concentration opposition suffered and Turkmen (turkomanska) Ethnic minorities (immigrants from Turkey who live compactly in Syria), which negatively disposed to B. Assad regime. The Turkish Turkmen authorities believe their compatriots who need to be protected. Astana said it will continue to be hard to respond to such actions Russia's Turkmen minority. Instead, Russia said after the incident the plane has accused Turkey of selling oil ISIL demonstrating unsubstantiated base - pictures columns some fuel tankers allegedly sent to areas of Syria controlled by this terrorist organization. But the next day revealed that the car belonging to Iraqi Kurds. Thus, Russia is trying to maintain a hybrid war are against Turkey, but so far without success.

Thus, we could argue that Putin threw a dual challenge the United States - in Eurasia and the Middle East. However, according to some experts, the participation of Russia in the Syrian conflict is unlikely to bring her considerable geopolitical dividends, and the campaign itself risks becoming a protracted and exhausting. It is possible that Russia thus tries to share responsibility for the US world order, supra prove their claims by design impact in different regions. Limited resources do not allow the Kremlin to ensure geopolitical interests under the famous American formula "Win-win", which provides simultaneous participation in several regional conflicts. Grafting Russian military presence in Syria served to further aggravation of the military-political situation and the rise of opposition, resulting in the increased number of refugees to the EU, which was a new challenge for European security. Russia tries to establish joint diplomatic dialogue with Saudi Arabia, against the military campaign in Yemen to find the key to solving the Syrian issue. At the same time Putin signals Saudi Arabia, Turkey and Qatar regarding what military steps to change the Syrian regime would be futile. Generally, activation of intervention in the Syrian conflict according to expert estimates only complicates the settlement. The Kremlin is trying to persuade such actions B. Obama to recognize the equality of participation in the settlement of the Syrian conflict. In this situation, Russia could put forward their conditions, in particular lead to further political bargaining B. Assad stay in power as the leader of the post-crisis Syria [7]. It is believed if Russia fail to gain a foothold in the region and support the dictatorial regime, Tehran and Moscow can create a kind of Russian-Iranian protectorate controlled on Assad of Syria.

So, with the aggravation of geopolitical confrontation in the Eurasian region and the Middle East, Russia is trying to act in the style of the times "cold war" to underline its global importance and international weight as a global player. Expanding the Syrian military presence in Russia demonstrates that not only is not in isolation, but also has an impact on the system of regional and global security. Also similar actions Moscow is trying strategically to divert world attention from its involvement in the conflict in the southeast of Ukraine and annexation of Crimea.

Russia plays a double game in Syria - as causing air strikes on opposition forces fighting the regime of B. al-Assad, and in places where forces ISIL. This dualistic geopolitics aimed, on the one hand, to support the Assad regime B., whom Moscow considers the only legitimate representative of Syria; On the other hand, blows on ISIL shows support for anti-terrorism coalition of Western countries in the fight against international terrorism. Another reason for Russia's participation in the Syrian conflict is low world oil prices. Therefore, the Russian presence in the Middle East and its controlled destabilization can act as pressure on oil monarchy, particularly Saudi Arabia. Thus, Russia is trying to create at least the illusion that the sphere of its interests is not only the Eurasian space, but also to any other part of the world.


1. Washington threatened to increase their support for the Syrian opposition, if Bashar al-Assad will not go on cooperation [Electron resource]. - Access mode: tass.ru/<wbr>mezhdunarodnaya-panorama/<wbr>568399

2. Why Putin needs Syria? [Electronic resource]. - Access: vgolos.com.ua/articles/<wbr>dlya_chogo_putinu_syriya_<wbr>192159.html

3. ​ Solomon J. Russia, Iran seen coordination on defense of Assad Regime in Syria [Electronic source] / J. Solomon, S. Danger // The Wall Street journal. 2015. - 21th September. - Access mode: www.wsj.com/articles/<wbr>russia-iran-seen-coordinating-<wbr>on-defense-of-assad-regime-in-<wbr>syria-1442856556

4. Gusterin P.V. Syria without Assad - Syria without sovereignty / PV Gusterin [E-reurs]. - Access mode: arabinform.com/publ/<wbr>sirija_bez_asada_sirija_bez_<wbr>suvereniteta/113-1-0-1117

4.​ " arabinform.com/publ/<wbr>sirija_bez_asada_sirija_bez_<wbr>suvereniteta/113-1-0-1117

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The government and the church in the USSR

(On the first decade of Council for the Russian Orthodox Church at the Council of Ministers of the USSR)

Oleksandr Onoshchenko


The article dedicated to the problem of relations between the Soviet government and the Russian Orthodox Church in the period from 1943 to 1948. Considered the activities of the Council of the Russian Orthodox Church and the personality of the first Chairman G. Karpov. Described the nature of the relationship between Patriarch Alexy I (Simansky) of Moscow and G. Karpov. Briefly reviews the activities of the representatives Council in the republics on the example of the Estonian SSR, attention is paid to the place of the representatives of Council in all the system. The article attempts to identify the preconditions that have influenced the change in policy in relation to the Russian Orthodox Church after 1948 that affect the position of the Council for Russian Orthodox Church. Incorrect steps in the work of the Council have led to the fact that on February 28, 1948, adopted a resolution of the Central Committee of the C. P. S. U. (B) "On the improper work of the Council of the Russian Orthodox Church at the Council of Ministers of the USSR".

Keywords: Council of the Russian Orthodox Church, G.G. Karpov, Alexy I (Simansky) of Moscow, the Church, representatives of the Council.

Part II.

Almost simultaneously with the Council for the Russian Orthodox Church at the Council of RNA were created for religious worship, which was engaged in religious activities of other denominations and religious currents. Interestingly, the latter was appointed head of the former deputy chairman of the Council for Russian Orthodox Church K.A. Zaitsev.

"Regulation of church-state relations extended to other religious organizations. In October 1943, the People's Commissars adopted a decree on the organization of the SNK of the Armenian SSR of the Council for the Armenian Gregorian Church, and in May 1944 - on the establishment of the Council for Religious Affairs under the USSR SNK. Their rights, responsibilities and organizational structure built by analogy with the Council for Russian Orthodox Church "[1, p. 212].

Council for Russian Orthodox Church was a think tank, which has studied religion in the country, the mood among parishioners and clergy, overseeing the activities of religious schools in the country, their students and alumni. "For the complete triumph of [the international activities of the Moscow Patriarchate - Ed.], It was decided to revive and implement the idea of ​​convening the Eighth Ecumenical Council in Moscow. (The idea of ​​this Council emerged from the Ecumenical Patriarch Photiya in 1930. The outbreak of the 2nd World War alienated those plans indefinitely.)

The Soviet leadership was well aware of the controversy this purpose, convocations for the Pan-Orthodox Council, Pre-Council Conference and the Preparatory Commission for them - only the prerogative of the Ecumenical Patriarch. Yet it went to this step, being sure of the consent of the Orthodox Churches of the countries of "people's democracy". May 29, 1946 the Council of Ministers of the USSR in its Resolution № 1132-465 / SS ordered the Council for Russian Orthodox Church to begin preparations for the Moscow Ecumenical Pre-Council Meeting with participation of heads of autocephalous Orthodox Churches. In addition, questions have been proposed for a general discussion on: - developing a common line of struggle with the Vatican; - The relation of the ecumenical movement; - To convene an ecumenical council "[2, p. 51-52].

The failure to conduct this Peredsobornoyi meeting in Moscow, apparently, led to changes in policy of the Soviet government to the Moscow Patriarchate. Let us cite a quotation from the works of Professor Emeritus of the University of Western Ontario (Canada) Pospelovskoho Dmitry, born in Rivne region, who emigrated as a child in the Soviet Army.

"During the war, Stalin knew that the humiliation and bloodless form in which the Church found itself after the unprecedented persecution by the totality of the 1920s and 1930s, it can be useful to the Soviet government in the field of foreign policy. After the war, Stalin, and even more so Khrushchev used it in various international forums, the struggle for peace and disarmament. One of Stalin's intentions with the active participation of Patriarch Alexy I was to move the center of Orthodoxy from its nominal center in Constantinople to Moscow. An attempt was made to convene the inter-Cathedral in Moscow, but the Greeks did not agree, arguing that the convening of the cathedral - the prerogative of the Ecumenical Patriarch of Constantinople. As a result, instead of the Cathedral in 1949 took a commemorative conference on the 500th anniversary of the autocephaly of the Russian Orthodox Church, which was attended by the head of the Orthodox countries where the Communists were in power. Stalin understood that the sphere of influence of the Russian Orthodox Church abroad is very limited, also in full swing already been "cold war", and Stalin was busy with the internal consolidation of its new communist bloc - the external role of the Church had no longer much importance to Stalin. Characteristically, that after 1948, the church denied the opening of additional workshops, and since 1949 has already begun a gradual but continuous reduction in the number of operating temples and monasteries "[3, p. 368].

Speaking of the "fight against the Vatican" the Moscow Patriarchate, it is necessary to mention the forcible annexation of the Uniate Greek Catholic Church in Western Ukraine Orthodox Church Moscow Patriarchate. The territories ceded to the Ukrainian SSR (Galicia, Transcarpathia and some others) never belonged to the Russian Empire. In this area, Western ethnicities controlled, operated their religious foundations and traditions. After their accession to the USSR, Stalin decided to forcibly destroy the Greek Catholic Church, which was done by the hands of some renegades from among Uniate clergy. Temples were transferred to the Moscow Patriarchate, rebellious clergy and the faithful - repressed.

Today, the Moscow Patriarchate has repeatedly said that the capture "Orthodox" churches in Western Ukraine helps disconnection of the Russian Orthodox Church and the Vatican. However, if you look, these temples were built and used for religious purposes for a long time it was the Greek Catholics that they themselves and returned after leaving the underground in 1990.

In support of the words that the Soviet government and the Council for Russian Orthodox Church is actively used in its foreign policy not only of the Moscow Patriarchate and other Orthodox churches "people's democracy" can give testimony of Alexander lamps that her in his book "The Orthodox The Church in Poland and its autocephaly "reflects on the activities of Metropolitan Dionysius (Valedynskyi). After installing the communist regime in Poland Metropolitan Dionysius was forced to turn with repentance letter to Patriarch Alexis (Symanskoho). "In the end, a special delegation of the Polish Orthodox Church traveled to Moscow Patriarch Alexy II, to ask for his blessing on the existence of the autocephalous Orthodox Church in Poland. The delegation stated that the Polish Church recognizes uncanonical and invalid the autocephalous status, which was given to her by the Patriarch of Constantinople in 1924, and requests the Russian Church to grant her canonical autocephaly "[4, p. 273].

The meeting in 1948 issued a resolution on the question of relations with the Vatican, with the ecumenical movement, the Anglican hierarchy and church calendar. The meeting condemned the Roman curia for its dedicated commitment to planting Union (which itself was absurd, since the time the union was virtually destroyed in the Soviet Union). Heads and representatives of the Orthodox churches are not considered timely for the Orthodox churches participate in the World Council of Churches, which dominated Protestant currents. The meeting confirmed the necessity for Orthodox churches living under two calendars, to the holy feast of Easter at the same time, in Alexandria paschal. The official church historian of the Moscow Patriarchate, summing up the meeting of heads and representatives of Orthodox local churches in Moscow in 1948, wrote: "In its decision of the Moscow meeting showed rigorously faithful to the Orthodox tradition, traditionalism healthy and sober assessment of the Western Church's life" [5, p. 501].

New position introduced under the Soviets of People's Commissars of the Union and autonomous republics, regional (regional) executive committees - Commissioners of the ROC, which were intended decisions of local Soviet authorities and approved by the Bureau provincial, territorial, national party committees. Council for the ROC only coordinated candidacy. However, as the practice continued, it was a formality, local authorities determined solely authorized candidates. All attempts chairman of G.G. Karpov somehow influence decisions on personnel matters failed.

Financing activities authorized and carried out by local budgets. This resulted in the duality of their situation: on the one hand, they had to follow instructions and guidelines leader of the new state policy on churches (of the ROC), on the other - to consider the management of the local Soviet and party bodies, which largely stand in pre-war (atheistic) position on the church.

Council for the ROC authorized to provide information on changes in law on religion and the church, regulations and guidelines that warned of false steps, too broad openness in the work (almost all documents relating to the activities authorized were classified "top secret" ), shifting to district authorities supervision and study the religious situation. Local authorities had only authorized timely submit the requested information. No material from church clergy were not allowed to perform, they had to get out of tactful informal conversations with priests who for whatever reasons addressed to the Commissioner.

In his bulletins also informed the Council about the most common errors Commissioners materials testing their inspectors of the department of "best practices" rewards and punishments individual Commissioners. The most flagrant errors were considered: the deliberate falsification of reports on the flow of requests to open churches gross Administration regarding church interference in its internal affairs.

The Council regularly reports on court decisions on the facts of bribery, shared drinking authorized and clergy, granting clerics from the authorities special favors and more. In order to prevent such contacts, on the one hand, and complete isolation from the clergy - the other authorized encouraged not to attend ceremonial church services and prayer but accept the invitation of the bishop and priests for breakfast and lunch in the festive days, during which the allowable considered a performance authorized a brief greeting.

Quarterly authorized had to report to the Council, detailed reporting on its work, the state religion of the population, level of activity in the submission of applications, all important events in the diocese, violations by the authorities or priests legislation on cults, the results of his study of the clergy and parishes degree inactive preservation of church buildings. Attached to the report was necessary to report statistics on the number of active churches and clergy, and later data rites for the period. Added as needed photographs, newspaper clippings, letters etc. faithful.

Quarterly reports analyzed by the Council, and the results of the analysis were sent to the field. They served not only the overall level of money directed to the Council a report, but details versed authorized literally every step, every word or action evaluated as right or wrong. Frequently asked their Board authorized the additional information, which had to submit a separate note as soon as possible.

In addition, traditional challenges were authorized by the Council to "get guidance instructions' oral reports and discussions of colleagues at the Council. There were also national and Bush meeting. Regular checks were made members of the department of inspectors authorized places.

The majority of believers attended the commissioner to find out the results of their applications for opening churches or for assistance in purchasing building materials to repair the house just transferred. According to the Council of People's Commissars of the USSR, the building materials for the church were isolated only with the permission of commissioner for the ROC.

Complex multi-procedure, approved by the People's Commissars of the USSR №1325 of 28 November 1943 and enabled local authorities to regulate the process of opening the church on your own. According to this fundamental decision, allowing or denying the motion was faithful RNA republics, oblast (region) executive committees in consultation with the manager of the diocese. His positive opinion together with the materials testing applications believers are sent to the Council, which endured a preliminary decision that acquires force only after approval by the Government of the USSR. If the executive committee rejected the statement, a copy of the decision with the motivation of refusal sent to the Council for the ROC, and all materials are left in place.

Repeated attempts in the 1940's. Chairman of the Council for the ROC G.G. Karpov change procedure of opening churches, leaving only local authorities' statements of their views on this issue, "and the decision to transfer the Council support the government none.

Verification of applications and preparation of necessary documents on behalf of the Commissioner held executive committees. District authorities figured out the suitability of the building for worship, the extent of future repairs, distance to the nearest existing temple, the degree of religiosity of the population and are the applicants myself or "express the views of the people." An important factor in the decision was the fact or closed church in 1920-30 years for "the decision of local believers." Commissioners, describing the work done by executive committees, noted that the materials submitted by them were not always impartial.

Let's get down to the activities authorized by the Council for the ROC at RM ERSR. Given the fact that Estonia since its accession to the USSR was almost the same number of Orthodox Christians and Lutherans, moreover, in the republic were Catholic community, the Council authorized not perceived as the official who dealt exclusively with matters of the Church. Initially the Council authorized the ROC seen as authorized for all religious faiths, which is understandable, since the period of independence of the Estonian state there was a separate Ministry for Religious Affairs. Perhaps the existence of such a state office in the country was seen as entirely necessary, but the functions authorized by the Soviets in the ROC and for religious cults almost universally confused. Therefore it is difficult to explain numerous errors in the documentation of the Council of Ministers of the Estonian SSR and other Soviet authorities. For example, the Council of Ministers ERSR to appeal to the Commissioner of the Council, dated 19 September 1945, apparently mistaken addresses an appeal to the "Committee on faith" [6 ark.1].

The activities authorized by the Council for the ROC in Estonia is largely similar to that of other regional commissioners, but the historical context and the mentality of the people who lived in ESSR demanded strict compliance with the legislation on cults, the maximum sensitivity on religious organizations. Regarding personnel policy authorized Estonian SSR distinguished some stability. Since the introduction of the post of commissioner until 1953 it held one man - N.F. Korsakov. The fact tenure such a long time is no exception. As noted above, the Commissioner of the Council could move "from hand to hand" every three - five years, which, of course, negatively affected the work of the Council.

Before turning to the activity of Commissioner of N.F. Korsakov, give a few comments. The Commissioner of the ROC in the Estonian Council of Commissars of the USSR was formed on August 9, 1944. According to archive documents, NF Korsakov took office in mid-1945. It seems that in May 1945 the post of commissioner at the Council of Commissars of the Estonian Soviet Union was vacant, because the relevant documentation could not be found either in the State Archives of the Republic of Estonia, nor in the State Archive of the Russian Federation. The assumption that the documents did not survive or were filed in other cases can not be regarded as sCouncil paid a central place.

Unfortunately, no details on the identity of the authorized above us found in archival collections. Therefore, we can only speculate about previous employment NF Korsakov. We can assume that the head of G. Karpov put the first commissioner candidacy forward, but this is only an assumption, based on the nature of the correspondence authorized with the central unit. Although it was purely formal, with some phrases and turns of speech can determine that G.G. Karpov and N.F. Korsakov were at least familiar personally. Perhaps colleagues in the Council for the ROC and the associated closer camaraderie.

Tallinn and the Estonian diocese of the Russian Orthodox Church in 1945 experienced hard times of its existence. In addition, there was no unity in the parish between Estonian and Russian congregation, there was no unity among the clergy. Of course, none of the trend towards autonomy Estonian Church is not out of the question. All clergy of the diocese of Tallinn, just after the Soviets re-established itself in the capital and throughout Estonia addressed a letter to the Moscow Patriarchate requesting the inclusion of Estonia and Tallinn diocese of the Moscow Patriarchate. Resolution Patriarch Alexy (Symanskoho) was positive. Temporarily manage the Diocese Holy Synod of the Russian Orthodox Church Archbishop of Pskov and instructed Porhovskomu Gregory (Chukovu). As Archbishop (as of September 7, 1945 Metropolitan) Gregory (Chukov) temporarily led the Leningrad and Novgorod diocese and Pskov and Olonetsk and later parishes and monasteries in Finland, he could not go into the business of each of the dioceses. Therefore, given the collective experience of the Board of Estonia Church during World War II, it was decided to entrust the Diocese main leadership Estonian Diocesan Council. It includes well-known and respected clergy Estonian diocese council met in session at least once every two weeks (if necessary - more often). The meeting recorded in triplicate, to the bishop, the Council authorized the ROC, and to the diocesan archives.

All required documents Estonian diocesan council sent to Archbishop Gregory (Chukovu) to Leningrad, where a responsible member of the Diocesan Council traveled regularly. Estonian diocesan council had the advantage - their own break before the competent Council for Russian Orthodox Church and the opening of the registration in the territory ERSR parishes. Lawlessness breeds lawlessness and irresponsibility. Not escaped this and disenfranchised church as church personnel structure. Admitted with complaints of injustice against him employee church institutions had to apply to the same Council. Its archives can be found addressed to G.G. Karpov complaints, for example, teachers at seminaries activity of the Moscow Patriarchate, which displaces or transfers them from one seminary to another, without taking into account marital status and even that, for example, the local diocese or seminar administration agreed to keep people in the same place.

Postwar economic and social devastation requires the state to strict measures for state propaganda. We had to pay off a critical mood in society and develop forms and methods of confrontation of Western propaganda in terms of beginning "cold war." It was revived atheistic upbringing of Soviet society. In the 1947 decision of the Central Committee of the CPSU (b) was established All-Union Society for dissemination of political and scientific knowledge, which was transferred to the functions of the former Union of the Godless. Allied Control authorities and Komsomol organizations noted the "revitalization churchmen" for "complete inactivity Party organizations." A new round of state-church relations resulted in a number of official documents adopted by government agencies that have affected the state of the Russian Orthodox Church in the Soviet Union. "Party bodies on the ground began to openly show discontent and criticize not only the work of the Board of Commissioners, and its central office. Activities of the Board of Commissioners and is characterized as "promoting the influence of the church," strengthening "reactionary clericalism", "it is of no benefit to the state, but only damage the welfare of the people, as the state is forced to pay politically harmful work" [7, p. 360].

Still the expert religious community has no clear position on the creation of post-Soviet political bodies responsible for the interaction of state and religious organizations. On the one hand, there is a need to effectively address the relevant issues and coordination of interaction between the state and religious institutions, on the other is a danger of interference and state control in the religious sphere and certain clericalization in the state sphere.

Study of the Council for Russian Orthodox Church suggests that this body has served not only the case of atheistic propaganda oppressed believers and closed temples. Today it would be very useful to have a similar body to the government (with the same rights and powers), of course, in the revised form, which would be responsible for interaction between the government and the Russian Orthodox Church. Ukraine has a Department of Religious and Ethnic Affairs, which operates under the Ministry of Culture of Ukraine, operates a number of other consultative bodies at various branches of government. In some republics of the Russian Federation (e.g., in the Republic of Tatarstan), and some former Soviet republics (Belarus) are public authorities in cooperation between the state and the Russian Orthodox Church who collaborated with members of other faiths.


1. Shkarovsky M.V. Russian Orthodox Church under Stalin and Khrushchev (church-state relations in the USSR in 1939-1964 years). - M.: Krutitskoe Patriarchal Compound. Society of Friends Church History, 2000. - p. 399.

2. Vasilyeva O. Russian Orthodox Church and the Second Vatican Council. - M .: Mite-Press, 2004. - 328 p .: silt.

3. Pospelovsky D.V. Russian Orthodox Church in the XX century. - M.: The Republic, 1995.- 511 p.

4. The Orthodox Church in Ukraine and Poland in the XX century. 1917-1950. Collection. // Fr Cyril Fotiev. Attempts Ukrainian autocephalous status of the Church in the XX century. / Svitich Alexander. Orthodox Church in Poland and its autocephaly. - M .: Krutitskoe patriarchal farmstead. Society of Friends Church History, 1997. - p. 293.

5. Vladislav Tsypin, archpriest. The history of the Russian Orthodox Church Synod and the newest periods / 2 nd ed., Revised. - M .: Publishing. Sretensky Monastery, 2006. - 816 p.

6. Estonian State Archives (SEA). FR-1961. Op.1. E.1. L.1.

7. M.I. Odintsov Russian Orthodox Church on the eve and in the era of Stalinist socialism. 1917-1953. / Mikhail Odintsov. - M .: Political Encyclopedia, 2014. - 424 p. - (History of Stalinism).

Storytelling in terms of new media: French reality

(Communicative political and diplomatic dialogue of Francois Hollande with society)

Anna-Iolanta de Vris


The integral component of the victorious election campaigns are the complex technologies of storytelling and the first role belongs to the digital storytellind. Is the storytelling a manipulation or one of the positive communication forms? Which possibilities do the new media give to this communication technology? Whe does the narrative strategy 2.0 accompany the modern political reality? How does the communication presence of the French president Hollande reflect and influence his rating?

Keywords: storytelling, new media, political communication, Hollande, Sarkozy.

"Politics is a history, divided between those who make it and those for whom it is intended. The country does not change, not being able to write and tell stories", - said the special adviser to the sixth president of the Fifth Republic, Nicolas Sarkozy, Henri Hiano who had long experience of cooperation in the field of communication with senior officials of France, from the presidential election in 1988.

Since the beginning of its existence humankind has mastered the art of telling stories, but with the 90s of last century, first in the US, and later - in Europe, it got a new name and quality "storytelling" or "storytelling" through the logic of communication.

Storytelling has become an effective way of actual communication technologies, which affect voter through meaningful discourse. In the political sphere, it is based on narrative structure and aims at a positive public perception of certain ideas or personality. In simple storytelling lies in the origin stories that can be started at the level of rumors and get a continuation in the speeches of political leaders and diplomats aimed at changing public opinion. These stories will also serve as vectors of transmission of more complex messages that effectively broadcast further as personal communication society always provides a special meaning. It must first affect the emotional state to trigger the necessary response.

At the root of storytelling as a tool of influence on society was a prominent American expert in public relations Berneys Edward, nephew of Sigmund Freud. We know that before World War Wilson's government came to power in pacifist slogans. However, in 1917 it was decided to go to war, which is clearly contrary to public sentiment. Artwork with the public opinion has always been the choice of the right communication method to force change view. Efforts Berneysa the Committee of Public Information of Administration Wilson were so effective that became a turning point in his career. Campaign strategy organized Berneys was intended to establish the public that US military actions are aimed not support the struggle of one country with another, and to promote the ideals of democracy around the world.

Evan Kornoh, professor of journalism at Columbia University, said that even before the modern era of electoral campaigns based on TV image, a key success of the policy of President was factor invocatory narrative. History "link politics with the challenges of his age and the heart and mind of the voter" and a "tool used by the voter to bring order to chaos" [1].

The new series of narrative felt in many areas. Thus, when a legal symposium in Ottawa in 2007. Judge US Supreme Court Antonin Scalia, who was appointed even Ronald Reagan in 1986 and remained in that post until his death on February 13, 2016, justified the use of torture, based not on legal documents, international law, and the image of Jack Bauer, created in the television series "24 hours" [2]. This view has caused debate in society. Georgetown University even offered a training course on the study of legal issues raised by the screening of this film. However, Judge Scalia continued to defend its position. "Jack Bauer saved Los Angeles, he saved millions of lives. You condemnation Jack Bauer? Say that criminal law against it? The jury will make the verdict Jack Bauer?" - He commented on the second season of the series where the main character makes California nuclear threats through information gathered during the "hard interrogation".

During the war in Iraq, Bush appeared before the cameras in the form of a fighter pilot, sending the message of the public about a hypothetical victory over the Iraqi regime. This also should include training before sending soldiers to the front at the camp Pendletom in California, where US Marines were immersed in a virtual reality video game and stood them as heroes just before sending in Baghdad. The clip of Barack Obama's "American history, the US response", shown on television for 5 days before the election, answered many key parameters for successful positioning of political factors - personality, heroism, emotions, thanks to the tool's own campaign candidate has collected the most votes, knowing that citizens need storytelling format in continuous communication with the head of state, which is intended to maintain faith in the power of the president (diplomat).

So, now well-defined political program, containing a reasoned argument, not enough to win the election, because important emotional factor. Therefore, a special place is the storytelling tools, as such, giving direct access effective (communication) to the voter. It should be stressed that the success of the great stories can be explained by narrowing the time frame and spatial realities that feels modern society, and the general atmosphere of unbelief, which causes the appropriate behavioral response. A society that is in crisis of confidence may seek simple answers, creating the illusion of insurance. Because cognitive games with mythological and logical component will always be at the center of society.

The phenomenon of storytelling has attracted interest from French philosophy. In particular, Jean-Francois Mattei in the book "Plato and mirror myth" tries to explain that there are between myth and reason. In one of his most famous works "The power of illusion: in the footsteps of Plato's" outstanding French philosopher continues to explore how images of our time (from movies to video games, from the Internet to the emergence of smartphones) can nourish false perceptions and aspirations.

Christian Salmon, French writer and researcher of the National Center for Scientific Research, argues that the transfer of economic mechanisms storytelling in political and diplomatic spheres leads to "machines for forming tales and understood." He noted the importance of "narrative turn management", which aims to "control the use of stories." However, the question that this has influenced the development of democratic values?

In France storytelling elements clearly traced in the presidential campaign of 2007. During the election campaign the candidates competed in art rather tell personal stories and mystify, not in a keynote speech. According to Salmon, political propaganda in this way leads to standardization of voter reactions, making too thin line between reality and fiction, between genuine and counterfeit. As a result, society is in an environment where virtual lives or produces real politics and diplomacy.

In this connection, the question arises whether the storytelling manipulation or one of the positive forms of communication?

Trying to answer, it should be emphasized that, in addition to manipulation functions, storytelling enables us to electoral campaigns with positive communication particularly effective by providing tools to their ability to influence the emotional state and cause a desire to join a particular political movement.

Storytelling is very important in the conditions of crisis communications, acting quickly and precisely, makes it possible to show the political factor in unexpected angle. Actually, purpose use storytelling provide a positive or negative influence. As communication technology, storytelling has three areas - social written and visual, but they are increasingly intertwined, allowing structured communication strategy both for innovative and personal items around political power or political factors.

What can storytelling give to political communication? First, tell the story of the candidate's vision for the state through the narrative form that has many shades, because after voters vote for the person who gave him the vision of the world, close to the most personal. This phenomenon can be explained due to the complex structure of modern means of mass communication and the growing influence of media experts and political advisors.

Overall storytelling has many elements in common with literature and cinema and theater and is of particular importance to the development of web 2.0, which gives it a completely different technical capabilities, and as a consequence - a new quality. From the political factor required to develop their own narrative strategies 2.0 key role, which will be owned by emotional factors, living and real nature of the narrative, not least - short. Blogs, video format and general importance instant message visualization of information is essential for field surveillance and target audience interest while storytelling 2.0, allowing this communication technologies specific scope.

Within the narrative structures of digital mechanism distinguishes different types of structures and forms of messages, they are all intended to attract attention, maintain interest and trigger certain actions target audience. This strategy storytelling in the area of ​​cross-media strategy is different from working in a trans-media. It should be noted that the cross-media some way behind the Internet space, as it comes to broadcast a narrative content in different media of communication. Technology of the narrative space of trans-media content is an idea with various inter-related lines of narration. Each line is conceived as a story in history and intended for distribution through a specific channel. Messages linked content, but not in the mandatory addiction. Together messages form a logical space that can be understood even pieces of information. To this end, meaning messages optimized for use by the best characteristics of the channel through which they broadcast.

It is necessary to examine the rhetoric of Nicolas Sarkozy and Francois Hollande network Twitter, as a new space of storytelling. First, we note that Account Sarkozy has 16.1 thousand. People against 1571 persons in President Hollande. For communications service political factor studying thoughts and feelings in tvitosphere is crucial. Also, Nicolas Sarkozy account a large number of retweets, which also cause a positive reaction network users, as evidence of the attention of the former president to the problems and views of citizens, its continued commitment to the political-diplomatic dialogue with society.

Compare Tweets both presidents on the death of a prominent French politician Yves Gene March 3, 2016 "honors the memory of Yves Gene, who passionately loved France and served it with diligence" - a message appeared in my account Hollande. "With the departure of Yves Gene, our country has lost one of his faithful servants", "members of the movement resistance, great servant of France, Charles de Gaulle minister, Yves life award-Gene will love France," - wrote on Twitter Nicolas Sarkozy. Such tone of the former leader of the country is due not only Sarkozy's political views, but also a clear understanding of the necessity of a strong information component content and emotional shades message.

Another example of the differences in the rhetoric of Sarkozy and Hollande are comments on Twitter on the occasion of International Agriculture. Given the considerable agricultural potential of the country exhibition in Paris from 27 February to 6 March 2016 is widely covered in mass media. "Before the agricultural crisis and despair of the villagers we use real #PlanMarshall - NS#SIA2016. "Thank you for the warm welcome to me at #SIA2016. Farmers deserve our support. - NS", "We must Marshall Plan to bring #Village neglect of this situation: 1 euro for the city - 1 euro for the village #NSParisien". While Hollande confined messages - "I am here today to show that national solidarity is. Defending agriculture, I defend the entire nation. #SIA2016". Although abstinence comments the president can be explained as a very negative reception that he arranged French farmers at the exhibition. Visit the Agricultural Exhibition is an annual ritual for leaders of the French state, but this year, Francois Hollande felt a strong wave of discontent with his policies on the part of farmers booed the president and the exhibition hall of the Ministry of Agriculture was destroyed in protest. Of course, these events were followed storytelling expression of anti-counter-history for Hollande perhaps the loudest after Lyusett-gate.

Analyzing the rhetoric of both presidents network Twitter, worth mentioning of speech characteristic of Sarkozy - "warm moment," "constructive dialogue", "ambitious project", "listening to the representatives," which are designed to make user experience media platforms of interest the sixth president of the Fifth republic and building effective communication links is balanced media strategy. Instead, Hollande expression inherent in another format - often common expressions like "I intend," "I speak", "I would like", "I decided." Furthermore, Account Sarkozy has a strong visual component that supports the image of the political factor is always open to dialogue. Many photos of the former president - surrounded by people and listens interlocutors.

But visual communication service component Hollande decided to strengthen by opening an account in the network Instagram last October, which are inherent features of social networking and microblogging. At the core Instagram - foto of user that is a good platform for visual storytelling. As a start in account has been placed the foto Hollande with Instagram chief Kevin Saystrom during his visit in France.

It is worth noting that recently the French president gives more attention to the potential use of new media as a platform storytelling, which in turn may be due to the upcoming elections and the desire to find support student and youth audiences.

Fall 2015 also marked a new step in digital strategy Elysee Palace - the launch of a new presidential administration site design [4]. The designer is a 36-year-old presidential adviser on digital communication Federico Hidiselli, whose team is eight. Note that Hidiselli shows great activity on Twitter, using the name of his office, but saying that tweet expresses only his own position. It also caused a negative reaction of the French media sphere. Working with Hollande in the days of the campaign, Hidiselli got carte blanche on the formation of web communication Elysee Palace. The project budget was 30 thousand. Euro (previous web design site - 50 thousand. Euros in 2012) and was intended Slightly curtain corridors of power. Orders executed small Paris company "Lyumini." Innovative elements of the site was a series of web stories called Elysée In&Off, Adam realized the road, which also belonged to the media environment Hollande for the elections in 2012, and is now the official reporter of the presidential administration. The format of storytelling, which made plan designed to bring state power to the public and show the present presidential administration. The first web series was devoted to the protocol service of the President, the second - the work of the service of communication. The new site takes into account the importance of social networking and the center hosted Twitter-accounts and Hollande Elysee Palace. In restyled web resource can meet online with speeches and performances President and twittersphere officials.

However, the trend of creating fake account about French political factors also affected the president. In November 2014, during a visit to Canada Francois Hollande received a gift from the French veterans of the city. Montreal's black Labrador puppy, was given the name fillet. In September 2015 the French mass media reported the discovery of account pet in Instagram, which once denied service communications of the president. However, Fillet still storytelling was the subject of the presidential administration, communication service posted her photo on arrival at the Elysee Palace, as dogs of this breed accompanied many French president since Valery Giscard d'Estaing on, and positively perceived by society.

It is necessary to note the continuing trend began when the French president lacks the presence of informal communication, especially in the country. Imaginary communication service stocks Francois Hollande did not fulfill its purpose, conversely, alienates president of public, and demonstrated a steady drop in ranking leader of the state, which is the most popular president of France [5]. The latest example of this is the on-line communication Hollande March 1, 2016, organized its service through communication application Periscope. For half an hour this format, faced with the real flow of insults and attacks multiple users, the president's communications office had to stop the experiment. However, Hollande adviser on communications Gaspar Hantzer trying to keep calm, "often in social media is everything negative and positive comments, reasoned talk and talk not subject. But it allows you to diversify the ways of dialogue and debate with citizens beyond the classic media."

How the country will estimate these messages will be known in a year since 2017 in the French presidential race start. Communicative political and diplomatic dialogue future presidents of the society in many ways will be crucial for victory.


1. ​ Evan Cornog. How the Crafted Presidential Narrative Has Determined Political Success From George Washington to George W. Bush, Penguin Press, 2004.

2.​ www.lemonde.fr/idees/<wbr>article/2008/03/14/la-<wbr>jurisprudence-jack-bauer-par-<wbr>christian-salmon_1023000_3232.<wbr>html

3. ​ Christian Salmon. Storytelling. La Machine à fabriquer des histoires et à formater les esprits. Paris, La Découverte, coll. "Cahiers libres", 2007, p. 56.

4.​ www.lopinion.fr/<wbr>edition/politique/frederic-<wbr>giudicelli-monsieur-20-l-<wbr>elysee-54844

5.​ www.bbc.com/news/world-europe-<wbr>11576712

Diplomacy of non-governmental actors, political and diplomatic dialogue and regional initiatives of Romania in the Black Sea region (2006-2016): experience for Ukraine in dealing with NGOs

Vyacheslav Tsivatyy, Petro Makarenko


The article analyses and systemises the activities of non-governmental organizations of Romania as an instrument of promotion of national interests in the black sea region, as well as practical experience of promoting the Bucharest regional initiatives of non-governmental organizations in the period 2006-2016. The attention is focused on the experience for Ukraine in dealing with non-governmental organizations. Described on the example of Romania features and forms of realisation of informal diplomacy (diplomacy by non-state actors) in contemporary international relations and the role of informal diplomacy in inter-state conflicts.

Keywords: foreign policy, diplomacy, model of diplomacy, national interests, institutionalization, and non-governmental diplomacy non-governmental actors, Romania, Ukraine.

Black Sea region, as a rule, includes 10 states, six or coastal Black Sea countries (Bulgaria, Georgia, Romania, Russia, Turkey, Ukraine), as well as Armenia, Azerbaijan, Moldova and Greece.

Relations between Ukraine and Romania until 2014 were characterized by sufficient inertia, conflict and lack of consistency. In bilateral relations dominated by controversial issues (the situation around island Zmiyinyy; dual citizenship to ethnic Romanians Ukrainian territories and ethnic minority settlement Danube shipping transit), which has provided a significant deterrent effect.

Foreign and Security Policy of Romania in the 2015-2016 determines my a number of factors, focused on its eastern border [1; 2]. State President Klaus Yohannis invited Ukrainian President Petro Poroshenko to visit Romania in 2016. During the meeting in Munich (12-13 February 2016), both leaders discussed the security situation in the region and bilateral cooperation and exchanged views on current regional security challenges, including the Transdniestrian settlement and the situation in the Donbass.

First, under the influence of anti-Ukrainian policy of more pronounced is the threat of further destabilization in neighboring Romania, Moldova; the risk of escalation of tensions in Gagauzia; increasing militarization of the pro-Russian enclave in Moldova - Transdniestria and illegally annexed Ukrainian territory of Crimea. In view of this, active opposition to the Kremlin's plans to create a land "corridor" in the Crimea and Transnistria through the southern regions of Ukraine is a priority not only in Kyiv, but also for Bucharest.

At the initiative of President Klaus Yohannisa June 23, 2015 approved a new National Strategy defense 2015-2019 biennium. - "Strong Romania in Europe and the world". [3] Although the document does not have significant doctrinal differences in the approach to the Romanian vision of security, there is available more widely the desire to define the concept of national defense, especially as a result of significant changes in the geopolitical context. In addition, the strategy expanded and strengthened executive prerogatives of the president of the state, which makes it a key actor in the areas of governance, issues related to security and defense.

Thus, the strategy strengthened the desire Romania become an important actor in regional security, not just its object. To this end, the country demonstrates clear support for the US policy in Europe, and aims to strengthen its position and play a much more active role in NATO and the EU. The strategic partnership with the US and NATO membership and EU strategies defined in the key foundations of foreign policy and diplomacy of the state.

Romania has positioned itself as an outpost of NATO in the Black Sea region, a state that adheres strictly to the line on strengthening transatlantic cooperation and counteraction of expansionist plans in Southeast Europe. Bucharest also strongly supports increasing the military presence of NATO forces on its territory.

Despite the availability of effective mechanism of government to advance their own regional interests, the Romanian side is actively attach to the process non-govermental actors which is increasingly viewed as a means of "soft power." As for Ukraine such organizations have both positive and negative. A positive approach is seen not only in the development of the proposals to build the Romanian-Ukrainian relations in a constructive way, but the organization of their various forums, symposiums, conferences, round tables, etc., designed to promote the deepening of relations between non-governmental organizations of the two countries in a regional context. [4]

However, from 2006 non-governmental organizations in Romania there is a negative trend associated with attempts to exploit the potential of Bucharest relevant structures to promote own policy ideas restoration of the Great Romania, a negative image of Ukraine in the policy of national minorities, implementation of the deep-water channel Danube-Black Sea canal (Fast canal) and others.

Therefore, these activities can be divided into one that promotes the development of bilateral relations in a constructive way and one that is destructive. The first group is the Romanian Center for European Policy, established in 2009, and the International Foundation for Cooperation and Partnership of the Black Sea-Caspian and Black Sea platform of peace building. The second group represents the nationalist movement "New Right" and a public platform "Aktsiunya 2012", which includes more than 30 NGOs. Given the important role of these institutions in promoting regional interests Bucharest to the Black Sea region and in relations with Ukraine in particular, we consider it necessary to reveal the main directions of their activities and approaches to development of relations with Kyiv.

Special attention is given to Romanian Center for European Policies (m. Bucharest) [5]. Its specialists not only prepare appropriate studies and proposals on the development of Ukrainian-Romanian relations, but also actively participate in activities aimed at promoting European integration efforts of Ukraine, Moldova and other Eastern Partnership countries. From the perspective of Ukraine deserves attention promulgated 21 March, 2014 Director center K.Hinya report "The need to" restart "the Ukrainian-Romanian relations. Offers Romanian experts to review bilateral relations". The document was prepared based on the Association Agreement between Ukraine and the EU and expert estimates expressed in the Second Public Forum Ukraine-Romania, held on 23-24 January 2014 in Kiev.

The report noted that during the 2012-2014 biennium. Ukrainian-Romanian relations were "sluggish," and sometimes strained. It is noted that the policy of Russia on Crimea, the threat of full-scale military intervention led to the unity of positions Kyiv and Bucharest on the need to restart the Ukrainian-Romanian relations. To prepare the report of experts of the Romanian Center for European Policies conducted interviews with experts, diplomats, journalists and NGO representatives who participated in that public forum. Note the key statement of Romanian specialists regarding Ukrainian-Romanian relations 2012-2016:

- Through federalization or division of Ukraine Romania again have a common border with Russia in the mouths of the Danube and in this context should produce the "right" policy in relations with Ukraine;

- Romania has to offer to become assistant to Ukraine, together with Poland, on the way to European integration in the context of raising the level of national security;

- There is a need to develop a common agenda to advance in the solution and the departure from the historical issues (delimitation of the maritime boundary, rapid channel, right Romanian minority etc.).

The main part of the report contains a number of recommendations on development of Ukrainian-Romanian relations in modern conditions, including:

1. Poland, under any government in Ukraine, was a bridge connecting Ukraine with the EU and the equalizer in relations with Russia, Romania should have the same gain influence and importance.

1. Ukraine should take a fresh look at the elements of the US missile defense system in Romania after the recent events regarding Crimea.

1. Romania should pay more attention to specific support European integration efforts Kyiv, because without integrated EU Bucharest Ukraine will be difficult to ensure the promotion of Moldova in the EU.

1. The minimum objective should be the consolidation of Romania Ukraine as a state that it was the intermediary between Romania and Russia, and the maximum objective - joining Ukraine in the EU and therefore carry the EU's borders to the east, away from Romania, which should also take into account the development of trust relations and ensure appropriate standards for the Romanian minority in Ukraine.

1. Romania shall promote concrete actions to strengthen Poland's role as a powerful regional force and distributors initiatives in the region of Germany. Specifically, Bucharest would provide financial assistance to Moldova through Poland supported the foundation "European Endowment for Democracy".

1. Romania could become a new regional actor in the future format of talks between Ukraine and Russia, as in his time in Poland talks between Yanukovych and EuroMaidan.

1. In the new cross-border cooperation between Ukraine and Romania, Bucharest must use future funding (70 million euros) for joint projects with Ukraine to be restored over the next two years in the field of transport infrastructure and energy.

1. Romania could provide reverse gas supplies to Ukraine and to resume cooperation "Ukrtransgaz" and "Romhazom" for implementation of connecting gas pipelines "Hust-Satu Mare" and "Shebelinka Krivoy Rog-Ismail."

1. Of particular interest for the Romanian side are underground gas storage facilities in Ukraine that can be employed to enhance the energy independence of both countries in exchange for Bucharest an agreement to build gas transportation infrastructure to reverse gas supplies to Ukraine.

1. Romania can recover the idea of ​​building in Constanta LNG terminal to use these opportunities to supply gas through a similar terminal in Ukraine (in. The southern Odessa region.), Moreover, that in modern conditions the likelihood of receiving financial aid from the EU for completion these terminals increases significantly.

1. In a situation where Romania will strengthen concrete support Ukraine, Bucharest will resume the position of friendly resumption of the Intergovernmental Commission on National Minorities and achieve progress in achieving the required standards to ensure the rights of the Romanian minority in Ukraine.

1. Romania is the last of the EU Member States, neighboring Ukraine, which has not signed the Agreement on local border traffic, the approval of which would benefit greatly and representatives of the Romanian minority in Ukraine, getting the opportunity to smooth the Ukrainian-Romanian border to establish closer relations with Romania.

1. Romania still should refrain from pressure on Ukraine regarding the law on the status of regional languages ​​because Kyiv is now more acute problems. Draft law on the main principles of state language policy in Ukraine did not bring significant benefits for the Romanian minority, but rather made it possible to legalize in some regions of Ukraine the so-called Moldovan language and this law also helped expand the rights of Russian-speaking population in the regions of its compact residence.

1. Romania must find a political and diplomatic dialogue with Ukraine mutually acceptable solution to the issue of Moldovan minority in Ukraine, considering that Kyiv insists on the need to ensure the right of everyone to minority identity. At the same time, promoting moldovenizmu in Ukraine may have undesirable consequences for both parties through the restoration of the "Soviet project," the Communist Party Vladimir Voronin supported by the Russian side.

1. Romania should pay more attention to the establishing of the dialogue granting Romanian citizenship in Ukraine compared with Russia in the Crimea certification and is a violation of the Constitution of Ukraine.

1. Amendments to the law on Romanian citizenship, according to which the procedure introduced citizenship on ethnic criteria, could exacerbate negative attitude in Europe and Kyiv's policy in Romania nationality because these innovations will deal with interest, primarily, Serbia, Bulgaria and Ukraine [6].

1. With regard to the problems of the return of Romanian investments in KGOKOR (Krivoy Rog GOK oxidized ores), the Romanian side could agree on the privatization of the plant and to demand that Romania was part of the privatization process because the delay in solution leads to further losses in monetary terms, and later in Bucharest will be able to return a smaller amount of money than now.

1. Given the difficult economic situation in Ukraine, currently there is little chance that the construction of rapid channel will be restored, but Bucharest has to raise this issue in multilateral formats. EU Strategy for the Danube Region could be a good platform for, primarily, the Romanian side projects to counter the initiative of Ukraine on the Danube.

Thus, the proposal said the center reflects the intentions official Bucharest on the use of non-governmental organizations to advance their interests in the region and in relations with Ukraine.

On Romania's strategic interests both in the Black Sea and in the Caspian region suggests creating March 4, 2009 in Bucharest, with the participation of the then Romanian President Traian Basescu new regional NGO International Foundation for Cooperation and Partnership Black Sea-Caspian region. [7] As the Romanian head of state at the opening ceremony of inauguration, the organization combines the efforts of the countries concerned in order to ensure their joint efforts to strengthen cooperation in the field of democracy, justice, human rights, fighting terrorism, organized crime, drug trafficking, and in the economy, science, education, culture, environment and poverty.

According to the charter of the foundation of the main tasks are [8]:

- Support of UN, EU, CoE, OSCE, BSEC and other international and regional organizations in the economic development of the region;

- Cooperation in the spirit of mutual respect and trust;

- The development of mutual understanding between the countries and peoples of the Black Sea and Caspian space for harmonious, stable and strong cooperation of all countries in the region;

- Mobilizing national and international resources to joint action to strengthen the political-diplomatic, economic, scientific, cultural and humanitarian relations;

- Implementation of joint activities in tolerance and mutual respect traditions, customs, religion and other human values;

- Supervising the observance of fundamental rights and freedoms, freedom of speech, freedom of the press and expression, and protection of the environment and cultural values ​​of the region;

- Monitoring and supervision of the development of democratic processes in the region;

- Support for research in the study of alternative energy sources;

- Providing support in the field of nuclear disarmament and take measures to ban chemical and biological weapons;

- Support activities to implement the institutional reforms necessary for progress and democratization of society;

- Support for initiatives and actions to create and strengthen partnerships between the business community of the region;

- Promoting healthy lifestyles;

- Cooperation with governmental and non-governmental organizations in the fight against terrorism, separatism, organized crime, drugs and other negative activities;

- Unification of intellectual capacity and capabilities of the parties foundation in the implementation of programs and projects in order to maintain peace, the promotion of peace, humanitarian, civil, political, social, cultural, environmental and other initiatives aimed at consolidating international security and enhance the dialogue between civilizations.

To be continued...


1. ​ Corina Rebegea. A Strong Romania in Europe and in the World // Center for European Policy Analysis (CEPA) - June 26, 2015 [Електронний ресурс]. - Режим доступу: www.cepa.org/content/<wbr>strong-romania-europe-and-<wbr>world

2. ​ Україна та Румунія домовились прискорити скасування плати за візи // УНІАН. - 2016. - 14.02.2016 [Електронний ресурс]. - Режим доступу: www.unian.ua [09.03.2016].

3. ​ National Defense Strategy 2015‐2019. A Strong Romania within Europe and the World - Bucharest 2015 [Електронний ресурс]. - Режим доступу: www.presidency.ro/<wbr>static/National%20%20Defense%<wbr>20Strategy%202015%20-%202019.<wbr>pdf

4.​ ro.wikipedia.org/wiki/<wbr>Listă_de_organizații_<wbr>neguvernamentale_din_România

5.​ www.crpe.ro/schimbare-<wbr>la-kiev-nevoia-unui-reset-<wbr>relatia-romania-ucraina/

6. ​ Ordonanţă de urgenţă nr.87 din 5 septembrie 2007 pentru modificarea Legii cetăţeniei române nr. 21/1991 [Електронний ресурс] / Monitorul Oficial al Romaniei nr. 634/14 sep. 2007 // Режим доступу: www.cdep.ro/pls/ legis/legis_pck.htp_act?ida=<wbr>74489

7.​ www.balcanii.ro/2011/<wbr>10/un-proiect-complex-zona-<wbr>marea-neagra-marea-caspica/

8.​ www.bscsif.org/ro/<wbr>about-bscsif/

Visiting card: South Korea

Pavlo Ignatiev


The article analyses the rise of chaebols, as well as the development of infrastructure and different spheres of economic activity, which led to emergence of South Korean miracle in impoverished and resource-poor country, destroyed during Korean War of 1950-1953.

Keywords: Korea, economy, сhaebols, infrastructure, airlines, shipbuilding, tourism

One of the most illustrative examples of effective reform is South Korean economic miracle. Purpose of the article is to give readers an idea by which sectors of economic activity South Korea has managed to become the "Asian tiger" and built up the fourth largest economy in Asia and fourteenth in the world.

South Korea is a relatively small country with an area of ​​99 thousand km2 and a population of 50.4 million people. It's starting positions after the Korean War 1950-1953 were very unfavorable. Destroyed industry around Seoul significant military expenditures and the lack of strategic mineral deposits impede development. In addition, 70% of the territory occupied by low mountains, which limits the efficiency of agriculture. However, already in the 60s of the twentieth century prescription growth was found thanks to the emergence of five-year development plans, and the development of export-oriented multi-chaebol conglomerates that are trying to find their niche in the global market by imports of raw materials and export of finished products cheap. Emphasis was placed on the following areas: construction of container ships and tankers, automotive, manufacture of consumer electronics, semiconductors, chemicals, refining and production industry. Patents purchased abroad and loans along with grants received from the US who were interested in creating a capitalist enclave in mainland Asia. The presence of large corporations has made South Korea a country of business tourism and exhibition centers, most of which are in southern Seoul district Hanhnam and the east of the city in the town of Busan Exhibition BEXPO.

The country has also opened many schools that provide high-quality technical education and English language skills through the efforts of tens of thousands of American volunteers. Now here operates 52 international schools where the language of instruction is English. In addition, the middle class and wealthy families began to send their children for education in the United States, where universities are included in the list of the world's best. In 2014 studied abroad 219 thousand. Young people and their families spent on education 3.72 billion dollars [1]. As a result, the South Korean workforce is the most educated on the continent.

The dictator Park Chung-hee, who ruled the country from 1961 to 1979, considered the father of chaebol and initiated the five-year development plan. Interestingly, his daughter Park Geun-hye is currently the President of South Korea and forced to cooperate with these companies. The word "chaebol" means "wealthy clan" and in fact it can be characterized by a family dynasty that controls the hereditary conglomerate with many areas of economic activity. Corporations could count on preferential government loans and large infrastructure orders and their workers had no right to strike under threat of reprisals by the military regime. Moreover, most of them received an exclusive license for a particular type of gainful activity. An important role in the economic miracle played a quality work force, because the top positions came demobilized officers with rigid discipline, and most Koreans were willing to work for a long time for a nominal fee, to make our country more prosperous and prepared for confrontation with North Korea. The enterprises still kept iron discipline and subordination. Incidentally, the South Korean workers are second only Mexican on the time spent on the job. In particular, they work 2163 hours a year, while Mexicans - 2237 hours. This is surprising, because a significant part of the country's workforce are elderly.

Chaebol in South Korea is quite a lot, but among them stands Big Five - "Samsung" "Huindai", "LG", mobile operator "SK group", construction and entertainment conglomerate "Lotte Group", which is one of the leading owners of chain stores inflight trade in the world, which also includes major department stores of the country. Children founders of these conglomerates called "golden youth" because their shares are worth tens of billions of dollars. Over the life of these families in the country are watching with great interest. In addition, South Korea is very popular series, telling the plot chaebol owners and the difficulties that arise in their offspring during the distribution of the estate.

Chaebol can be termed as negative, such a positive phenomenon in the development of the economy. Usually their leaders are outlawed and expect forgiveness for all the sins of the political elite; the most common is tax evasion. Such actions argue desire to give them the opportunity to develop the economy and to save South Korea from economic crisis. Corporation tax in the country is not too onerous and is only 24%. In addition, these corporations impose small contracting firms and their terms last no choice because rely on them as a single large customer. Attempts these economic giants to capture new areas of economic activity led to the bankruptcy of small and medium sized companies that have traditionally worked in the market. As a result, South Korea, virtually all young people want to become employee's chaebol because of their relative stability, high salaries, provision of soft loans for the purchase of apartments and a generous benefits package, but few are willing to take risks and open their own business. So on the work market there is intense competition, and conditions of employment to the chaebol are among the most demanding in the world.

These corporations have significant financial resources, which allows them to be innovative and to capture new markets, selling products at a discount to the initial penetration. Their success can be explained not only government support, but also the ability to offer inexpensive and quality products, which created fierce competition Japanese counterparts, first in Asia and then in the US market. Therefore, these conglomerates are marked economies of scale is the "engine" modernization of South Korea. The symbol is called chaebol dominance of Ulsan city, located 72 km from the great port of Busan. On its territory you can see the leading factory of "Huindai", the production of automobiles and the largest ship-building factory in the world, whose long dry stretch for 4 km and refining capacity TNK "SK Innovation". But since the company "Huindai" is the main employer for most of a million local residents who created this social, medical and entertainment infrastructure, Ulsan referred to as "Huindai-city".

In the 1997 Asian financial crisis has shaken the power of the chaebol as they began to expand its activities in the export sector, which they were not appropriate, and received extensive favorable loans from state banks, using connections in high places. As a result, some corporations have become unprofitable, and other conglomerates bank debt increased substantially. In response, the IMF gave the country the largest in its history, a loan of $ 57 billion. dollars demanding to restructure the chaebol, to deprive them of atypical features and opacity, close unprofitable branches. After reforming in place of giant conglomerates, there are many individual specialized enterprises, one of the largest chaebol - "Daewoo Group" declared bankruptcy, and its division "Daewoo Motors" bought a 2002 American corporation "General Motors". It is the capacity "Daewoo" she began collecting every fifth car.

In the long-run perspective, chaebol were able to provide South Korea significant economic advantage over the North. In particular, when 24.6 million people of this country is second only South Korean double in size, the economic situation is quite different. South Korea's GDP 44 times higher and the volume of foreign trade - at 144 times the North Korean. In numbers, this figure looks like this: in 2014 the country's chaebol exports totaled $ 1 trillion., while in neighboring autarky he estimated at 7.6 billion dollars.

Corporations need markets where duty free goods can be exported. Therefore, as of 2015, South Korea has signed 52 agreements on creation of free trade and has become the only country in Asia that has similar intergovernmental agreement with China, the European Union and the United States [2].

important role in the economy played world prices for oil and natural gas. On the one hand, South Korea is a net importer of fuel and is interested in its small price, because of the chaebol deliver raw "black gold" and transforms it into more expensive oil products at its plants for subsequent export to other Asian countries. In addition, the country is considered a world leader in the construction of tankers, ships to transport liquefied natural gas and oil platforms, as lower oil prices significantly harm its shipbuilding industry. Gulf Monarchies also bought South Korean construction services companies in the oil shocks when they receive profits and are willing to finance infrastructural projects. However, dependence on imported energy interfere with economic development. Because the country was built 25 nuclear reactors that currently meet the current needs of industry and urban residents in electricity. Meanwhile, South Korea yields to the majority of developed countries as renewable satisfies only 1.1% of its energy needs, and in the structure of consumption is dominated by oil, coal and natural gas.

Remains topical the achieving of food security, a threat which provide rapid westernization and a small surface area suitable for agriculture, which does not exceed 15%. Jeju Island provides Koreans citrus and tealeaves, and the mainland - mainly rice. Because South Korea, which only self-sufficient in seafood, fruits and rice, has to import 70% of food. Important imports of coffee, because Koreans rarely take tea. In large cities there are chain of coffee shops, and supermarkets sell various kinds of cold coffee. An average citizen of the country every week drink 12 cups of fragrant drink, while the national dish kimchi take it less frequently. Significant demand among young people enjoy and imported wines, as in Korea itself mainly produce spirits sochzhu makheolli and taste are very specific. Among the major exporters of food to the country should be called the United States, China and Australia.

One of the main tasks of South Korea is investing in infrastructure to bring it up to world level and achieve significant labor mobility. In this context, much attention was paid to the construction of subways, which turned into underground connections with hundreds of kilometers of rails. Overall, it is considered that built in 1974 Seoul Metro, which consists of 18 urban and suburban branches stretching 987 km, is the longest in the world. However, Metro provides a third of the population bomb shelter in case of attack from the north, so the transitions are extremely deep, and they are like underground stations of the city, where you can buy everything you need and even rent a mask. Each station has a 7-8 outputs, which are numbered and extended through an underpass on a quarterly basis. The same applies to the subway Busan port, which was opened in 1985. He has four own lines, and with five private routes can offer passengers a length of 133 km and 128 stations, which is more than enough for 3.5 million city [3].

Special respect is given to a quality of work. Platforms in the subway extremely long and usually separated by glass shields on track. They are also equipped with instrumentation Wi-Fi, sockets for charging mobile devices and giant colored monitors. Furthermore, Incheon and Gimpo airports are connected to the central station in Seoul subway trains in which to set screens in cars constantly updated flight schedules.

Since 2004, South Korea also joined the club of countries with trains balls, which are called "KTE", or "Korean Train Express". This is made possible by technology transfer French company "TGV", as the first locomotives originally called "TGV-K", but later appeared and Korean trains capable of speeds of 300 km per hour. The need for such a determined clear division of South Korea into two parts - a northern industrial and tourist southeastern which, in turn, was the focus of service cruises and cultural center through the cities of Busan and Gyeongju. In 2004 trains "KTE" first began to ply their routes, and during the past 11 years has sold 500 million tickets. On average, 232 such trains daily carrying the country 150 thousand. People, developing speed to 300 km per hour. From 2014 all major cities linked to Incheon airport train-balls, which is penultimate stop in Seoul because of the workers who work in the capital, it uses them. The government also has plans to combine the popular resort island of Jeju from the mainland via an underwater tunnel, paving through it to the railroad train-balls.

Using high-speed trains makes economic sense, because they can get to any area of ​​the country for 2.5-3 hours, and the journey to the airport ticket registration can take almost as much. In addition, trains arrive at the central station, while the airports are located far from cities. Korean stations have a large area and surrounded by department stores and various dining options, thus acting entertainment centers of urban life. In addition, they serve as starting points for many types of transport carrying passengers around the locality.

Big attention was also paid to the construction of airports, most of which was Inchhon. Inchhon is an important port, is located 50 km from the capital, which provides all the necessary 13,000,000th Seoul. Due to its strategic placement he became a place of emergence of new civilization on the Korean peninsula because here the first post office, bank and hotel area, and in autumn 1950 he landed near troops under the command of General Douglas MacArthur, who defeated the North Korean army. Since then, residents believe that the commander hero. Inchhon Airport was built in 2001 - on the eve of the World Cup. In 2015, experts acknowledged that the transport facility second best in the world after Singapore Changi. As conceived by local architects, he had to embody the concept of a traditional Korean house, which has a wooden floor and surrounded by greenery. Therefore, it is the calling card laminate and tropical plants in huge pots in the waiting area. This facility is also very easy to understand from afar thanks to one of the buildings constructed in the form of a giant space ship. As Changi International Airport, Incheon planned as a center of entertainment for transit passengers, as a golf club, two movie theaters, ice rink, casino, spa and museum of Korean culture. Music played on folk instruments, and many local shops selling souvenirs at the root tincture of red ginseng, cosmetics and more. In the waiting rooms of local airlines can use the free shower. It is efficient passenger service in the category of 30-40 million people brought Incheon in second place among the best in the world "airport gate."

South Korea has a significant aircraft fleet, as in Inchhon Airport based aircraft "Korean Air" (among them - long-range "Airbus' A-380 and Boeing 777) and "Asiana airlines". The first company uses 166 aircraft and performs flights to 45 countries. The second has 85 aircraft and flying machines to 23 countries. There are also budget airlines "Busan Air", "Jin Air" and "Jeju Air", serving the medium range destinations. This industry also depends on low world oil prices, due to which the increase in share price of its carriers. Koreans usually travel to China, Taiwan, Japan and the US, because Korean diaspora living there and fly to South Korea mainly Chinese and Japanese.

Location near the demilitarized North Korea led the country to develop defense industry corporations via the United States. Now the industry has several well-known products, among which stands out the 155-millimeter howitzer K-9 "Thunder", main battle tanks K-1 and K-2, a training-combat aircraft T-50 "Golden Eagle". Defence spending in South Korea in 2015 exceeded 32.1 billion dollars. Because the political elite sees exporting MIC way to improve the trade balance and reduce the budget deficit. Last year the country ranked 13th place among the leading arms exporters, and sales of such products exceeded 3.6 billion dollars. [4].

The most revealing export sectors of the economy are electronics, shipbuilding and construction of infrastructure. The corporation "Samsung" (the name means "three stars"), which was established in 1938, are 500 thousand. People, or one hundredth south Korean because the country is called the "Republic of Samsung". In 1993 she became a leading manufacturer of semiconductor memory and in 2006 captured a significant market share of LCD monitors and TVs. Since the mid 90s the company reoriented to produce mobile phones and now offers the largest range of smartphones in the world. Interestingly, "Samsung Galaxy" is considered the most valuable brand in South Korea and in general "Samsung" offers smartphones every price range - from $ 100. to 1000. In addition, it is engaged in insurance, housing and medical services. Its direct rival, established in 1958 Corporation "Lucky Goldstar" (now "LG"), was known as the developer of the first radio of the country in 1960 and now earns more money on sales of TVs, washing machines, air conditioners and refrigerators, than smartphones. But back in 2009 it was the third supplier of mobile phones in the world markets. Both manufacturers have won buyers in India and China due to the massive and inexpensive products and generally more oriented to developing countries, as consumers there are interested in cheap goods.

Important impetus to economic development provides construction vehicles. In this area dominated by the company "Huindai heavy industries", "Daewoo shipbuilding and marine engineering" and "Samsung heavy industries", whose activity has become quite profitable in 1970 - during the oil shocks. South Korea, China and Japan today are three leading suppliers of ships in the world, although the global crisis in 2008 and led to a decrease in their profits. During the rise in world oil prices, they resorted to production platforms for the extraction of "black gold", and when this source of energy became cheaper, it began to produce mainly container, as traffic flows. However, the construction major carriers could not develop without the involvement of loans because multinationals that are currently working in this area, wine country 44 billion dollars. Low oil prices have led to energy conservation fields and, consequently, platforms and tankers in recent years proved unpopular among customers. In addition, local workers rather aggressive and willing to organize strikes. So chaebol leaders who fear a strong reaction to the trade union layoffs, now see the future development of the industry to expand the Panama and Suez canals, enabling them to switch to the production of very large tankers, container vessels with a maximum number of containers and LPG carriers. Overall, the country is suffering because of competition from China, which produces vehicles with significantly lower cost and has its own iron ore and rare earth metals, as well as from Japan, which builds more expensive, but more savings to use boats.

One of the main economic sectors is construction, which arose during the reconstruction of South Korea after the war years 1950-1953. Its transformation into a new industrial state was impossible without the construction of ports and oil pipelines in 1960 that later became useful for companies that settled the markets monarchies of the Persian Gulf, where at the beginning of the next decade there was a nationalization of oil and gas facilities. In 1973, the first contract in the Middle East has entered into company "Samwham Corporation". Since the industry began to develop rapidly due to foreign orders. In 1983 industrial group "Dong-Ah Construction Industrial" won the tender for the construction of the "Great man-made river" in Libya - the main African project of all time, which was conceived as water, which had to supply water from artesian wells in the desert to cities coast Mediterranean. Preparation for the sports competitions before the Olympics in 1988 in Seoul and the World Cup in 2002 has enabled local companies to win tenders for the construction of modern infrastructure, not only in the capital but also in other cities, which could travel tourists [5]. Now chaebol trust to return Iran to the international market, which plans to export liquefied natural gas, but lacking port infrastructure and vessel carriers. In addition, the Iranian housing market is quite attractive, considering the 80 millionth and relatively young population.

South Korea was successful in the tourism industry, because it is near the overcrowded China and Japan. In particular, the distance from Seoul to Tokyo is 1,153 km, and from Seoul to Beijing - around 958 km. The Japanese islands are also near the city of Busan, which is considered the main focus of service cruises in Asia. In addition, the country has 12 sites under UNESCO protection, among which 11 are architectural monuments and one - a nature reserve. Tourists enjoy mountain landscapes of South Korea and its Buddhist temples and Protestant churches. Seoul is known for its historic palaces, Busan - religious buildings in the mountains and on the coast, and Gyeongju - royal graves and Sokkuram grotto with a statue of the Great Buddha.

The country also owns situated at a distance of 64 km from the southern coast of the big island Jeju, famous for its warm climate, great beaches and volcanic tangerines. It is called the birthplace of women Honey, as previously returned here not many fishermen whose vessels sank in the sea, so you can see the fairer sex, which dive to great depths without scuba gear. This region is the Chinese visa and are within hour flight from Shanghai, so the popularity is second only to the island of Sanya. It is interesting for lovers of green tourism, cave explorers and for those young people who want to spend the honeymoon. In 2030 the island has to completely switch to green energy, especially through the use of wind potential. Jeju has the second busiest airport in South Korea, who served in 2014 to 23 million passengers. Today it also is building a second terminal, designed to increase the tourist flow of passengers from China.

The country is known for extraordinary cuisine, which is part of fermented foods, which produced beneficial bacteria. Its symbol - kimchi. This word means "pickled vegetables," and among the most common types of dishes mentioned especially appreciated with Kimchi Chinese cabbage with hot spices. According to local tradition, they are served in five small free appetizers before the main course, and in general in Korea are 300 species of pickled vegetables. They lower cholesterol and is a powerful antioxidant. Foreigners are habit Korean cooks and again fill the small dish kimchi as soon as they are empty, so feel fed even before they brought the main dish. Another advantage of tourism is that many hotels in this country with a big room of 25-30 m2 and have a computer. In addition, tourists offer to stay in the villages where you can find hanok - house with a roof that has a wooden floor heating system from kitchen fire through pipes (ONDOL), because Koreans have traditionally slept on it. All architectural monuments in cities repaired, and in large palaces under UNESCO protection, operating theater and sports groups, whose members serve three meals a day of performances that reflect the changing guards ceremony and medieval battle. In addition, the Ministry of Culture of the country's finances work rooms with historical clothes of emperors and nobles, where tourists can take pictures against the backdrop of historic buildings.

South Korea is also cosmetic operations center in East Asia, because in the country there is a stereotype that a successful person should also be beautiful. Local women find that the effects of surgical procedures depend on their chances of getting a prestigious job, find a marriage partner or increase self-respect in society. With strange reason residents want a European nose and eye shape, so ready to go under the surgeon's scalpel. Today in South Korea every fifth woman had her surgery to improve appearance. The main focus of these activities is the city of Busan and the southern part of Seoul Hanhnam. Currently, the country has 4 thousand. Clinics and the number of patients who every year make this operation, more than 650 thousand. South Korea actually has become a magnet for people from other East Asian countries wishing to improve appearance itself, which must comply with European canons of beauty. Excessive South Koreans their appearance has caused significant demand for cosmetic products, also willingly bought by tourists from China. In general, increasing the number of foreign tourists animates the work of the retail and actualizes the need for the construction of entertainment centers and department stores.

South Korea is also trying to use the train of Asians to gambling. In the country operates 17 casinos, only one of which can be played by local citizens, and in 2015 allowed Parliament to place entertainment facilities on board cruise ships. It is aimed at meeting demand from Chinese tourists are afraid to travel to Macau to avoid the anti-corruption sight of the Communist Party of China. In addition, casinos South Korea are interested travelers Japan, where the gambling industry in the form of money is prohibited, and instead give prizes in automatic toys, tokens or food.

In summary, we note that ravaged three-year war, South Korea without commercial mineral deposits and restricted to agricultural land area managed to win many niches in the global market and has developed into one of the leading exporters thanks to high quality and extremely hard work of labor, industrialization, innovation , cheap quality goods and free trade agreements. However, the country continues to protect and develop their cultural traditions, thus becoming a favorite destination for Asian tourists. Overall, the combination of high-tech export industry and efficient service creates the appropriate conditions for the emergence of a new phase of the South Korean economic miracle.


1. Number of Korean students abroad declines for third straight year//ICEF Monitor. - 2015. - February 10.

2. Korea's FTA network//InvestKorea.org. - Режим доступу: www.investkorea.org/<wbr>ikwork/iko/eng/cont/contents.<wbr>jsp

3. Busan subway//Snipview.com. - Режим доступу: www.snipview.com/q/<wbr>Busan%20Subway

4. South Korea's Defense Industry To Expand Its Export Markets As The Government Focuses On Developing More Social Welfare Programs//Korea Portal. - 2015. - October 19. - Режим доступу : en.koreaportal.com/<wbr>articles/1763/20151019/south-<wbr>korea-defense-export.htm

5. Construction industry enjoying renaissance abroad// Business Korea. - 2013. - July 23. - Режим доступу: www.businesskorea.co.<wbr>kr/english/news/industry/155-<wbr>construction-industry-<wbr>enjoying-renaissance-abroad

US and Arctic in the context of Ukrainian-Russian relations

Olga Budko


The article examines the relations between the US and the Russian Federation on the subject of Arctic co-operation and certain mechanisms, through which these relations are co-ordinated. A set of steps for Ukraine to enhance the US positions on the subject is proposed.

Keywords: Arctic, research, Ukraine's foreign policy

Officials of the United States publicly condemned regularly carried out by the Russian Federation aggressive activities in Ukraine. The US has already applied to the RF range of different sanctions are visiting Russia for most steps in Syria and forced to balance the increasingly strained relations with Russia at the expense of some easing in relation to other regional players of the Eastern Hemisphere, such as China and Iran.

Nevertheless, there are areas in which the US will continue dialogue with Russia. In particular, the issue of cooperation and obligations in international treaties and regimes of non-proliferation of nuclear and other weapons of mass destruction, cooperation in high-tech industries, including space exploration and more. In addition, groups are ongoing with the participation of both countries, the UN Security Council, OSCE Permanent Council - and created ad hoc contact groups on topical issues. A recent example is the group of negotiators on the Iranian issue and the P5+1 on the destruction of chemical weapons in Syria. The peculiarity of these multilateral organizations is that dialogue is the main line in the US - Russia and the other members are the only addition to the specific position of the first or second state. Another important aspect is the ability of these two countries for mutual concessions are made, usually by states or third or additions are not present at the negotiating table, countries, among which mostly falls Ukraine. This very presence at the negotiating table is important, as provided for proactive position our country can (and has repeatedly demonstrated it) to reach at least that, in this particular time to resolve questions not on her account, and sometimes even achieve more.

In keeping with this practice, one of the interesting issues in US-Russian dialogue is an area of Arctic waters and territories. In this area there are several lines of cooperation - Arctic Council (Arctic Council, 1996), the International Council for Marine Research (International Council for Exploration of the Sea, 1902), the group of signatories of the Agreement on fishing Sidon in the Bering Sea (Central Bering Sea Pollock Agreement, 1994). In addition, the question of US-Russian cooperation on "Arctic issues" is one of the areas of the Bilateral Presidential Commission (Bilateral Presidential Commission, 2009) [1].

The results of analysis published by the Washington Center for Strategic and International Studies (USA) report, "The new ice curtain: the strategy of the Arctic" [2], a number of public events that took place during the preparation US taking over in 2015 a two-year chairmanship of the Arctic Council , allow the following conclusions:

- Managerial and expert circles are concerned about the US rapidly restore Russia military bases Soviet era, preserved in 90 years, located in the Arctic zone, and a notable increase in the number of troops on the outer perimeter of the Russian Arctic territories and the intensification of military exercises. Also, attention is drawn to the concentration in the newly created special federal agencies - Governmental Commission of Russia on the Arctic - all issues relating to the development of Arctic territories;

- US strategy for the development of the Arctic direction is at the formative stage. The hearing, which took place in 2014 at the meeting of the Subcommittee on Europe, Eurasia and the new threats to the Foreign Affairs Committee of the House of Representatives, [3] showed noticeable lag the US in the Arctic zone in all directions, both on the main geopolitical rivals (Russia and PRC) and other members of the Arctic Council (of Denmark, Canada, Norway, Finland, Sweden);

- The effectiveness of the mechanisms of international cooperation in the field of Arctic increasingly reduced. Moreover, among the expert guidance of the US and there is no consensus on ways of leveling impact of this trend on the foreign policy of the United States. Barack Obama Administration announced its involvement in promoting of the development of Arctic territories including non-Arctic countries. Instead, expert circles justifying the need to find ways of establishing constructive cooperation with Russia on a bilateral basis [4].

So modern priorities voiced administration of Barack Obama, are the study of the natural environment of the Arctic, climate change mitigation, support the natural balance in the Arctic ecosystem. For the US, any investment in infrastructure development of the Arctic is the first financial costs of high risk, considering the lack of guarantees for their return as an active investment in infrastructure in the Arctic is unlikely. Thus, the vast majority of measures to minimize the potential threat from Russia likely to be implemented by the relevant patrolling the waters of mobile teams. The real investment, as now, will be used for infrastructure development Alaska. In practice, the administration of Barack Obama declared a priority in the scientific component of the US Arctic, likely would remain just a slogan.

On the part of the Russian Federation for the population whose existence and work in harsh climatic conditions are a common way of life, will strengthen the military capacity for "defense" of its Arctic territories. This is confirmed by US experts estimate that indicate the absence of Russia's commitment to cooperation with other partners in the Arctic Council. In addition, continuing to reduce the influence of Russia on the global development process encourages leadership to preserve the image of the leader, at least in some area of ​​international activities. Therefore, the "history" of successful development and use of Arctic resources and advanced Russia's role in this process is one of the few "examples of leadership."

Economic efficiency is though important, is not the determining factor of the Russian Federation in the Arctic. Most likely, the development of infrastructure and setting up delivery routes and other aspects of the economic component of Russian part of the Arctic region will be carried out mainly by technical and human potential of China, which is also the main buyer of recovered energy and mineral resources. During this interaction the Russian and Chinese sides in the short and medium term is unlikely will concern about the issue of updates still Soviet mining infrastructure.

So, what the following conclusions we can made for Ukraine?

First, our country should support the idea of ​​the United States for more active involvement non-Arctic countries for cooperation in the Arctic, as the United States agree to outsource practically solve problems of systems research and development of its Arctic territories (except, perhaps, Alaska). Given the difficult conditions of human existence in these areas, participation in joint projects with the US involve the use of high technology, which will allow to apply the relevant Ukrainian developments.

Second, given a "universality" of the Arctic Council, it is advisable to take a course to acquire the status of an official observer in this organization. Such a move could potentially connect Ukraine to other "node" connections, because the development of relationships leading countries in the Arctic direction directly unrelated to our country is important when making their foreign policy decisions.

Third, in the frames of the initiated reorganization of research institutions of Ukraine in connection with the adoption of new legislation regulating education and research activities, we should form a specialized body which carried through to coordinating the participation of Ukraine in projects dedicated Exploration of Arctic waters and territories (taking into account the existing experience we Antarctic expeditions, and to the reorientation of the potential on the occupation of Crimea).


1. ​ US Department of State, Bureau of Oceans and International Environmental and Scientific Affairs [Електронний ресурс, останнє відвідання: 27.01.2016]. − Режим доступу: www.state.gov/e/oes/<wbr>ocns/opa/arc/

2. New ice curtain: the strategy of Russia in the Arctic. - Center for Strategic and International Studies [electronic resource last visit: 27.01.2016]. - Access: csis.org/publication/<wbr>new-ice-curtain

3.​ NATIONAL STRATEGY FOR THE ARCTIC REGION. [Електронний ресурс, останнє відвідання: 27.01.2016]. − Режим доступу: https://www.whitehouse.gov/<wbr>sites/default/files/docs/nat_<wbr>arctic_strategy.pdf

4.​ Arctic Science Portal [Електронний ресурс, останнє відвідання: 27.01.2016]. − Режим доступу: https://www.arctic.gov/portal/<wbr>index.html

The influence of ethno-cultural, religious and linguistic factors the process of modernization of Kazakhstan

Oleksandr Vasylyev


Іn this article рroblems of socio-political modernization of Kazakhstan are analyzed. The influence of ethnic-cultural, religious and linguistic factors on the process of Kazakhstan`s modernization is considered.

Keywords: modernization, integration, transformation, social, political.

Kazakhstan is a country with a rich historical and cultural past. Located in the center of Eurasia, she was at the crossroads of ancient civilizations of the world, intersection traffic arteries, social, cultural, economic and ideological relations between East and West, between North and South, between Europe and Asia, between the largest public entities of the Eurasian continent. The appearance of the first Iranian and Turkic states in Kazakhstan (Saks, uysuny, Canlers, Huns), their prosperity, crisis and the fall period are dated VIII.B.C.- V centuries. not. The period from the V century to 30 years of the XVIII century is a Turkic imperial era heyday, Turkic Khanate, the Golden Horde and the state of Genghis Khan, and Tamerlane Empire Karahanydiv. In 1465 the Kazakh Khanate was established. This flourishing period of Enlightenment scientists, astronomers, mathematicians, poets Turkic empires such as Ulugbek, Al-Kashi, Saifi, Sarai, Kutyb, Farabi, and other Balasaguni [6].

New story describes Kazakhstan entry into the Russian Siberian Khanate (the end of the sixteenth century.), The Nogai Horde (XVII century.), The Kazakh Khanate (XIX c.) Until February 1917. The first stage begins the modern history of Kazakhstan from February Revolution, the collapse of the Russian Empire, the October Revolution and the Soviet regime (1917-1920). Before the actual collapse of the USSR (August-December 1991). The second phase of the modern history of Kazakhstan determine the date of declaration of independence of 16 December 1991 to the present. It is characterized by the formation and development of Kazakhstan as a sovereign, democratic, legal state [11].

In VI century in Central Asiaappeared nomadic Turkic empire, which emerged from the Altai and in a short time all the subjugated peoples of the Great Ocean to the Black Sea. The formation of the Turkic Khanate led to the restoration of trade routes linking Iran with Central Asia and the Middle and Far East. Great Eurasian steppe three times connected Turkic, Mongolian and Russian empires and every loss landmark communication functions (transit trade etc.) Caused the death of empires. For example, the Mongol Empire provided commercial communication between East and West. Way of Khan-Balik (Beijing) has been traced to the Golden Horde capital Sarajevo and on to the Black Sea trade factor, managed by experienced Genoese and Venetian merchants were intermediaries in trade with Europe. Thus, the task of monitoring the geopolitical Eurasian last and was due to its geo-economic function - preservation of transit trade between East and West [6; 7].

In the Eurasian concept of fight forest and steppe emphasis on the border, where, as a result of ethnic contacts, newborn people. This analogy is viewed with fundamental concepts of geopolitics - the struggle of land and sea, the boundary of which - "coastal zone" - serves as their synthesis outpost rule, including colonization, settlement, economic development and changes in the environment [10].

Researcher M.S. Troubetzkoy explained the essence of the cultural revolution of the twentieth century crisis and exhaustion Western (Roman-Germanic) culture as a threat to the rest of humanity. This is a responsible for the impetuous Europeanization, which destroys the original national culture in pursuit of "backwardness" and "zashkarublosti" to "benefits of civilization". The concept of cultural and historical areas of M.S. Troubetzkoy warns that the concept of evaluation should be excluded from ethnology and cultural history, all of evolutionary science, as always score based on egocentrism. No higher and lower. There are only similar and dissimilar. Announce like us higher, not lower alike - unfounded, unscientific, naive. M.S. Trubetskoy wrote that communism actually a distorted version of Europeanism in his destruction of the spiritual foundations and national uniqueness of Russian society in disseminating it materialistic criteria that actually govern and Europe, and America. Eurasian task - creating entirely new culture that does not resemble European civilization, when Russia will again become -Eurasia, conscious heir of the great Genghis Khan [5]. Note the traditional principles laid creator single Eurasian geopolitical space Ages [10]:

- Division of people into vile, selfish, cowardly and those for whom honor and dignity are higher security and material well-being;

- A combination of deep religiosity of religious tolerance for Christians, Muslims, Buddhists and adherents of other faiths;

- A special respect for the nomads who conquered morally superior to sedentary people.

According to M.S. Trubetskoy, Eurasian nations are linked by common historical destiny. The exclusion of one of the people from this community can be achieved only through artificial nature of the violence and lead to suffering. L.M. Gumilev interpreted the concept of cultural and historical zones so that the contact on the super level causing negative consequences. Where two or more face super ethnos, multiplying misery and broken logic of creative processes [5; 9].

All the above observations corresponds to the status, historical traditions and concepts of the future development of the Republic of Kazakhstan. Features of this country also formed because of the presence within it of various ethnic groups. The entire population census in Kazakhstan in 1989 amounted to 16.60 million people, including Kazakhs - 6,540,000 (39.4%), Russians - 6.23 million (37.5%), Ukrainian - 0.90 million (5.4%), Germans - 0.96 million (5.8%). According to the census: 1999 Total - 14,960,000 people, including Kazakhs - 7.97 (53.2%), Russians - 4.49 (30.0%), Ukrainian - 0.55 (3.7%), Germans - 0.36 (2.4%). According to the census: 2009 Total - 16,010,000 people, including Kazakhs - 10,10 (63.1%), Russians - 3.80 (23.7%), Ukrainian - 0.33 (2.1% ), Germans - 0.18 (1.1%). As of early 2015.: Total - 17,420,000 people., Including Kazakhs - 11.50 (66.0%), Russians - 3.67 (21.1%), Ukrainian - 0.30 (1 7%), Germans - 0.18 (1.0%) [6]. Thus, in two decades the population of Kazakhstan has grown to almost 1.05 times mainly due Kazakhs (increase of 1.76 times). Thus an outflow of ethnic Europeans (Russians - 1.7 times, Ukrainian - in 3,0 times, Germans - 5.3 times). Kazakhstan has evolved from a state where Kazakhs were less than half the population in a country dominated by ethnic Kazakhs (over 66%), indicating a deliberate policy to increase the share of people who create the state and the desire to consolidate ethnic society.

Since independence, there was a real renaissance of religions in Kazakhstan. For 18 years, the number of religious associations has increased 6 times from 671 in 1991 to over 4200 in 2009. Were about 3,200 mosques, churches, houses of worship. The basic, most widespread religious denominations: Islam, Christianity. The census in 2009 showed that the majority of Kazakhstan residents identify themselves with a particular religion (about 97% of the population). The religious affiliation of the population is so characteristic. Of the total population at 16.1 million people, Muslims accounted for 11.2 (70.2%), Christians - 4.19 (26.2%), Buddhists 14.6 thousand. (0.09%), Jews - 5 3 thousand. (0.03%), atheists - 450.5 thousand. people (2.81%) [1; 2]. Islam is the main religious institutions in Kazakhstan, Muslims constitute over 70% of the population. Kazakhs - Sunni Muslim religious school of thought hanafytskoho. Spreading Islam in the modern Kazakhstan was a process that lasted for several centuries. First, Islam has penetrated to the south of Kazakhstan in the VIII century, the end of the tenth century he established among the settler population in the Seven Rivers and Syr Darya. The impetus for the spread of Islam is likely to become a battle Talaska in 751, where the Turks Tyurheshskoho Khanate in association with Abasydskoho caliphate army defeated the army Tang Chine. The victory stopped the expansion of the Tang Empire to the west and Islam allowed a foothold among the settled population. Islam was the religion of the Turkic Empire Karahanydiv that emerged in the Seven Rivers in the tenth century. Monument of that era is the product of medieval Uighur writer Yusuf Balasahunskoho (1015-1016 biennium). "Kutadgu Bilig", which reflected Islamic ideology. It is characterized by tolerance for dissent, recognition of freedom of opinion in religion, lack of rigor in compliance fanatical ritual and the law of Sharia. In addition, the root of Islam in Kazakhstan took place in close connection with the pre-Islamic beliefs, including Zoroastrianism and tengrism. Islam practiced mostly in Kazakhstan Turkic and Caucasian peoples and Tajiks [1; 2].

Today Christians are the second largest religious community of believers countries (more than 26% of the population). Kazakhstan is the canonical territory of the Russian Orthodox Church of Moscow Patriarchate. It was originally divided into three dioceses: Astanaysku and Almaty, Akmola and Chimkent, Ural and Huryevsku later added three more: Shakhty and Karaganda, Kostanay and Paul, Pavlodar and Ust-Kamenogorsk. Kazakhstan Metropolitan district was established May 7, 2003 decision of the Holy Synod. In Kazakhstan monasteries are 9,230 parishes, several hundred priests [1; 2]. In Soviet times, Kazakhstan was a place of imprisonment and exile of many repressed (ethnic Germans, the western Ukrainian, Polish and others.), among which a significant proportion of Catholics was. After liberation, many of them left in the country.

Important for Catholicism was the official visit of Kazakhstan 22-25 September 2001 Pope John Paul II. Pope meets with President of the country N. Nazarbayev and other officials and with the people during the Mass in the square of Mother Motherland in Astana, the youth in the Eurasian University and with representatives of science and culture in the Congress Hall. The President noted that the Catholic Church is actively restoring its traditional activities, built churches, new parishes; it takes care of the affairs of peacebuilding, education and charity. Catholics like members of other religions, seeking to strengthen, unity and harmony of all the people of the country. Pope during his visit called on the faithful Muslims and Christians together to build a civilization of love, not violence. In 1991 was founded the apostolic administratura Kazakhstan. Today in the country, there are three dioceses of the Catholic Church of Latin rite, and several parishes Greek Catholics. The total number of Catholics is over 200 thousand. People are about hundreds of Catholic priests and nuns, several hundred [1; 2]. Protestantism in this country has quite a long history. After joining Russia, in Kazakhstan the first military settlements, among many residents who were Lutherans, especially among the Germans. Then there were also civilians - officials, artisans, and peasants. Intensified the process of migration from European Russia to Kazakhstan in the 80-ies. XIX century. Then the first few Protestant community, mostly Lutherans, Baptists and Mennonites. Stolypin reform early twentieth century led to a new stream of immigrants that more diversified confessional composition of the population. The massive influx of followers of Protestantism associated with Stalinist repression and the forced deportation to Kazakhstan representatives of many nations in the 30-40-ies. XX century. Among the immigrants were, for example, more than 360 thousand. Volga Germans. Even after easing policy on unwanted peoples and faiths - from mid-1950. - Community created in the republic Lutheran Church, Evangelical Christians-Baptists, Adventists, Mennonites. At the time of the collapse of the Soviet Union in Kazakhstan there were over 100 communities of Evangelical Christians-Baptists, which is 2 times higher than the number of Muslim mosques. Some changes in the number of Protestant churches associated with significant migration to Germany, Russia and other countries in the 90 years of the twentieth century. This led to the fact that the number has plummeted associations Lutherans, Mennonites, and some other denominations, some communities has become a multinational. They gradually grow by representatives of nations, which are not traditional Protestant religion. Among Baptists now many Russians, Ukrainian, Belarusians, Kazakhs, Koreans. This number of Baptist churches in Kazakhstan is growing; despite the Germans leave the country for a long time were most of the faithful. Thus, Protestantism in the country includes both denominations that have a long history (Lutherans, Mennonites, Baptists and others.) In addition, the new, non-traditional communities, especially those that are Pentecostal, Presbyterian and charismatic flow. The most widely Protestant associations are in big cities, especially in the north and center of the Republic [1; 2]. Because Buddhism is one of three world religions, it allowed the authorities of Kazakhstan. Buddhism embodied the country's four official unions, three of which are sleep-Korean Buddhism (the largest in Kazakhstan Diaspora Koreans living in CIS) and one - line of Tibetan Buddhism (which is made possible by widespread cooperation of Kazakhstan with India and Mongolia). While Buddhism spread in Kazakhstan is relatively weak (the total number of believers - about 15 thousand. People). It professes small part of the Korean diaspora and Kalmyks. In the academic literature describes the country apart ancient Turkic religion - tengrism, points to the similarity between it and Islam and Buddhism [1; 2].

Around 1870 in Virne (now - Almaty) formed the first Jewish community, which consisted of Nicholas soldiers and their descendants. They opened the first synagogue in 1884 and registered Jewish Prayer Society in 1907, when Russia was introduced greater freedom of religion. Today Kazakhstan has Chabad Lubavitch movement. Opened synagogues in Almaty, Astana, Ust-Kamenogorsk, Pavlodar and Kostanay. Each of these cities is a rabbi, a joint center network of synagogues, schools for children, kosher food supplies and more. Kazakhstan is represented by only one branch of Judaism - orthodox [1; 2].

Kazakhstan is a unitary state with a presidential form of government. The president is head of state, its highest official, determining main directions of domestic and foreign policy and represents the country in international relations. Status and presidential powers established by the Constitution of the Republic. The Parliament of the Republic of Kazakhstan is the supreme representative body exercising legislative functions. Parliament consists of two chambers: the Senate (upper) and the Majilis (lower) operating on a regular basis [6]. According to the Constitution and current legislation, censorship is prohibited. Newspapers freely distributed throughout the country. Over 80% of the media is unofficial. Information market television and radio programs is quite diverse and wide. Functioning state and private television and radio companies. The law "On Mass Media" weekly volume of television and radio programs in the state language by the time should not be less than the total amount of transfers in other languages. Distribution Transmission official language in the broadcasting daily should be uniform throughout the period they air. Yes, of Kazakhstani television broadcast bribes is 60% of the national language, KAZAKHSTAN - 100% of the Kazakh language. Russian and Kazakh leading broadcast channel "1 channel Eurasia", which is a variant of the Russian First Channel. Magazines are published with quite different subjects: international relations, politics, government and law, business, education, science, medicine, religion, philosophy, sociology, psychology, culture and the arts, sports and more. Of the total number of magazines published around 38% Russian. Bilingual magazines is about 31%. It should be noted that in bilingual editions in Russian Information covers about 80% of the total [6].

Finally, we note that modern Kazakhstan overcame a 25-year milestone of its independent existence. The country opened up new prospects, but the global crisis is not overcome, and the international community is in a state of intense turbulence. This requires appropriate state social policy [7; 11]. Management of Kazakhstan conducts a balanced policy of gradual transition from the previous scheme of social security of a socialist society in the formation and development of new criteria for the existence of a market economy. Today it became apparent illusory concept of consumer society, which was extended from 60 years of the last century. The whole world was convinced that this ideology was destructive consumption. It spawned mass social dependency in developed countries and is a major cause of the global crisis. For this false idea that can be implemented not only in the world, even in developed countries, according to the president of Kazakhstan Nursultan Nazarbayev, is a constructive alternative. [8] Namely - the idea of ​​"Universal Labor Society" because eventually all the values ​​of world civilization, all the economic and cultural wealth created by human labor, not virtual financial institutions. Only the real creative work should be based on Kazakh politics of social modernization. It should be noted that the issue of decent work in Kazakhstan society provoked a wide response and support. The economic and social modernization, under that concept, should go the most synchronous. The latest production, new education and science, the development of the middle class, expanding social security require the timely adjustment of the entire system of social relations. As international experience shows, the process of modernization accompanied by increased activity of citizens, opening their creativity. [3]

In Kazakhstan, the state is the initiator and main driving force of the process of social modernization. The strategy is based on the state social security to social progress. A major barrier to social modernization is such a widespread phenomenon as a social infantilism. It is based on distorted motivation to work, lies in the transition, the initial period of "wild capitalism '90s. This led to the absolute achieve prosperity erroneous formulas "work less - get more," "make money out of thin air" and so on. Homegrown narrow-mindedness, combined with the social infantilism, able to become a brake on modernization [3; 4].

Social modernization in the country takes place against the background of the integration processes within the Common Economic Space. During the years of independent development of a number of parameters of reforming the social sphere of Kazakhstan successfully ahead of the CIS and went on their partners. This includes pension, banking, credit and financial systems, utilities, partly education and health care, social security. Management believes that the country [8] Kazakhstan as the leader of social reform is important to take the initiative and develop a holistic model of social modernization, attractive for all partners of the Eurasian integration. It is important not just consider all the challenges in the construction of modernization policies, but also to determine a common understanding of the process of social modernization, which all governments should be guided.

Today the purpose and content of social modernization is to prepare the society for life in the new industrial and innovative economy; to find the optimal balance between economic development and forced wide provision of public goods; establish social relationships built on the principles of law and justice. The main tasks of leadership as part of the modernization process are as follows [8]:

- To take action and lead to just laws and clear rules of law prevention, management and resolution of conflicts, as well as the entire system of social relations;

- Develop and implement a system of quality social standards and professional qualifications of Kazakhstan, particularly the economically active population;

- To create an effective model of industrial relations, based on partnership arrangements will state, private sector and trade unions;

- Develop self-organizing principle in the life of Kazakhstan, including local governments, "modernize" civil society, which should become effective instruments of implementation of social initiatives of citizens;

- Significantly increase the information component life of Kazakh society to empower internet technology as in terms of informing citizens and strengthening constant "feedback" between the state and the public;

- Create conditions for continuous growth of the middle class, the emergence and development of the creative class - the main driving forces of innovation economy;

- Cope with phenomena such as dependency and social infantilism, introduce new incentives for employment and prosperity, based on high individual responsibility and business partner interaction of all of the employment relationship with the state.

An important aspect of modernization is creation of a system of effective state management of social processes built "vertical" and "horizontal" with a professional corps of experts and managers at all levels. Changes in the social sector should be up to the development and capabilities of Kazakhstani economy. The algorithm is based on a process of modernization pulling backward areas, regions, industries and social groups to the standards and indicators of social development. Management Kazakhstan is trying its work should build upon close cooperation between government, business and citizens. The task of government is to provide a rational balance of interests of the state, society and the individual. It is important to actively promote social partnership, to create conditions for increasing the participation of private sector in the modernization of the country, primarily social. Modernization will be successful only if based on real economic achievements, fully connected with forced industrial-innovative development.

In conclusion, we note the following:

1. Kazakhstan is a country with significant mixing ethics and morals of different peoples, as well as one of the most stable in the post on interethnic relations. Almost the entire population, regardless of nationality, sufficiently fluent in Russian. There has been growth in popularity of English and Kazakh language revival.

2. The Constitution defines the Republic of Kazakhstan as a secular state. The major religions of the country are Islam and Christianity (mainly - Orthodoxy). Also there are present: Judaism, Buddhism. Kazakhstan is against the law to create political movements based on religious beliefs. This is done to prevent inter-ethnic and inter-religious clashes.

3. Since independence created a solid foundation of the welfare state. Objectively, the country came close to the quality of the social development of the European average. Living standards of residents steadily increasing. In the process of modernization of Kazakhstan's vitally important to find an optimal balance between economic success and providing public goods.


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