Головні статті

№2 / 2016
22.07.2016, 17:50

Russian poverty and Ukraine

Tetyana Orlova


The article is dedicated to revealing the dialectical connection between poverty and the aggressive policies of Russia that impairs Ukraine's national security. The antagonism is based on modernization which must rely on the respective change in the national conscience of the Ukrainians. A variant of the national idea is proposed: "Ukraine as a wealthy European country".

Keywords: Ukraine, Russia, poverty, aggression, information warfare, modernization.

At the present stage of human development poverty is one of his global issues. It is a socio-economic phenomenon inherent in any society has many aspects. In the world practice accepted isolate three main concepts definition of poverty: absolute, relative, subjective. Absolute poverty is a lack of vital resources, providing human biological survival. Relative poverty is defined by comparison with the generally accepted standard of living that is considered "normal" in a given society. Subjective poverty is determined by the individual that determines whether he is poor, can normally exist. Poverty is a complex system of processes that lead to a profound restructuring of material and spiritual culture. It concerns the whole society, not just that part that suffers from poverty. From the misery associated demographic challenges, employment, unemployment, education and culture of citizens, their education, socialization and morality. Poverty affects the dehumanization of human relations, increased crime and terrorism, reduces the level and quality of life. It affects the economy and politics, both internal and external. Developed Western countries integrate poverty in the social system and can keep control of the processes that occur there. For example, they are able to adjust the scale of poverty through waste mechanisms of social assistance. Ukraine in its development appreciate the best experience of solving various problems, although its implementation is now complicated by many factors. First of all, an aggressive policy of Moscow.

The situation in modern Russia is a vivid example of the dialectic of politics and economics, and it is their interdependence and mutual influence. Although Russia is considered a rich country, its essential feature - the inability to overcome the poverty, the desire to hide its aggressive policies to show the world their "greatness." But imperial policy requires huge costs that pulled away from the social sector, reducing the possibility of the living standards, leaving it mostly poor.

The role of historian is to help understanding of the present through understanding the past. It is important to determine its strategic orientation as well as others. From ancient times until now there was a problem of poverty. She studied and are studying Russian researchers [1]. Among their publications prevailing demographic and sociological, sometimes economic. They are considered indicators, causes, consequences, methods of estimation of poverty. Served description of needs in modern, emphasizes that it is a special, growing stratum of people employed, including many highly educated and skilled, but can not provide for themselves and their loved ones normal living conditions. In contrast, the "new rich" they called the "new poor". Some researchers suggest various ways and programs to overcome called social vices, warning about its threat to national security. There Ukrainian discourse of poverty primarily in media materials. This is a separate issue, the more so as the growth of our country this disaster is a great danger. However, still had not read or heard national scientists thought about how national security Ukraine suffers from poverty of Russia. The purpose of the proposed exploration into consideration is the clarification of the matter.

At that moment Kremlin policies determined by one person, which is traditional for Russia, and there's a valued tradition. There is also aphorism to the effect that each community is worth your supervisor. In this case we see the manifestation of the dialectic: Putin determine the political line of the country, but he is the embodiment of its essential features. Figuratively speaking, Vladimir is a small man. This includes his height, and his social origin. But his name and patronymic founded hope "possession world." Similarly, the vast majority of Russians for centuries been "little people." However, they just need to compensate for this inferiority complex idea of ​​"greatness" that respects and even fears the world. That inferiority complex and imperial arrogance combined in one authoritarian personality.

In his book "Escape from Freedom" E. Fromm wrote that, on the one hand, the authoritarian personality inherent sense of inferiority, helplessness, meanness, and the other - the desire to put other, more "weak" people dependent on itself, the desire to mock over them [2]. The authoritarian personality is the bearer of an authoritarian syndrome, which analyzed the main characteristics of Theodor Adorno [3]. This is the obsession of greatness, irrational attitude to power, blind faith in authority and unwillingness to critically assess the country's head of search for an external enemy and by weak self, that willingness to attack what appears to be weak and the public regarding acceptable as a victim . At the same time there is crazy jealousy and hatred of those who think and live differently, who are more successful.

These authoritarian syndrome symptoms are easy to spot in the vast majority of contemporary Russians. The local researchers before the events of 2014-2016 consider that "at the present time Russian society imbued with authoritarian syndrome, and the presence of the syndrome in human consciousness independent of their age and socioeconomic status" [4]. Although it is believed that the bearer of liberal ideas is middle class in Russia liberalism ends when it comes to Ukraine. On the other hand, after 14 years of revenue growth due to high energy prices, which are rich in Russia [5], the last two years the economic situation has deteriorated. In February 2016 a major threat to the national security of the residents called rising prices and poverty. An increasing number of those who are in poverty or teetering just above below.

In late 2015 the World Bank raised the poverty threshold of $ 1.25 per day to 1.9. Official statistics in Russia put the number at 20 million citizens live below the poverty line. Sociologists say, 30 to 60 million. [6] In what is poverty which reproduces itself. Scientists call it structural, referring to the constant state of much of the population. Founded large social group of poor structural element of a stable society. This misery is not related to personal characteristics and labor efforts of people. A "new feature of social structure was the increase in uncertainty and instability considerable social status of citizens" [7]. Their psychological state is recognized and used by management.

Professor of neuro- and pathopsychology cathedra in Moscow State University, Doctor of Psychology O.Sokolova in interview "Novaya Gazeta" explained why in a country so many people are easy to manipulate: "Social reality is becoming more complex, unpredictable and such frightening its uncertainty. A TV is also fueling fears intentionally bringing people to a state of chaos and panic. In a situation of severe stress created possible "breakdown" mechanisms of rational thought. People easily likened to the crowd, where there are archaic instincts, emotions simplest infection and unanimity. Human personality traits and thus washed. People are waiting and trying to find those "strong" who offer their "order" and soothing nonsense. Manipulator does not think that will happen to a man, it features emotional coldness, cruelty, a kind of stupidity. In fact, the manipulator psychology is the psychology of the murderer" [8].

The position of main manipulator is also shaky. For the sake of strengthening, the sake of society distraction from painful internal problems, the same poverty, he sends it out. Prosaic answer to the question: "How is "hohol" doing?" is the predominance of information in the media about the case in Ukraine more than in Russia. The main purpose: to put our country in the form of "failed state" - "State which did not take place" because it broke away from Moscow's aspires to live differently and better. In today's world real improvement can only be achieved through modernization. This is a fundamental question, because some figures, and in Ukraine, too, not wanting to change things, to which they are accustomed and feel good, insist on the primacy of preserving traditions. Vladimir Putin is the first in Russia. He understands the importance of creating myths, support religious ideological forms of thought as a defensive reaction. People substitute for hard reality admiration of past, idealization traditions.

Undoubtedly, traditions are important, but they should not interfere with changing community or individual changes according to the environment. Transformation according to new conditions may be adequate, and then it is modernization. Or not adequate, then it is the degradation. From the time of Peter the Great, Russia is trying to modernize, but each time they fail. The main reason is that the borrowed some new external forms, especially to strengthen the military-industrial complex - the foundation of government. However, remain unaffected by the underlying values ​​that are also aimed at strengthening the foundations of power. The peculiarity of Russian civilization is its focus not innovative future, and traditional past. Most of its values ​​in its essence is archaic, but in reality is often distorted.

We can say that they are committed to 86% Russian-sympathizers of president - the ultimate favorite virtues. People say: "Putin raised Russia from its knees. We tolerate! "Or:" Yes, the war will be, but we will in the face to Americans!" Dissent is getting smaller: they are either silent or leave the country. Mode does not close the borders for those who want to live anew elsewhere. The government is not interested in upgrading, improving community life. The logic is simple: because of the modernization the welfare increases. Satisfying basic needs, a person sees further disagrees with the situation that has emerged around. It raises uncomfortable questions to the government and wants to control it. But does the power want the same?

Consciousness of representatives of Russian civilization at all levels - from the president to the average pensioner - inherent in messianism - the belief in possession of the truth, "real spirituality", which must bear the "unconscious", thus "saving" them. In this hidden desire to "own the world." Own failure to modernize trying to hide another burst of aggression, which is directed primarily against other countries, particularly against Ukraine. The fight is in different ways. Nowadays almost the most important role of information warfare. This is combined impact of (a set of information operations) on the enemy, which has lead to a decision favorable to the party that organizes the information influence decisions. Since the 90s of the last century the information war is considered the most promising method of warfare. Unfortunately, Ukraine has suffered because of her significant losses. Whatever may be said in the Crimean and causes the loss of the eastern lands were the leading factor sentiments of local people calling for "Putin, come!" Russian propaganda waged long and hard, as it turned out successful work. The idea that moved millions, was not so much political as economic. Convinced that "Russia is rich," people wanted higher wages and pensions. To this was added the legacy of Sovietism rider hopes on the government, which must provide free housing, education, healthcare and other social benefits.

However, it turned out that rich shines only in Moscow and then not at all. Huge peripheral area suffer from various kinds of shortages. A year or two it felt Crimean and immigrants from Ukraine. Since the summer of 2014 came to Russia about 2.5 million refugees from war-torn Ukrainian regions. Government of 31 October 2015 adopted a resolution, which defined the terms and conditions of their detention in temporary stay. In February 2016 the mass eviction of those who called Russia his new home. [9]

Fee for aggression is reducing the economic opportunities that increase poverty, which, convinced the majority of Russian citizens, blame external circumstances. Avoiding responsibility is a typical feature of authoritarian consciousness. Another feature of authoritarian consciousness is a traditional love for simplicity, contradicting the global trend is the movement toward ever more complexity is simplification archaization place of innovation and modernization.

What can you conclude? Ukraine cannot change its geographical location and its neighbor Russia remain. History shows that the development of the Russian civilization was not intensive and extensive nature, particularly through territorial expansion through aggression. As it turned out, should pay for everything, and greatness as well. Huge ambitions and vast areas are expensive, they require huge investments. Paradoxically, greatness has caused poverty.

Regarding historic prospects for Moscow were expressed different assumptions. At the Moscow TV channel "Rain" in February 2016 even launched the program "Russia after". It is unlikely that poverty persists there in the near future, Russian scientists themselves admit that "... Russia is a country progressing poverty" [10]. The inability and unwillingness to solve internal problems in sublimates aggression out, distracting the population from failure to respond to the historic challenge - the challenge of modernization, explains the complexity and gives reason to be proud of belonging to large, strong and "rich" countries. Similar sentiments are directly and indirectly reveal itself in domestic and foreign policy of Moscow.

Ukrainians must understand this and act accordingly. Just realize that poverty is a serious threat to the national security of our country and take up the development and implementation of appropriate countermeasures. However, not seek refuge from life's difficulties, hoping that a community that was very unreliable, besides not too successful in the modern world. At the same negative result is the same result. The example of Russia shows that the acceleration of historical necessity forces eventually think about the legacy that hinders the development of the society over which changes of national consciousness should work for the progress of our country. National Security Ukraine strengthened its first successful modernization progress. Putin formulated the Russian national idea as "patriotism." The rise of China after Mao Zedong inspired by the idea of ​​average prosperity - Xiao-kan, probably, we will approach the national idea, formulated as follows: "Ukraine is prosperous European country."


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2. E. Fromm Escape from Freedom / Erich Fromm; per. from English. A. Laktionova. - M .: AST: AST Moscow, 2009. - P. 140-143.

3. T. Adorno Authoritarian personality study / T. Adorno. - M., 2001. - 416 p.

4. Kasamara V.A. The post-Soviet nostalgia in the daily discourse of the Russians / V.A. Kasamara, A.A .Sorokin // Social studies and the present. - 2011. - № 6. - S. 30.

5. Natural resources brought Russia into the trap of poverty. Now the country throughout the visual feel "commodity curse" - an imbalance in the poor economy, which gets a lot of money with little effort and is not interested in the development of other sectors of the economy. Also used the phrase "Dutch disease economy" because the state is "sitting" on the export of low value added, and it has no incentive to develop those industries where a high proportion of the products. Ingredients and technology acquired abroad, unless, of course, sell.

6. The World Bank raised the poverty line to 1.9 dollars a day - [Electronic resource] - Access mode: www.newsru.com/finance/<wbr>05oct2015/worldpoverty.html

7. Pilipenko O.S. The sociological portrait of poverty in Russia / O.S. Pylypenko, O.A. Petrovskaya. - [Electronic resource]. - Access: www.scienceforum.ru/<wbr>2015/1052/10910

8. ru.krymr.com/content/<wbr>article/26776846.html

9. Here's a refugee, and St. George's Day: Persons with Donbass thrown out into the street - the money for their upkeep finished // Moskovsky Komsomolets in Ukraine. - 2016 - 10-16 February. - S. 7.

UN peacekeeping experience and "Plan B" of military and political settlement of the conflict in eastern Ukraine

Igor Lossovskyy


The experience of conflict resolution in the OSCE area under the leading role of this organization indicates a general tendency of "freezing". However, the most successful examples of settlement in CEE can be considered conflicts in former Yugoslavia in the 1990s., where the leading role was assigned to the United Nations with the supporting role of the OSCE, the EU and NATO. The model of conflict resolution around the Serb enclaves in Croatia are analyzed in the article. Given the experience of the UN peacekeeping activity, analogies and forecasts are conducted of possible developments in the Eastern Ukraine by the example of end the war in Croatia and peaceful rehabilitation in Croatian Danube region. Similar model is offered as a plan "B" for settlement of the military and political conflict in Donbas.

Keywords: OSCE, UN, Eastern Ukraine, Minsk agreement, Croatia, UNTAES

Part II.

History of promotion the idea of taking up the UN peacekeeping mission in Donbass by Ukraine.

Parliament on 17 March 2015 endorsed the President's draft decree on applying to the UN Security Council and the Council of the European Union on the deployment in the country of international peacekeeping and security. Mission of Ukraine to the EU transferred leadership of the EU is requesting to consider it and to start consultations on the operation of the EU in the framework of the Common Security and Defence Policy. Thus the OSCE Secretary General L. Zanyer said that "not convinced that the UN peacekeeping operation in the Ukraine will be more successful than the work of OSCE observers SMM". According to him, the OSCE should work harder and try to get greater access to the conflict zone. Meanwhile, Foreign Minister of Russia S. Lavrov said that Russia is ready to consider the presence of peacekeepers in the Donbass in the case, "if the conflicting parties interested in this." Regarding the possibility of deployment in eastern Ukraine EU peacekeeping mission, which would not require a special UN Security Council decisions and the mandate of the organization (although such a mandate would provide greater legitimization mission), then, as announced April 26, 2015 President of the European Council D. Tusk: "today and in the near future cannot reach a decision on the deployment in eastern Ukraine EU security mission." However, the President of Ukraine Poroshenko and head of the European Commission J.-C. Juncker at the joint press conference in Brussels on 27 August 2015 said that Ukraine intends to regularly violate the international community the introduction of the peacekeeping mission in Donbass. This international peacekeeping mission would be complex and represented as elements of the UN and the EU, and OSCE.

In early June 2015 the Verkhovna Rada approved the Law of Ukraine "On the admission procedure and conditions of the armed forces of other states on the territory of Ukraine," and on June 25 the president put this document to sign. This law regulated the issue of in our state of international peacekeeping and security in the expansion of the grounds for admission and the armed forces of other states on the territory of Ukraine. Article 3 of the Law "On procedure of admission and conditions of the Armed Forces of other countries in Ukraine" was supplemented with a provision that provides that the purpose of the stay of foreign forces in our country can be "providing Ukraine, in its request, in the form of its territory international peacekeeping and security in the decision of the UN or the EU." The law prohibits participation in such operations forces of "who unleash military aggression against Ukraine", which excludes participation in peacekeeping operations in [1].

Plan countering Russian aggression of R. Sikorski

In late August 2015 R. Sikorski proposed plan somewhat exotic stop Russian aggression against Ukraine: "First, you must convince the President of, the territory of NATO is not a region to the Russian military adventures. Secondly, I would convince Putin that if he will move on to Ukraine, he would face a long-term conflict that he did not win. Third, time is working against Putin. Ukraine carries out reforms, while the conflict cost Russia dearly. Then he would go for a deal and give up the occupation of Ukraine. Need a process in which would participate the US and the EU, which has settled to a result of all conflicts in the post - Transnistria, Caucasus and others "[2].

Carl Bildt about the UN peacekeeping mission in Donbass

In the English-language electronic resource "Project Syndicate" July 15, 2015 was published the article "Good intervention in Ukraine" known European politician Karl Bildt, former Prime Minister (1991-1994) and Foreign Minister (2006-2014) of Swedish, multi lobbyist and supporter of European integration of Ukraine. The material had a rather extensive media attention, not only Ukrainian. It was published on July 21 by another name - "Peacekeepers in Ukraine? It is possible" in a leading Canadian federal daily "The Globe and Mail" [3]. Carl Bildt is an uncompromising critic of aggressive foreign policy of President Vladimir Putin's post-Soviet countries and military aggression against Ukraine. Recall that in the mid-1990s this politician has held a number of responsible diplomatic positions in the UN system and European Union Special Envoy of the EU in the former Yugoslavia, the High Representative on Bosnia and Herzegovina (BiH), Special Envoy of the UN in the Balkans, co-chairman of the Dayton peace conference on BiH. Great international peacekeeping experience gave him the opportunity to make some analogies and predict possible development of the situation on the Ukrainian Donbas based on a model settlement of the Yugoslav crisis of the 1990s, including the war in Croatia and peaceful rehabilitation "of the Croatian Danube". According to Karl Bildt, if Russia really wants to resolve the conflict in eastern Ukraine, it must be ready to support the placement of UN peacekeeping mission in the region. This mission will contribute to a peaceful rehabilitation of the region; will provide border control in the conflict area and the return of displaced persons. This could create favorable framework conditions for the proper implementation of key provisions of the Minsk agreements, above all, to hold legitimate local elections. As a successful model of peaceful rehabilitation and reintegration, Karl Bildt provides an example of "good intervention" and the creation of the UN in autumn 1995 the institute temporary international protectorate (UNTAES) - UN Transitional Administration for border region of Serbia, Croatia.

The position of Russian politicians and experts

The Russian newspaper "Kommersant" brings thoughts of famous Russian experts who support the idea of ​​introduction in Ukraine of peacekeeping missions:

"The presence of peacekeepers under UN auspices is the only way to end the war in Donbas." However, according to Russian experts, the package deal Minsk-2 did not provide for the participation of UN peacekeepers in Ukraine only one reason: Poroshenko was then totally against this, and the EU was not ready for such a step without the approval of official Kyiv. Some Russian experts believe that the peacekeepers with the mandate of the European Union are unacceptable for Russia, which does not consider the EU an impartial player. Also, the question - which the territory will extend the mandate of peacekeepers? "If they are placed on the boundary line in the buffer zone, this may be beneficial to Russia. If it will attempt to place peacekeepers and the Russian-Ukrainian border, this idea may cause rejection of Moscow, which wants to become a border barrier to interaction with the DPR and LPR" [4].

The advantages of deploying UN mission

UN mission would be the most effective method of de-escalation and complete cessation of military phase of the conflict; begin the process of rehabilitation of peace in the region; ensure reliable control of Ukrainian-Russian border in the conflict zone, the return of "displaced" and "internally displaced" persons and refugees; ensure their right to elect and be elected to representative bodies, reintegration of Donbass in Ukraine with due observance of all international norms and rules. The presence in eastern Ukraine international UN peacekeeping mission will help translate the situation in the post-conflict phase, during which, subject to disarm illegal military formations and unauthorized withdrawal of foreign units when observing collective international peacekeeping forces may be conducted objectively investigate war crimes and crimes committed against the civilian population. A model of such investigations could be the so-called transitional justice like the one that took place in the former Yugoslavia when the investigation conducted by international courts. Only after such investigations could consider the possibility of amnesty.

As a model of successful transition process of peaceful reintegration and rehabilitation experience can be considered "proper intervention" the international community, in this case represented by the United Nations and the establishment in November 1995 of the UN Transitional Administration for "the Croatian Danube" - the border with Serbia region of Croatia [5; 6].

The history of settlement in the former Yugoslavia and some Ukrainian analogy

As now in the territory of Donbass, 20-25 years ago in Croatia separatists supported by the federal government of the Serbian dictator Milosevic S., who, like Putin today, insisted that the problem was solved by direct negotiations between separatists and the Government of Croatia. In the case of the plan, such a policy would only lead to freezing the situation, legitimizing separatist government RAC and its subsequent unification within the "Greater Serbia" or continuing de facto "independent" existence.

The international peacekeeping mission of OSCE in Croatia, which began its work in January 1998 along with the completion of the mandate of UNTAES, watched the process of a gradual transfer of power in the region of the Transitional UN administration to the central government and local administrative structures of the Republic of Croatia, compliance with the relevant international norms and rules Erdutskymy and in accordance with the Dayton peace agreement in 1995, and conducted the necessary work for the organization and provision of local elections in autumn 1999.

Making analogy with a peaceful settlement of the conflict in the former Yugoslavia 20 years ago due to broad, active participation and initiative mediation of the international community, especially the UN, NATO, EU and prospects for a positive resolution of the crisis provoked by Russia in the east of Ukraine we should pay attention to some fundamental differences, which can significantly complicate the application in Ukraine "Croatian scenario". Both crises were provoked by authoritarian countries who professed policy and political pressure on its neighbors, seeking to build a democratic society and achieve real independence. However, if Serbia in the mid-1990s, there was only a small segment of the former Yugoslav Federation continued to crack at the seams and break up with mediocre army and obsolete weapons, Russia is now militarily is one of the most powerful countries in the world that has the second nuclear arsenal in the world, a permanent member of the UN Security Council and has a high political influence in the Eurasian space and huge resource potential.

The political, military and economic position of the Serbian regime of that time were close to catastrophic and had no significant internal resources, nor military nor economic, nor any other. The country was in a tough international isolation and under strict UN sanctions. From 1992 to 2000 was deprived of membership in the UN, in the same period was suspended its membership in the OSCE to 2002 it did not accept the Council of Europe. Being in such isolation and under international pressure following the unanimous S. Milosevic regime actually was willing to agree to any collective decisions and motives of the West because he could not oppose anything, remaining in complete isolation. Even some political support for such a historically of Serbia, like Russia, has been very limited and insufficient to continue the confrontation.

In May and August 1995 the Croatian Armed Forces, created, trained and armed with the active support of the international community, attacked the positions of the Yugoslav People's Army (JNA), which enabled Croatia to connect western and central RAC (Western Slavonia). RSK then actually ceased to exist because it was deprived of its capital - the city of Knin, and in its composition after these attacks were only the territory "of the Croatian Danube". At the amenability of the authoritarian regime of Yugoslavia seriously affected by military aircraft bombing the positions of NATO JNA in Bosnia (August 5 and September 22, 1994 in the district of Sarajevo, the area of ​​Pale - 25 and 26 May 1995; airstrikes and two weeks in August and September 1995), after which the Belgrade regime was ready to accept the Dayton agreement and Erdutski (November 1995), proposed by international mediators.

With strict and effective events of the international community in response to the aggression of the Milosevic regime there is contrasting soft and instruction policy of appeasement of Russian aggression carried out by the West today, despite the guarantees Ukraine under the provisions of the Budapest Memorandum 1994 and a number of other internationally legal documents of the UN and the OSCE.

Settlement of the Croatian crisis was given a high price: in the hostilities in 1991-1995 more than 30 thousand people were died, more than half a million left his place of residence.

Ukrainian Donbas crisis could be solved fewer victims. For this conclusion, there are several reasons. Croatia took place interethnic and inter-confessional fault lines: Serbs/Croats and Orthodox/Catholic. In the Donbas same line of division is not clear, mostly inspired by from the outside, is among those who consider themselves Ukrainian political nation that elected European democratic development, and those who believe "collapse of the USSR the greatest geopolitical catastrophe of the twentieth century" (despite the fact that this century has been witness to two bloodiest in human history, world wars) and are proponents of "Russian world". Thus, the conflict in eastern Ukraine is mainly ideological and outreach planes and not strictly antagonistic. Without active inspiruvannya conflict from outside Russia and intensive feeding regular troops, mercenaries and their supporters weapons "Russian World" at the Donbass would be much less. Not withstand scrutiny and political science design Russian ideologists of the alleged presence of "Crimean", "Donetsk" or "Lugansk" peoples who "have the right to self-determination."

Such thoughts concerning internal objective factors justify reasons for the split in eastern Ukraine inspire optimism. However, the main external factor that provokes an escalation of the conflict in eastern Ukraine, unfortunately, is much more powerful compared to the destructive factor S. Milosevic regime in the former Yugoslavia. In addition, the degree of determination, unity and uncompromising actions of the international community, including the military, taken her aggressor in the confrontation in the 1990s, and today real steps are not similar. However, there is reason to hope that in the case of joint decisive, persistent and concerted efforts of Ukraine and the West Donbas situation could get constructive development described by successful Croatian scenario. In any case, the extension of the negotiation format around the settlement of military and political crisis in the east of Ukraine (the "Normandy" format to the "Geneva" and then to the wider within the UN) seems useful and promising open new opportunities for the application available in UN peacekeeping experience and tools [7], which should accelerate the process of final settlement of the conflict and give it greater legitimacy.

Attempts to implement the idea of introducing UN peacekeeping experience in Ukraine and the EU

During the meeting, the UN Security Council December 12, 2015 Minister Pavlo Klimkin stated that Ukraine insists on the introduction in Ukraine of the UN peacekeeping mission, "I urge the Security Council once again to take the lead in creating this kind of mission." He recalled that in March, Ukraine formally requested the United Nations to deploy a peacekeeping operation to ensure that the Minsk agreements. Emphasized that to ensure sustainable de-escalation of the situation in Ukraine requires a comprehensive international action. The minister said the UN peacekeeping mission or expansion SMM OSCE will help to enforce these provisions Minsk agreements as disarmament of illegal armed groups, monitoring and verification of the withdrawal of Russian troops and weapons, providing humanitarian assistance and adequate facilities for the local elections in accordance with OSCE standards [8].

During the same meeting of the UN Security Council the US representative to the UN S. Power said that Russia continues to shirk Minsk agreements not recognize the fact of its aggression and tries to settlement process in a different direction. She said: "In October, Russian President declared commitment to standards laid Minsk agreement, agreed that urgently need to agree on holding elections under these standards. But at that time the separatists rejected the offer Ukraine and the OSCE, because they included access to free media and Ukrainian political parties. As a result, residents in uncontrolled territory of Donbass Ukrainian authorities were not able to choose their representatives simultaneously with the local elections in Ukraine." She noted that to achieve peace through the daily violations of collision must stop, must withdraw heavy weapons from the front line, the OSCE SMM must open access, up to the border, and the election is necessary to under Ukrainian law and OSCE standards. Elections in the Donbass is the key to the implementation of the Minsk agreements, and the US consider them unacceptable delay and insist that Russia contributed to the creation of appropriate conditions for their implementation.

30 December 2015 during a telephone conversation with the leaders of "Normandy Four" to maintain order and security during the electoral process, the President of Ukraine Poroshenko proposed to expand again in the occupied areas of Donbas special mission of the European Union to comply with the peace under the Common Security and EU defense. The above shows that the idea of ​​deploying in eastern Ukraine international UN peacekeeping mission, as well as possible EU remains on the agenda of talks with the leadership of Ukraine high international representatives.

Therefore, taking into consideration the accumulated over 70 years of UN peacekeeping rich experience in different regions and different complex political and security conditions, it seems that the current serious problems in eastern Ukraine in attracting peacekeeping capacity of the organization could quickly get a positive impetus to the settlement. While this necessarily required adopting a special decision of the UN Security Council and the relevant consent of the Russian Federation, as a permanent member of the Security Council. It is hoped that after Ukraine in 2016-2017 biennium. Non-permanent member status in the Security Council it will promote some additional features of this initiative.

As Russia's position on the deployment of the UN mission in the east of Ukraine is not currently radically antagonistic, it appears that the subject of persistent promotion of this initiative, reasoning its usefulness and effectiveness, and engagement support of most UN members, especially leading member states of Belarus, it has a good chance to implement. The specific model circuit and method of its implementation can be developed by relevant experts of the UN and its member countries on the basis of rich historical experience of similar international peacekeeping operations.


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4. Information Internet resource Correspondent // korrespondent.net/<wbr>world/russia/3482802-pressa-<wbr>rossyy-zachem-kyev-<wbr>pryhlashaet-myrotvortsev

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6. Lossovskyi I. UN peacekeeping operation in the "breakaway" regions of Croatia (1995-1998.): Historical analogy, fundamental differences and successful experience for Donbass // Research Center of Russia. - 04.08.2015 // www.r-studies.org

7. Fedorov V.N. The United Nations, other international organizations and their role in the 21st century. - M .: Logos. - 20007. - 940.

8. The website of the Permanent Mission of Ukraine to the UN //un.mfa.gov.ua/ua/<wbr>press-center/news/43155-<wbr>vistup-ministra-zakordonnih-<wbr>sprav-ukrajini-pklimkina-na-<wbr>zasidanni-rb-oon-shhodo-<wbr>situaciji-v-ukrajini-en

"Look France in depth eyes ...": communication strategies of presidential elections in 1974 (Historiosophical, political and diplomatic context)

Iolanta-Anna de Vris


More than forty years ago the youngest president of the Fifth Republic brought the wind of modernity to the Elysée Palace. "Peace and Security" that was the slogan which led Valéry Giscard d'Estaing in the second round of the extraordinary presidential elections in France 1974. The communicational strategy of Giscard d'Estaing came to history as the one which had the number of innovation elements and led to the biggest activity of citizens.

Keywords: election campaign, communicational strategy, Valéry Giscard d'Estaing, Fifth Republic, elections 1974.

More than forty years ago the youngest president of the Fifth Republic brought the wind of modernity to the Elysée Palace. Second February Valery Giscard d'Estaing - the French statesman and president in the 1974-1981 biennium celebrated his 90th anniversary. "Peace and Security", the slogan came to victory Giscard d'Estaing in the second round of presidential elections with a margin of his opponent Francois Mitterrand only 424,599 votes. His election campaign became known as the most rigid and led to the most active citizens - took part in the elections 87.33% of voters.

"I would like to look France in depth eyes convey her ideas and hear it" - so said Valéry Giscard d'Estaing on the day announced its intention to participate in elections almost a week after the death of President Georges Pompidou.

There is need to consider the key elements of the pre-election strategy Giscard d'Estaing, who unexpectedly led the candidate to the summit of political power in France. The main focus of the campaign Valery Giscard d'Estaing was done in his youth [1]. In the elections politician turned 48, that essentially it is typical in the political environment at the turn of 60-70 years. At campaign headquarters was made correct calculations on expectations of a generation that constitute the base voters, i.e. citizens who were thirty or forty years. Candidate presented in the form of a young politician who will work differently, relaxed and at ease, which were not able to do its opponents. François Mitterrand at the time the election was 57 years, and President Georges Pompidou would have turned 63 years old. On the other hand, Valery Giscard d'Estaing already gained the reputation of a competent policy, as had ten years of experience in the Ministry of Economy and Finance at the time of General de Gaulle from 1962 to 1966, and later - Georges Pompidou since 1969 to 1974.

However, a key element of the campaign Valéry Giscard d'Estaing was his call for "Change without risk", which as expected French society. Of course, most election campaigns held under the banner of the need for change in society, but Giscard d'Estaing was able to impersonate politician and diplomat, able to reform not only for the traditional political class, but without the potential risk that the alliance was the Communists and Socialists. It is also positioned as a political and diplomatic leader who could make French society to change without revolutionary adventures, some are afraid of the voters, especially after the memorable events of 1968. Therefore, candidacy Valéry Giscard d'Estaing embodied a balance, which wished to most whopper France.

In the center of the campaign was delivered a true reformist will that manifested itself in the first decision of its seven-year term as president. This election campaign was the first in the history of France, when the object of political marketing was the family of the future president. In April 1974 in TV reports began to appear older daughter Valerie Valerie Giscard d'Estaing and his wife Anne Ann Aimone, and the candidate often posed with Zhasint younger daughter, who was 14 years old. At his request, filmmaker Raymond Depardon took band about backstage of election campaign. The goal was to create the image, in tune with the image of US President John F. Kennedy. Plans to run for president were obviously the French finance minister long ago as in 1969. Valery Giscard d'Estaing addressed the advertising company and set a task to work out the image of the young leader.

Another defining feature of the campaign Valéry Giscard d'Estaing was the fact that his team consisted of the few loyal associates, which included primarily d'Ornano Michel and Michel Poniatowski. Their individual merit special attention. Moreover, it must be emphasized that the narrow circle of trusted surrounded presidential candidate was not peculiar to the French political landscape of the time.

Before entering politics, d'Ornano Count Michel and his brother Hubert successfully engaged perfume business. The beginning of his political career was elected mayor of the town of Deauville in Lower Normandy in 1962, and since 1967 Michel d'Ornano repeatedly elected a deputy to the National Assembly. For 60-70-ies Valery Giscard d'Estaing, together with Michel d'Ornano develop the political movement centrist direction, founded in 1966 Independent Republican Party and the Union to support democracy in 1978.

The son of the last king of Poland, Michel Poniatowski started their way in French politics, gaining positions in the Ministry of Finance after the National School of Administration. In 1958 he played a decisive role in the return to power of General de Gaulle before joining Valéry Giscard d'Estaing year later, leading the latter office while working as Minister of Finance [2]. A well known saying Poniatowski on security: "We need to Interior Minister also called the French minister of security, because they have the right to go out at night alone on the street without risking that their attack."

It is advisable to emphasize that the two politicians noted for their loyalty to Giscard d'Estaing. Thus, with the election of the President of the French Republic last d'Ornano Michel served as Minister of Industry to 1977 and Minister of Environment to 1981, Michel Poniatowski received interior and leaving government in 1977, was the personal representative of the president with the rank of Ambassador Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary.

The special features of the campaign Valery Giscard d'Estaing include the format of its meetings with voters, which took place in a relaxed atmosphere without the presence of a large number of advisers and communication line protection. The French are very impressed by the presence of such a logic screen candidate for the presidency, which included a lot of direct communication with citizens.

Part of the success of the campaign Giscard d'Estaing was the spontaneity of its visual presence, because photos from the youngest daughter in the garden under the windows Tyuelri French Finance Ministry, which appeared in the magazine Paris Match, did not fit into the traditional way of representation candidates for election posters and was personally future elected president. "I wanted my daughter was on the posters as I think the only photo I have one would be sad," - he said in the air of France Soir May 12, 1974 after the first round.

In his work "Political Communication Today" Professor of the Free University of Brussels Gabriel Toveron in detail the importance of visualization candidate in the election process. He says: "... the use of personal images is a way that you can reach as much as possible to pick up votes, while the use of arguments are purely political tool to be based on a clear program" [3]. Calculations election team Giscard d'Estaing clearly illustrate this thesis.

In the first round, Valery Giscard d'Estaing appeared on posters smiling, in a dark suit and tie, white shirt, which is certainly not a typical candidate from his opponents. Above poster read: "This president" that there will emphasize the candidate for reform. In the second round election slogan changed to "Peace and security" of the image Giscard d'Estaing, together with the daughter. Voters had to feel the confidence with which the father and daughter talk, ready to defend it at any time.

Professor of the Paris Institute of Political Studies Roger-Gérard Schwarzenberg distinguishes five main characters in the political scene: the hero, the person who enjoys the fame and influence granted above; Mr. "as all" ordinary man; attractive leader (this type is Valery Giscard d'Estaing); the father symbolizes wisdom and peace; Woman policies [4]. Re-positioning presidential candidate good fit in properly selected image was read and easy to voters.

It should be noted that Giscard d'Estaing showing active interest in developing their own communication strategy. Separate impact on his campaign made a visit of the Minister of Finance of France to the United States and meeting with President Kennedy in July 1962. First team of political advisers, which includes Intzi Jacques, Jacques Faure and Michelle Hranzhak raised questions about the future initiatives of the President. "It was a pleasant picture, but there is a risk that people will not associate Zhasint a daughter Giscard d'Estaing and they pass by the plan," - commented later known media expert Jacques Intzi. However, Giscard d'Estaing hoped in this way to draw attention to the younger generation. "This is a real gap in the positioning, - said French researcher in political communication, Christian Delporte - Hard finance minister suddenly becomes warm and close to the people. It represents youth, future and change."

Researches of media strategy leaders of the presidential race cannot be separated from the contemporary political landscape of the country. The sudden departure of President Georges Pompidou 2 April 1974 did not leave much time for candidates to campaign, and already 8 April 1974 the Minister of Finance and a representative of Independent Republican Valery Giscard d'Estaing declared his consent to run for president. The only candidate from the Left forces were brought François Mitterrand, the first secretary of the Socialist Party since 1971. The official candidate of the Union of Democrats for the Fifth Republic was the then French Prime Minister Jacques Delmas-Shaban, who supported the Gaullists.

Also, we must examine the political and diplomatic achievements of the main opponents of Valery Giscard d'Estaing in early elections in 1974.

Jacques Shaban-Delmas started their way in French politics many years ago. Elected deputy from Bordeaux, he served as President of the National Assembly from 1958 to 1969 and later prime minister from 1969 to 1972 under President Georges Pompidou. His candidacy represented allegiance hollizmu association without departing from the present. The slogan of his election campaign - "new society" idea is long gone Matinyona corridors. April 4, the day of the funeral of Georges Pompidou, Shaban-Delmas announced his intention to run for office. Information from Agence France-Presse Agency was on the air at 16:09, at a time when the National Assembly gave tribute to the late president. However, Shaban-Delmas had their own reasons to hurry with the publication of his candidacy. Although the latter succeeded in appointing to key positions in the party of his supporters split became inevitable. At the initiative of the ambitious Interior Minister Jacques Chirac's 39 MPs and four ministers signed the famous "Call 43" in support of Giscard d'Estaing, who has made a significant contribution to his victory. Within two years as Minister of Agriculture and Interior Minister Chirac knew radically undercurrents and the situation on the ground, also having impact on prefects and data counter. According to special services candidacy of Jean Shaban-Delmas had considerable popular support.

As a result of the above circumstances, the results of the first round really left Shaban-Delmas likely to continue the fight for the presidency. He was only 15.11% of the vote, Francois Mitterrand - 43.25%, and Giscard d'Estaing - 32.6% [5].

Valéry Giscard d'Estaing, the candidate of "change length," began a political career in the Center Party and the National Center for independent farmers (Centre national des inépendants et parsons, CNIP) Antoine Penalty. This political party he left behind in 1962 because of a conflict with Charles de Gaulle. In 1966, Giscard d'Estaing emphasized: "We are centrist and most European environment." Urging to vote "against" the referendum April 27, 1969, he managed to enter the offices of ministers under President Pompidou. Note that work in the government of former president ambiguous effect on the rating Valéry Giscard d'Estaing, which is why the presidential candidate used the slogan Pompidou during the elections in 1969 "Changes in length", stressing the desire for reform, combined with the achievements of the past.

Candidate of leftists Francois Mitterrand also had considerable political experience, taking eight times and three ministerial posts - Secretary of State at the time of the Fourth Republic. The second time he participated in the presidential elections. Mitterrand alliance with the Communists and left-wing radicals have been using his opponents, as Socialist leader tried to somewhat distance itself from its allies.

In the second round, held on 19 May 1974, Giscard d'Estaing has shown a slight lead over his rival Mitterrand, gaining 50.8% against 49.19% for the candidate of the Left.

With the victory of Valéry Giscard d'Estaing, Jacques Chirac received the reward for his position and was appointed prime minister. Not the least role in this played appointing the fact that the Gaullist party Union of Democrats for the Fifth Republic had 183 seats in the National Assembly against 83 in "independent Republican." However, this appointment met with no understanding of the political community, in particular by the young age of the prime minister, who was 42 years old.

It should be emphasized that the first year of the presidency of Valery Giscard d'Estaing was marked by a genuine will to reform. The president sought to build a state that fulfills its social obligations, while fully contributing to free economic development, lowering the age to 18 voters, raising social standards, expanding the jurisdiction of the Constitutional Council as a tool that increases the rights of the opposition. Franklin Delano Roosevelt stressed that political actions carried out in the first 100 days of the mandate as president comes to power on the wave dynamics and legitimize his election, and Valéry Giscard d'Estaing fully confirmed this statement through their actions.

Special attention we should give to the line Giscard d'Estaing to liberalize information environment of the state, which as expected the public. In August 1974 Prime Minister Jacques Chirac presented his own draft reforms audio-visual sector. The head of government is also aware of the need to reform the state monopoly created in 1945, and some upgrading of the information space. Under the new law №74-696 anticipated division Cluzhby radio and television broadcasting France (l'Office de la radiodiffusion-télévision Française, ORTF), which was a state monopoly of 1945, 7 independent communities: 3 TV channels, French filmmaking community (Société française de production, SFP), television broadcasting France, (Télédiffusion de France, TDF), Radio France and the National audiovisual Institute (l'Institut national de l'audiovisuel, INA). The law entered into force next year. However, the actual state monopoly on information environment are not canceled and each community fell under the control of the Prime Minister.

As part of the further liberalization of media space was eliminated French Ministry of Information, which led its history of 1938. With its original name of "Ministry of Propaganda" and existing regimes for the three republics, the ministry responsible for government public relations, control over state television and guarantee press freedom. Last Information Minister of France Jean-Philippe Leka, who was called "the greatest Zhykardist among Gaullists" regained recognition of his own professionalism, leading communication service of the newly elected president.

President Valéry Giscard d'Estaing continued the policy of diplomacy and constant openness to direct dialogue with society. A symbolic gestures he fully demonstrated his closeness to the people. Giscard d'Estaing sought to weaken the protocol formalities, replacing jacket vest at official ceremonies, going down the stairs on foot Elysee Palace on the day of the inauguration, changing tempo anthem, arranging informal dining in ordinary French and introducing the practice of taking people in the Elysee Palace. Before he even changed the musical instrument, playing the accordion broadcast television in the past reputation of being beautiful pianist.

However, the focus of political positioning in the next presidential elections in 1981 were incorrectly placed pre-election team of the current president of France. The poster photo for which reports were again, Giscard d'Estaing proclaimed: "France needs a president" not the best slogan for politics, which for the second time for the position of president.

Moreover, according to the plan of major media expert Jacques Intzi team in 1981 chose the same picture Giscard d'Estaing that during the election campaign for the first time. Only a small number of new visual advertising backgrounds President, against the background of the world map, representing the country's weight in world politics, rugby team - message of youth, modern factory - a strong industrial potential. Jacques Intzi explained by the fact that to see how the president specifically poses for the lens is almost impossible because of his employment, and that it was necessary to create the idea of ​​the inviolability of the presence of the incumbent in all areas of the state.

In the second round former opponent in the presidential elections, the candidate of the Socialist Party of François Mitterrand defeated Valery Giscard d'Estaing.

Of course, the rise of left-wing forces is inseparable from the political context in which France was in the early 80's. It should also emphasized that the country's election landscape characterized by dispersal both the right and left political forces. The economic crisis due to "oil shock" in 1973 and 1977 had a negative impact on the country that imported more than 80% oil. Reduced production rates, high inflation triggered a significant increase in unemployment. Thus, in 1974 there were 400 thousand. Unemployed, and in 1981 their number reached 1.5 million. Government policy of austerity, curtailment of unprofitable industries, along with government support of large corporations led to further unemployment and falling real purchasing power of citizens which inevitably affected the rating Giscard d'Estaing.

However, negative economic indicators, which Valéry Giscard de'Esten left the presidency, did not prevent him from becoming "the most expensive" president under investigation deputy from the Socialist Party Rene Dosyera, whose results were published in his blog [6]. In the former leader of France spent 2.5 mln. Euro annually from the state budget without the aid (6 th. Euros per month) and pay as a member of the Constitutional Council (12 thousand. Euros per month), and it is the subject of a private residence protection of high value. Nicolas Sarkozy and Jacques Chirac spend under 2.2 and 1.5 euros from the French budget. Overall, the MP said, the state provides more than 6 mln. Euros annually for the maintenance of former presidents. As a source of Rene Dosyer refers to information from the services of the Prime Minister and ministries, including the Ministry of Finance, in response to his parliamentary inquiries.

It should be noted that media policy Valery Giscard d'Estaing had continued in the election rhetoric of Nicolas Sarkozy in 2012. His communications office has decided to choose a slogan of the campaign "Strong France!" In addition, to focus on country, not individual presidential candidate. During the election campaign in 1981 the current President Giscard d'Estaing in the country similar to the economic context has already put forward a similar message of - "Need strong France", but the media line both incumbent president was one that did not fit the mood of the citizens. Valéry Giscard d'Estaing has repeatedly spoken publicly in support of Nicolas Sarkozy in the elections of 2007 and 2012, noting that he most trusted, which will help upgrade the country. However, he criticized the style of Sarkozy: "He had neither the experience nor manners that were in me - be able to observe during the seven years of presidency of the great statesman, General de Gaulle" [7]. Both presidents failed again ignite the fire of change in society. They embodied the present, where the majority of people did not give a positive assessment and did not associate their future with them.

So, thanks to the peculiarities of political and diplomatic communication during the election campaign in 1974, the voice of Valery Giscard d'Estaing was clearly heard by voters. Minister of Finance failed to submit its vision of general interest and become the embodiment of both stability and change for the better. His campaign characterized the ability to make contact with ordinary citizens in detail thought out visual advertising, image-diplomatic policy, focusing election rhetoric around a central theme, a clear strategy of relations with mass communication (from the physical presence of air to the working out their own mechanisms of information policy) demonstrate and most importantly - political factor of all time requires the image of a person who in good faith. After a distinguished French diplomat Charles Maurice de Talleyrand-Périgord said: "In politics, what causes trust is essential for the truth ..." Features of election Valery Giscard d'Estaing practical interest for Ukrainian politicians and diplomats of the XXI century. Theory and practice correctly chosen communication strategy should give (to some extent even guarantee) successful result and achievement.


1. Mathias Bernard, "Valéry Giscard d'Estaing : Les ambitions déçues" (Armand Colin − 2014).

2. tempsreel.nouvelobs.<wbr>com/politique/20020116.<wbr>OBS2351/michel-poniatowski-<wbr>est-mort.html

3. Gabriel Thoveron. La communication politique aujourd'hui. De Boeck Supérieur, 1990, p. 110.

4. Roger-Gérard Schwartzenberg L'État spectacle. Essai sur et contre le star system en politique. Paris, Flammarion, 1977.

5. www.france-politique.<wbr>fr/election-presidentielle-<wbr>1974.htm

6. renedosiere.over-blog.<wbr>com

7. www.tdg.ch/monde/<wbr>Giscard-d-Estaing-votera-pour-<wbr>Sarkozy/story/23997515

Dante Alighieri, politician, poet and diplomat

(European dimension and Ukrainianview of the XXI century)

To 750-th of birthday

Vyacheslav Tsivatyy


The basic directions of political, diplomatic and literary working of the famous contemporary of the Renaissance - Dante Alighieri because his practical experience and literary and poetic heritage had not lost their relevance to this day, and his name and work closely to bind Italy and Ukraine through the centuries and millennia of European history is analized at the article.

Keywords: foreign policy, diplomacy, history of diplomacy, diplomatic mission, institutionalization, the Renaissance, Dante Alighieri, Italy, Ukraine.

Politics and diplomacy of Renaissance presents a logical continuation of the institutional political and diplomatic ideas of previous eras, including ancient. However, it is completely independent, institutionally framed, original political and diplomatic thing, reflecting a holistic, political system and heuristically- approach to the surrounding world and the person in it. In the Renaissance appeared worldview new paradigm. Culture Renaissance man drew attention to the mundane world and its charms, opening their eyes to the surrounding beauty and creating a need for active cooperation in the knowledge of secrets, as well as creative and adjusting the image perpetuating its political and diplomatic means. Interest in the knowledge of earthly things rejection indisputable authority of the church, the growth of secular elements in the culture researchers called the characteristic feature of the Renaissance. At a certain characteristic Friedrich Engels, the Renaissance is "the greatest progressive revolution all the time experienced by mankind, the era that required Titans and Titans that bare power of thought, passion and character, versatility and learning."

Dante Alighieri (it. Dante Alighieri) is famous Italian politician, writer, literary critic, poet, theologian, philosopher and diplomat, titanium Renaissance worldview. His most famous poem is a world masterpiece "The Divine Comedy" (it. La Divina Commedia). "Divine Comedy" is a philosophical and artistic synthesis of medieval culture [1]. Information about the life of Dante Alighieri, this remarkable person, very few survived, their main source is written his own autobiography same art, which depicts only a certain period.

Dante Alighieri began his literary career very early and left to posterity many works, however, brought him worldwide fame written in Tuscan dialect Divina Commedia ("Divine Comedy"), which began to write in 1290, rebuilt in 1313, and finished 1321. In three parts ("Hell", "Purgatory", "Paradise"), Dante describes his journey to God. Companion lyrical serves Roman poet Virgil, Dante later accompanied Beatrice who personifies grace of God. The product is a real encyclopedia of the Middle Ages. Many researchers consider "Divine Comedy" one of the most important works not only Italian but also of world literature.

The exact date of Dante's birth is unknown: according to different sources, he was born in 1265 between 14 May and 13 July noble family. Sometimes referred to as the birth date of 1266. His education also almost no information, but preserved evidence when he was just amazed contemporaries with their education. There is a hypothesis that he was educated at home, and later continued his studies at the University of Bologna, however, did not finish it. Dante gave much time to self-education, including foreign languages, creativity ancient poets, among them the special place occupied Virgil, whom he regarded as one of his spiritual teacher [2; 3].

Platonic love appeared in his heart at the age of 9 years old when Dante Alighieri met Beatrice Portinari, the daughter of folk Portinari in which to hopelessly in love at first sight, but never even spoke to her. After reaching the age of majority was able to see her often, exchanged greetings with her on the street, but never knew it well - he gave an example of so-called "polite love." From the standpoint of today's hard to understand the vicissitudes of love and all its circumstances. However, this love was the brightest event in the life of A. Dante and possibly it push the literary work. Many of his poems praised Beatrice watching him. In the great misfortune to Dante, Beatrice died in 1290.

The death of the woman he loved with his head forced him to go into science. He studied philosophy, astronomy, theology, become one of the most educated people of his time, although the baggage of his knowledge did not go beyond the medieval tradition that relied on theology. In 1295 Dante Alighieri began studying politics and diplomacy as a member antypapistskoyi party. After the entry into force of the regulations in 1295, which allowed people from the middle class to hold political office if they are registered in any art, Dante entered the guild of healers and pharmacists. In subsequent years, his name is often mentioned in the registration documents. In 1294 in Florence, died Brunetti Latina (1220-1294), the notary, who was in charge of the correspondence of the Florentine republic, diplomat, scholar and poet. In addition, because of this sad event in the sources of information is preserved, according to which his diplomatic skills mastery Latina gave one of his best students - Dante Alighieri. It was his Dante called his teacher. In August 1320, almost immediately after writing the last lines of "Comedy": "Love that moves the sun and the light ..." Dante on behalf of Guido da Polenta sent on a diplomatic mission to Venice. However, the road comes trouble - he contracted malaria ...

Dante dreamed of using the "Comedy" became famous and return home with honor and diplomatic successes, but his hopes were realized. Returning from Venice, poet died on September 14, 1321. "Divine Comedy" was the peak of his literary work, but only so it is rich and diverse artistic heritage is not limited, it contains a particular philosophical treatises, journalism, lyrics.

For certain course of political and diplomatic career Dante is not known because many historical documents were lost, but thanks to the surviving sources played most of his political and diplomatic background, quite interesting and colorful. Dante was the Council of the people of November 1295 to April 1296, a group of "wise men" in December 1296, from May to September was part of Sta. If necessary, it sent a diplomatic mission and [4; 5].

The formation of institutions of diplomacy - institutionalization - involves the replacement of spontaneous and experimental behavior in international relations behavior regulated, expected, predictable and predicted. Techniques and methods of diplomacy early modern times - is quite complicated diplomatic tools, aimed at implementing the foreign policy objectives of the state. Diplomatic tools - a set of tools and methods used to achieve or implement the goals. Difficulties diplomatic practice due to a number of factors and conditions that can either promote or interfere with the tasks assigned to diplomacy or priorities negotiations. Diplomats Renaissance and early modern time spent provisional negotiations; preparing draft future agreements comprehend ambassadorial ceremonial and diplomatic protocol diplomatic system of stereotypes. At the end of the XV - beginning of XVI century in Western Europe began a rapid transition to a modern system of embassy services - permanent diplomatic missions. It laid the foundation for the institutionalization of diplomacy and foreign policy of each state and European foreign policy in general.

Describing the idea of ​​emotion in diplomacy, we must bear in mind that the relevant pattern will be different in different countries diplomatic practice, but they can highlight some universals related to the universality of human experience, the example of negotiations in Europe and the Middle early modern times. Emotional coloring negotiations always played an important role in achieving the objectives. It also should be aware that there is a dilemma emotions - feelings, but in this period should be split, with an emphasis on the cognitive component of emotion that is the result of social and cultural conditioning.

The most common emotions in diplomatic practice associated with certain external displays (diplomat scared or angry diplomat if the diplomat is happy, and so on. F.), which are then transported in a diplomatic dialogue. Theory and Practice of Diplomacy Middle Ages and early modern times reflected in the works of diplomats, as Machiavelli "The Emperor," Philippe de Kommin "Memoirs," Francesco Guicciardini "History of Italy", Bernard de Rosière "Short paths of messengers" Abraham de Vikfor "Ambassador and its functions," Alberyko Gentile "Three books about embassy" Ermolao Barbaro "on service Ambassador" and so on. d. Theorists and practice diplomacy Renaissance were mostly convinced that politics and diplomacy is an art - which is independent of morality and religion when it comes to costs. Diplomat and politician shall consciously or unconsciously maintain functional versatility and power in integrity with professional competence, through the wisdom, and the ability to negotiate and make informed conclusions on historical comparisons. In the works of contemporary research period, we can trace the beginnings of classification instruments of foreign policy: peaceful foreign policy instruments (multilateral and unilateral) and power tools of foreign policy. In their works, they describe multilateral contacts: direct negotiations; as a means of diplomacy; mediation (mediation); negotiations.

There is amazing legend. Once, late at night, when silence reigned around, the gate of a monastery knocked loudly pale, weary traveler. The clank of iron was heard in the hot air. Goalkeeper asked who is knocking and it should. This strange and muffled replied briefly "Peace!" This traveler was a Florentine exile, the greatest poet of the Italian Dante Alighieri. Not just for himself he craved tranquility and peace, but also for his homeland, which suffered from endless strife, wars and strife. Dante did not advocate international cooperation as a condition of maintaining peace, namely individual responsibility for maintaining peace, as well as for the welfare of humanity as a whole. Monarchy or the Empire Dante Alighieri - a model of international order, political and diplomatic system, model of world order and world order aimed at achieving human well-being, part of which is necessarily universal peace.

On the plan works, Dante wrote in a letter to Kanhrande affairs Scala Italian nobles at the court where he lived in exile: "Saving people from the shameful condition and lead them to happiness." The writer wanted the spiritual salvation of humanity, effectiveness of preventive diplomacy, and therefore proclaimed the high ideals of goodness, love, charity, Mind. Thus, Dante affirmed the strength of internal capacities of man, believed in its potential for spiritual transformation, and with it the inspiration of life [6].

In 1300 Dante became a fellow of six Priora, but the papal party evicted him from Florence, confiscating all estates. In 1301 he was sentenced to be burned and destroyed the house. To escape the hard sentence Dante had ever leave his hometown. In 1302 Florentine government decided, that Dante threaten death penalty if he will attempt to come in without paying appointed a fine of five thousand. Florins.

Wonder, in June 2008, after almost 690 years after the death of the great Dante, Florence authorities canceled its decision on expulsion from his native city. For this, 19 members voted for the Florence City Council, with five opposed. Mayor Leonardo Domenici said that the verdict on cancellation of Dante would be held during the opening ceremony. It would be great Florentine awarded the highest award of the city. Critics of the government's decision Florence called the idea of ​​rehabilitation Dante cheap trick that aims only to attract more tourists of the city, and noted that if the writer was allowed to return, he might never have written his best works. [7] Man is passionate, full of great hopes and expectations, Dante always looking for a "right way" in the world of bloody strife, endless political strife that engulfed the crushed Italy. He is mistaken, and then tries to find the truth. It always remains true to his two muses: Beatrice and Italy, the unity that the poet dreamed of throughout his life.

"Divine Comedy" was written in 1307-1321, respectively. It was the time in the history of culture was named OverRenaissance. Growing interest in the human person, its earthly joys and hopes. Gradually begins to form a new humanistic way of thinking, the final formation of which will be linked to the Renaissance era. However, the belief in the unlimited possibilities of human nature, the uniqueness of human personality is emerging now. This process plays a brilliant poem of Dante, who is also a synthesis of medieval culture and the prologue to the Renaissance culture. "Dante is the highest expression of poetry crown and perpetuation of what is called the middle ages. All culture, all beliefs, all the anguish and hopes of those times found expression in his poem. And at the same time as a man of genius all his being he belongs to later times, although opinions and views rooted in the past", - says Franko, fan and scholar of Dante's poetry.

This kind of duality is reflected in the art style of the poet. Dante called the poem "Comedy" in medieval canons established, then the so-called works that began sad, and ended happily. The epithet "divine" that is "beautiful" poem gave the first biographer of Dante, author of the famous "Decameron" J. Boccaccio [3; 4]. From the distant 1302, and for the above-mentioned factors Dante Alighieri almost 19 years led a wandering life, and this period was the peak of his literary work. Dante died in Ravenna on the night of 13 to 14 September 1321. His grave is nowadays place of pilgrimage for millions of visitors.

Such kind of place appeared in Kiev, in the park "Vladimir Hill" (near the Ukrainian House), which in December 2015 was established and inaugurated a monument to world famous poet, writer, politician and diplomat - Dante Alighieri. The ceremony of the monument to the Italian poet and diplomat attended by Ambassador Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary of Italy Fabrizio Romano and Kyiv Mayor Vitaly Klitschko, members of the public, students and teachers of the Diplomatic Academy of Ukraine. The unveiling took place as part of the development of public spaces "Kyiv - a city of the world." Italian Ambassador Fabrizio Romano said the relationship with Ukraine Dante: "He scored and Ukrainian lands, such rich writers and poets. Many of them - from Gogol, Shevchenko, Lesia Ukrainka to Franko, Bulgakov, Akhmatova - drawn from the works of Dante ..." The Ambassador also read greetings from the Mayor of Florence - Dante's hometown.

The sculpture Dante Alighieri opened in honor of the 750th anniversary of the world famous poet, diplomat and Italian figure. The monument is made of white marble, the author of the project - sculptor Luciano Massari (Italy). Architect - Leonid Small (Ukraine). In addition, the Ukrainian scientists Andrushivka astronomical observatory open their assigned small planet official name "Società Dante" ("Dante Society") in honor of Dante Alighieri Society. The relevant certificate scientists presented the Ambassador of Italy to the opening ceremony of the monument to the poet.

Dante came back in European literature in the era of Romanticism. In the eighteenth century about it earlier, but it was not relevant. He is a poet of the nations that fought for liberation. In Italy, especially, since the time of Garibaldi was torn Italy. In Poland, the figure of Dante turned great poets Mickiewicz and Slovak exiles. Finally, in Ukraine, where the situation was worse than in Italy, even worse than in Poland because our country has been deprived not only of his state but also right to call itself.

In our opinion, there is no coincidence in the period of Romanticism in Europe is this majestic figure of Dante and not accidentally Italian nation formers of nineteenth century allies are in his name. It was a different understanding of the nation than in the nineteenth or twentieth centuries, but it was the beginnings of understanding of the nation, nation-building starts. If we consider the Ukrainian history, then obviously conventional equivalent to the time of Dante in Italy will be times Khmelnitsky or Ivan Mazepa tragic times.

In Ukraine, the works of Dante known since the beginning of the XIX century. Highly esteemed poet Taras Shevchenko. Lesia Ukrainka appealed to the works of famous Florentine poet. In 1898 she translated V song "Hell" from "The Divine Comedy". Since then Dante's terza rima sounded in Ukrainian. Permanent interest in the artistic heritage of the poet showed Franko. While still in Drohobych school, he read the works of Dante in German and Polish translations, made the first attempt to recreate the sound of Dante's poem language. In the 80s there was a plan to translate "Divine Comedy" by Ivan Franko appreciated "General inaccessible to ease and grandeur of style." The mention of it is found in a letter to Drahomanov. As a result of years of work Franco translated and commented on the most important passages of the "Divine Comedy." The work was completed in 1913 edition of the book "Dante Alighieri. Characteristics of the Middle Ages. The life of the poet and a selection of his poetry." Despite the small size, it has become the first in Ukraine holistic philological study of the works of Dante. Ukrainian reveal to readers the beauty of the words of the Italian poet tried and V. Samoilenko. In his later years on the translation of "The Divine Comedy" worked M. Dray-Khmara. Arrest in 1935 gave him complete this work. Not preserved, unfortunately, and text translation. The first complete translation of "Hell" made Mr. Karmansky. M. Rilsky edited text. Editing, however, gradually turned into co-authorship. Fully E. Drob'yazko translated "Divine Comedy" into Ukrainian. In 1978, his translation won Rylsky award.

In Ukraine there are two complete translations of "Divine Comedy" by Ukrainian, Peter Karmansky and Eugene Drob'yazko. Translation of Karmansky, according to researcher Dante in Ukraine Maxim Strikha, was far from perfect. In 1956 was published only the first piping of this translation, thoroughly refined Maxim Rilsky. Translation Drob'yazka published separate parts of the publishing house "Dnipro", "Purgatory" (1968), "Paradise" (1972) and full edition - in 1976. Hypothetical third full translation, on which he worked neoclassicist Michael Dray-Khmara, Most likely not survived. Deserves high praise new translation of "The Divine Comedy" Maxim Strikha, in which the author spent 21 years. This high poetry. This is not only a treasury of knowledge about medieval life, but brilliant images ...

Researcher of Ukrainian poetic translations of Dante, Maxim Strikha called attention to the creative genius of Italian signs of European Ukrainian culture. According to him, Ukrainian first written name Dante belongs Philip Orlik, then - Feofan Prokopovich. Reviews of Dante in Ukrainian literature were "Aeneid" Kotlyarevskogo works of Shevchenko, in the twentieth century - Poetry Lina Kostenko, Vasyl Stus, Oksana Pachlowska. As well as samples of Ukrainian art.

In the Taras Shevchenko National Museum hosted a presentation of a new book by the famous Ukrainian artist and scientist Olga Petrova "Divine Comedy" by Dante Alighieri: Art Comment ages 14-20." The book was published in Ukrainian and English. Present at the presentation of famous figures of Ukrainian culture in unison noted that the book was the result of Olga Petrova and simultaneously break Ukrainian culture in the European space. The new edition is always new experiences Books. For the bibliophile, it begins with the use of a material object itself. This book to hold, turn pages is a real pleasure. And this is not just a material form corresponds to the content - it is generated and how this should relate to the majestic, truly temporal figure of Dante. Not only domestic, but also the world of art to the science of the monograph had work that synthesized creative experience to the highest professional level artists who worked on the images of majestic Dante's poem. The study "Divine Comedy" as a literary masterpiece and is dedicated to the hundreds of thousands of pages in the global literary space. Not lacking and art history books, but they mostly relate or work of some outstanding illustrators of Dante - Sandro Botticelli, William Blake, Gustave Dore, Salvador Dali, or analysis of artistic masterpieces Sinyorelli, Michelangelo, Delacroix, Rodin - those freskistiv, sculptors, are inspired by themes of poems . However, putting all graphic Danteany a single scientific context, consideration and analysis of historical traditions, cultural sequence for the first time made it Ukrainian researcher Olga Petrova.

Creative contacts of O. Petrova with library of the British Museum (London) enriched monograph masterpiece "Siena Code" (1442-1450). Note, even in 1993 the museum acquired library lithography O. Petrova - her illustrations to the "Divine Comedy." And in 2009 the British Museum gave the author of the monograph entitled reproduce miniatures "Siena Code." Therefore, a grain seed to unique pictorial series, covering 361 illustration. This graphic conglomerate O. Petrova analyzes of captiousness encyclopedic. Scientific conclusions presented by the author in emotionally intense linguistic form, awaken the imagination of the reader. Traveling from the Renaissance to the end of the twentieth century is that the literary form of the text, emotional stress that keep the reader in mind condition intrigue and deeper penetration into the world of Dante. Harmony is an emotional and rational perception completeness and greatness of Dante, and the brilliant achievements of artists. A quick note that among the many illustrations completely unknown, sometimes - maybe forgotten. The power of sound presented and analyzed the works left a deep impression. Therefore, again we must stress that illustrations played a crucial role in the "growing" Dante themes of his work into the public consciousness in the modern sense of the great Florentine [9].

Finally, we want to draw attention to the peculiar phenomenon, which is the book of O. Petrova in our art space. Only with the advent we discovered that in fact (though we know might not guess) in our culture there is no "our" Dante - and in such a wide artistic context. And the fundamental work Olga Petrova made it possible to enjoy the complete "assimilation" of the universal intellectual, thesaurus, which always shows the convergence of national culture at the highest level of civilization.

Thus, the modern reader might sometimes difficult to understand some original opinions and views Dante Alighieri, poet, diplomat and politician, because he lived on the border of two epochs - the Middle Ages and early modern times. No wonder it is called "the last poet of the Middle Ages and the first poet of modern times." In the medieval world view, reflected in the book, along with outdated ideas were progressive features, opening faint prospects of people not otherworldly paradise life and earthly, joyful and just. In literature, politics and diplomacy Dante Alighieri left a bright trail. He is one of those who stood at the cradle of Italian diplomacy, Italian political and diplomatic system, its traditions; he formed the classical model of Italian diplomacy and contributed to its institutional development.


1. Dante. The Divine Comedy / Translated E. Drob'yazka. - Kharkiv, Folio, 2001. - 608p.

2.​ Ascoli A.R. Dante and the Making of a Modern Autor / A.R. Ascoli. - Ney York Cambridge University Press, 2008. - 480 p.

3. Alekseenko Olena. "The Divine Comedy" by Dante / Olena Alekseenko // Dante A. Divine Comedy. - Kharkiv, Folio, 2001. - S. 3-20.

4. Giovanni Boccaccio. Life of Dante / Trans. Italy. E. Linz / Giovanni Boccaccio // World of Dante. The 3 t - M .: Terra, 2002. - T. 3. - P. 10-30.

5. Golenishtchev-Kutuzov I.N. Creativity Dante and world culture / I.N Golenishtchev-Kutuzov. - M .: Nauka, 1971. - 552s.

6. Dante A. Monarchy / Trans. Italy. V.P .Zubov. - M .: Canon-press C-Kuchkovo field, 1999. - 236 p.

7.​ Dante Alighieri. Vita nuova / trans. R.W. Emerson. - Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina, 1960. - 146 p.

8. Dzhivelegov A.K. Dante Alighieri. Life and art. - M .: OGIZ, 1946. - 412 p.

9. Rzhevskaya V.S. International legal Dante Alighieri ideas on peacekeeping / V.S. Rzhevskaya // Ukraine's legal system and international law, comparative law journal // Kyiv University of Law. - 2013. - № 1. - P. 316-320.

The government and the church in the USSR

(On the issue of the first decade of Council for the Russian Orthodox Church at the Council of Ministers of the USSR)

Oleksandr Onishchenko


The article dedicated to the problem of relations between the Soviet government and the Russian Orthodox Church in the period from 1943 to 1948. Considered the activities of the Council of the Russian Orthodox Church and the personality of the first Chairman G. Karpov. Described the nature of the relationship between Patriarch Alexy I (Simansky) of Moscow and G. Karpov. Briefly reviews the activities of the representatives Council in the republics on the example of the Estonian SSR, attention is paid to the place of the representatives of Council in all the system. The article attempts to identify the preconditions that have influenced the change in policy in relation to the Russian Orthodox Church after 1948 that affect the position of the Council for Russian Orthodox Church. Incorrect steps in the work of the Council have led to the fact that on February 28, 1948, adopted a resolution of the Central Committee of the C. P. S. U. (B) "On the improper work of the Council of the Russian Orthodox Church at the Council of Ministers of the USSR".

Keywords: Council of the Russian Orthodox Church, G.G. Karpov, Alexy I (Simansky) of Moscow, the Church, representatives of the Council.

"The state, in terms of the New Testament and the Christian faith, there is a necessary element of earth, fallen world. This does not mean that the state - too bad. On the contrary, the state is called to the fact that evil limit. But as an institution on earth it cannot completely do away with evil. Only in the Kingdom of God can be the ultimate triumph of good. Therefore, the first and main aspect of the Christian attitude to the state: the separation between the kingdom of God and the kingdom of this world "

[Archpriest John Meyndorf, "Church and State" s. 9]

Part I.

Council of the Russian Orthodox Church at the Council of Ministers of the USSR (hereinafter - the Council) - Federal Government body established on September 14, 1943. The Council was to monitor compliance with Soviet legislation on cults, not interfering in internal affairs of the Russian Orthodox Church. The Council took a decision on the opening of new churches, chapels, monasteries, religious schools; was in charge of the registration and removal from the register of the clergy; carried a total interaction with the Russian Orthodox Church on domestic and international issues.

The Council had authorized persons responsible for interaction with the church in the some territories. Most Council took away staff for former employees of the state security that affects the character of the interaction of Soviet officials and believers. The first chairperson of the Council for Russian Orthodox Church - George G. Karpov, Major General People's Commissariat of the USSR State Security (NKVD of the USSR). He served as chairperson of the Council since its formation in 1944 until 1960, when he was sent into retirement. According to unconfirmed reports, G.G. Karpov was in the seminary, but documentary evidence of this fact is not. Many celebrated the fact that G. Karpov well-versed in matters of inter-church relations not as a man sided, but as the church is familiar with tact, discipline and subordination. Although George G. Karpov as chairman of the Council has shown himself a man loyal to the Russian Orthodox Church, ready to cooperate.

Changing the state policy on religion after World War II patriotic traditionally associated with the activities of the Russian Orthodox Church during the war and that the Government decided to use the church in its foreign policy. Here, writes researcher A. Kashovariv: "During the war, formed a new church policy of the Soviet state, which was the hallmark of relative tolerance. However, instead of the old, pre-war methods of regulation of religious life, often expressed in the direct violence and terror, to develop new, lies in the severe restriction and comprehensive control of church activities from the state. Normalization of church-state relations was of partial and temporary nature, as the legal and administrative constraints on the activities of religious communities, took the Soviet government since 1918 has not been lifted. This fact alone contains the possibility of the return of the state to the brutal policy of the Church "[1, p. 130].

After a meeting in the Kremlin V. Stalin with Metropolitan Sergius (Stragorodsky), Alexei (Symanskym) and Nicholas (Yarushevychem) September 4, 1943 the Council of Bishops elected Patriarch renewed edition of the Journal of the Moscow Patriarchate, began to open religious schools, churches. This discrimination legislation late 1920s. For the church has not been canceled. All postwar easing (limited right of a legal entity, the rule of the priest in the parish, etc.) were carried regulations, government regulations, regulations of the Council. Trying the latest draft a new law on religious organizations was rejected. This demonstrates the unreliability of changes in this area. At any moment the situation of the Russian Orthodox Church in the Soviet Union could change.

It should be noted that the meeting of the leaders of the Russian Orthodox Church and the country's top leadership have become quite frequent. Perhaps this can be explained by Stalin by the time the final has not developed a plan to use the church because someone did not want to entrust meeting with hierarchs. Later meet with the patriarch and the bishops would V. Molotov or K. Voroshilov. Regular meetings were held between the head of the ROC and Patriarch Alexei (Symanskym) in the building of the Council.

Information on the activities of the Russian Orthodox Church during the Soviet period historians derive exclusively from Council documents. The Moscow Patriarchate does not provide access to its archives to researchers or church or secular historians. Strict record keeping requirements for public office give us this opportunity well enough to focus on issues of church-state relations and international politics in the XX century. Among the most interesting books of documents for the Russian Orthodox Church recent years, it is worth noting the publication of letters Patriarch Alexis I to the Counsil of 1945-1953. The publication was carried out under the general editorship of Doctor of Historical Sciences, N.A. Krivovvoyi, was published in 2009. Among the letters is both personal and official documentation. The impression of a good, friendly relations established between G.G. Karpov and Patriarch Alexei. Striking is the fact that the patriarch literally any occasion consulted with the Chairman of the Council, asked his advice, informed about current affairs and needs of the church. From this, it seems that the patriarch could not do anything without the approval of G. Karpov. That's what the church says Canadian historian D. Pospilovskyy, who recently passed away, "Turning to the Karpov requests, the patriarch, however, every time takes the opportunity to put on the kind of unfair treatment in the Church, seeks the rehabilitation of the convicted person of the clergy, is busy for seminars and other" [2, p. 278].

The Russian Orthodox Church was not completely destroyed, as would happen if there was no invasion of Nazi troops in the USSR. Presumably, the government of the Soviet Union has revised his views on the church for fear that total elimination of official and government-controlled churches can lead to uncontrollable and spread to other religious movements and sects. Survival of the Russian Orthodox Church contributed significantly to the international legal obligations of the USSR before the world community. Soviet leadership was needed to Orthodox hierarchs in various international meetings emphasized that the Soviet Union is fighting for world peace, social justice, religious freedom and equality among workers.

About this turning point in the history of the Russian Orthodox Church latest period N. Krivova wrote: "The cardinal turn in the incipient state church policy in 1943, led to the weakening of the Russian Orthodox Church in the key issues. For the first time after decades of fierce persecution, mass repression of the clergy and the destruction of religious and administrative structures of the process of the normalization of state-church relations. The revival of church life in the country at that time was the main purpose of serving outstanding primate of the Russian Orthodox Church Patriarch Alexy I (Simansky). The objectives for the implementation of relations between the USSR and the patriarch "on issues requiring government permission," were assigned to the newly created decision of SNK on September 14, 1943 the Council for Russian Orthodox Church, headed by its chairman G.G. Karpov. However, the "truce" was short-lived, and since the late 1940s. ROC palpable all felt the pressure of the state. But, despite the short period of time, a period of stability have serious implications for the ROC. Church was able to strengthen the financial and organizational position, to revive many of the old institutions, much to regain its position as the leading traditional religions in the country and gain prestige in the international arena "[3, p. 5].

Russian Orthodox Church could hold Local Council to elect a new patriarch, the church was granted the freedom of worship of religious processions. Significantly reduced taxes for clergy who, above all, lay a heavy burden on the rural clergy. Moscow Patriarchate resumed publishing, the church was handed over some particularly meaningful Monastery (Kyiv Pechersk Lavra, Trinity-Sergius Lavra, etc ..) and the sanctuary (the relics of St. Sergius). Moscow Patriarchate, which was located after the war in the former residence of the German ambassador to the USSR in Chysty lane, literally threw requests, reports, papers and letters requesting the opening of churches, monasteries return, sending priests. In addition, there were requests from students who wanted to study at the Theological Institute, opened in the Novodevichy Monastery in Moscow. Soon Theological Institute was renamed the Moscow Theological Academy and Seminary and moved in Zagorsk (Moscow region). These and many other issues on the agenda and resolved by the Council for Russian Orthodox Church together with the Moscow Patriarchate.

What was the government body? Resolution of People's Commissars of the USSR № 1392 of December 18, 1943 approved the staffing and salaries of the staff of the authorized PC at the ROC Council of Commissars of the Union and autonomous republics, territorial and regional executive committees. The responsibilities of Commissioners included monitoring compliance with laws and government regulations, inform the Council on the status and activities of churches, clergy, religious institutions and believers, checking complaints and statements of the latter.

With the status of the Council for the ROC equal to the committee, acting with the Council of Commissars of the USSR. The government led activity of RNA chairman V. Molotov. In the early years of especially important and fundamental issues in the form of detailed notes and reports directed at Stalin's name, much of the documentation - named V.M. Molotov. After minor restructuring of the Council for Russian Orthodox Church and approving a new staffing, in February 1946 was formed special part of Council. This structural unit was responsible for the shipment and storage of classified material (regulations). Overseen authorized in regions inspectorial was assigned to the department that supervised and directed all work authorized. Also this department followed the activities of the Synod of the Russian Orthodox Church (the first copy of a copy of the Holy Synod logs ROC heading the Council) provided statistics on the number of clergy, parishes, monasteries, watching publishing Patriarchate.

Especially it's necessary to say about the international activities of the Moscow Patriarchate. Referring to the study O.Yu. Vasilyeva, which was one of the first in the country, shed light on the international activities of the Moscow Patriarchate and the Council for Russian Orthodox Church: "April 10, 1945 was held a meeting of Patriarch Alexy, Metropolitan Nicholas and Protopresbyter NF Kolchitsky with Joseph Stalin. The Prime Minister appreciated the patriotic activity of the Church in the final stages of World War II, promising to consider extending the network of spiritual and educational institutions and church-publishing. Behind this screen of respect and participation of specific foreign policy objectives were to decide that the state aim was to help the Church. Immediately after the Local Council in 1945 Karpov in a report to the Government, he reported: "In the future, the ROC foreign activities directed by the Board in the following areas: 1. The reunification of the Moscow Patriarchate of the Russian Orthodox Church Abroad. 2. The establishment of close and friendly relations with the Orthodox Churches of Slavic countries. 3. Further strengthening relations with other heads of autocephalous churches and influence in international religious issues." In parallel with the reunification of the Russian Orthodox parishes were working to develop a "unified" line with the Orthodox churches of Bulgaria, Romania, Yugoslavia and Czechoslovakia "[4, p. 41 - 42].

The head of the Council for Russian Orthodox Church have developed a constructive relationship with the first head of the Department for External Church Relations, a prominent hierarch of the Russian Orthodox Church, Metropolitan Nicholas (Yarushevychem), who was educated man that survived the Stalinist period "cleansing" and the persecution of the Church. SA Surkov, who published a monograph "Metropolitan Nicholas (Yarushevych)" describes the relationship GG Karpov and Metropolitan Nicholas. This work was published by the Society of Church History and has become a rarity. "It should be noted that the authorities are interested in the use of church leaders in Soviet propaganda campaigns, sometimes indulged the ambitious aspirations of the hierarchs of the Moscow Patriarchate, which was reflected, for example, in the practice of presenting gifts to them: so, in 1947, Mr. Karpov brought Reverend Nicholas 10 m brocade and the painting on the total amount of 6585 rubles. It is noteworthy that the Chairman of the Board, from year to year was characterized by Nicholas phrases metropolitan like "ambitious, which enjoys the fact that he was no one to replace," while at the same time repeatedly supported the petition to higher authorities to award lords, including the Order of the Red Banner. According to Karpov, it was necessary "in order to weaken the unhealthy sentiments Metropolitan Nicholas and referring to his upcoming trip to the capitalist countries." Karpov stressed that Metropolitan Nikolai "done a great patriotic work, and in this direction for years to come it will be used" "[5, p. 363].

In the Council there was a department that deals with international activities, and the Department for External Church Relations of the Moscow Patriarchate. Founded in 1947 the Department for the central management of the Council for Russian Orthodox Church (formerly known as the Department of Foreign Affairs), international job. It relied on the study and preparation of proposals on all matters of foreign activities. The department has developed plans for the reception of foreign delegations church, preparing documents for church delegations traveled abroad Soviet Union. The archives department has collected pervasive documentary certificate about activity autocephalous Orthodox churches, the ecumenical movement and politics of the Vatican.

To be continued...


1. A.N. Kashevarov The state and the church. From the history of relations between the Soviet government and the Russian Orthodox Church. 1917 - 1945 years. - SPb .: Publishing and printing center SPbGTU, 1995. - 147 p.

2. D.V. Pospelovsky Russian Orthodox Church in the XX century. - M .: The Republic, 1995. - 511 p.

3. Letters to Patriarch Alexy I in the Council for Russian Orthodox Church at the Council of People's Commissars - the Council of Ministers of the USSR. 1945 - 1970 years .: / [ed. O.N. Krivova; holes. comp. SOUTH. Orlova; comp. O.V. Lavinskaya, K.G. Lyashenko]. - Moscow: Russian Political Encyclopedia (ROSSPEN), 2009 - (Publications). Volume 1: The letters of Patriarch Alexy I in the Council for Russian Orthodox Church at the Council of People's Commissars - the Council of Ministers of the USSR. 1945 - 1963 years. - 2009. - 847 p.

4. Vasileva O. Russian Orthodox Church and the Second Vatican Council. M .: Mite-Press, 2004. - 328 p .: silt.

5. Surkov S.A. Metropolitan Nikolai (Yarushevich). - M .: The publication of the Society of Church History, 2012. - p. 646.

Formation of parliamentarism United States in the conditions of world political transformation

Stanislav Zhelihovskyy


The article analyzes the formation of parliamentarism in Europe and the United States of America. The author found substantiated stages of development and strengthening the role of the Congress in the formulation and implementation of the US foreign policy.

Keywords: parliamentarism, the USA, foreign policy.

Parliamentarism in democratic countries, its essence, development and influence on world politics today is more than ever relevant. Increased interest in this problem due to the increasing importance of the ideas of democracy and civil society development. Parliamentarism is multidimensional phenomenon that has features in different countries; presupposes Parliament, but one that embodies the interests and aspirations of the people; and which thus has real power in the state. Decisive role in the implementation of the tasks and functions of the state, the interaction between society and the state, citizens and government in democratic countries plays a legislature through parliament. As parliamentarism is the highest form of expression of representative democracy, this institution requires systematic improvement and reform.

The criteria for the evolution of parliamentary division into separate stages are: the principle of separation of state power, level of autonomy and influence of representative bodies, election procedures level representative bodies. Given the above, we can can distinguish the stages of evolution of parliamentarism.

Stage I covers the VI. B.C. - X centuries. It begins with the emergence of forms of democracy in ancient states. Conventionally, it can be called "protoparlamentarism" because at this time the appropriate forms of democracy there are signs of parliamentarism. Prototypes of modern parliaments existed in ancient Greece policies. Parliament was an important prototype of the Senate of ancient Rome.

The period of the Second stage can be roughly set of X century the middle of XVII century. It is characterized by the parliaments of the acquisition of national importance and the formation of caste-representative parliamentary system. The oldest parliaments in the world are Iceland (Althing) and the Isle of Man (Tynwald), which were founded in the X century Althing appeared in 930 year. However, he officially worked for the 1801-1845 biennium, although informal meetings were held. Regarding Tynvalda, created in 979, he acted within its history continuously. During this stage, since X-XI centuries, in Kyivan Rus there are general meetings of citizens of cities - the council (Kyiv Belgorod, Novgorod, Kyiv et al.), which showed signs of direct democracy. In Ukraine this tradition liberties preserved in the form of Cossack Sich and Western models of government - Magdeburg law. In the XII century England start acting representative bodies [1, p. 34]. Later appear appropriate education in France, Spain and others. The amount of such jurisdiction gradually expanded, which was due to the development of economic relations and the need to protect the rights of certain segments of the population [2, p. 25].

III stage lasted from the XVII to the end of the XIX century. The main trend is the impact of this period of formation and development of bourgeois society, changes in economic relations, which affected the need for further strengthening of representative bodies as national legislation. A new wave of parliamentarism was due to the fact that the caste representative bodies particular - monarchs. It turned them into "manual" tools and made it impossible to meet the interests of the economically growing segment of society - the bourgeoisie. That its representatives in various ways began to be members of parliament. There are the first party. For example, "Whigs" and "Tory" in Britain, which united both bourgeois and aristocrats. The processes of parliamentary activities continued in the Nordic countries. For example, in Sweden, where the absolute monarchy came to change the caste representative parliamentary system [3, p. 73]. Later parliament acquires the status of a single legislative body, improving the procedure of formation, separation of powers, diversification parties on different criteria and more. There is the right to control the government. However, parliaments often justified hopes people who elected them. This was the basis for the development of direct democracy in the form of a referendum [4, p. 2P]

The fourth stage, timing is conventionally measured from the XIX century to present the most relevant for analysis in the context of the studied subject. At the end of the XIX century was formed the Austro-Hungarian parliament, which was elected Ukrainian ethnic territory of modern Western Ukraine. In 1889 established Inter-Parliamentary Union as the first international organization of inter-parliamentary cooperation. In the interwar period, there are modern parliaments in Czechoslovakia, Poland, Austria and Hungary. The constitutions of European countries so far secured the powers of parliament, rights and freedoms. Gradually the early XX century were liquidated various property and franchise tender, which had clearly discriminatory. In particular - in the UK. However, this process has not been completed on a global scale. Yes, even today women in Jordan have no voting rights.

After World War II, parliamentarism becomes a worldwide institution has the status of a necessary component of a democratic state. He is constantly improving, as designed to protect all segments of the population to participate in ensuring the rights and freedoms of man and citizen. During the XX century concepts, new understanding of parliamentarism, the main of which is awareness of the power of the people and parliaments as a professional hired people who exercise on behalf of the people of the appropriate authorities.

Speaking about the formation of the American political and legal doctrines times of the unified state, whose origins are from Europe, it should be emphasized that within it while also not yet formed the idea of ​​popular representation that content would more or less complete concept. You can specify only the inherently fragmented publication of such political figures as Thomas Jefferson (Thomas Jefferson) and James Madison (James Madison). Trying to support the American Constitution established public order, they argued that the representative has advantages over direct democracy. For example, Madison made a significant contribution to the development of the idea of ​​republican government in terms of the United States, and the theory of equilibrium of separate powers, the concept of fractions.

Legislative power in the United States was established to support the balance of interaction between the central government and the states. To this end, Section 1, Article I of the US Constitution legislative power was transferred Congress consisting of the Senate and House of Representatives. Heads of committees of both chambers of representatives appointed by parties that have the most votes.

In the US there are two parties who are the main players in the political arena, Democratic and Republican. Despite the fact that in the political life of the country participate in the election and other forces, the Democrats and the Republicans firmly control both houses of parliament and propose their candidates for president. Each party has historically electorate. Democrats traditionally supports intellectuals, representatives of national, racial and sexual minorities and residents of large cities. Republicans rely on farmers and big business circles Protestants [5].

House members are elected for 2 years for the "districts" that are formed in proportion to the population of the state. Speaker of the House of Representatives takes the following after Vice President in the list of presidential succession positions. Members of the House of Representatives must be at least 25 years, at least seven years and be US citizens currently reside in those states from which have been delegated to Congress. States can impose additional requirements for the election procedure of the Congress, but the requirements for its members each chamber has the right to establish their own [6].

The second chamber - the Senate - is represented by two senators from each state. One of the founders of the US Constitution Alexander Hamilton (Alexander Hamilton) has identified five main objectives, which contribute to achieving the upper house of Congress. Among them - the need to restrain temper and recklessness of the lower chamber to prevent powerful people's passions and sudden changes of public opinion on public affairs. However, Hamilton saw a major goal of the formation of the upper house to meet the requirements of a federal form of government of the American republic. Characteristically, his ideas about the need for an upper chamber in terms of a federal state in one form or another recognized modern constitutional theory.

After the adoption of the US Constitution, the election Senators belonged to the prerogatives of state legislatures. However, in 1913, after the adoption XVII amendments introduced direct election procedure. The procedure for holding elections to the Senate is determined by each individual state. Senators are elected for six years. Every two years, the Senate is updated on a third of its members. In order to be elected to the Senate, potential candidates need at least, according to the constitution to reach 30 years of age, be a US citizen for at least nine years and currently reside in the state from which elected.

The legislative powers of Congress are clearly divided between the House and Senate. Along with the right of legislative initiative highest house of parliament won the right to approve the proposed two-thirds of the president candidates to senior positions in the federal government, and to the ratification of treaties. The negative reaction of any Chamber executive action complicates the work of the government and the president.

Wide powers of Congress formulated in Article I Section 8 of the US Constitution, which provides for the establishment and collection of taxes; agreement / loan to replenish the state treasury; establishing rules and restrictions in interstate commerce and foreign trade; coinage, adjusting their value and the value of foreign currency; Advancement of Science; declaration of a state of war and so on. Some of these powers, for example, the construction of postal routes - nowadays obsolete. However, they continue to operate formally. Tenth Amendment sets certain limits the competence of Congress, according to which the powers not granted to the central government, the states retain [7].

By the 1970s seniority system dominated in Congress under which the chairmanships of committees, as well as other government and prestigious posts, automatically took deputies who had the longest stay in legislative chambers. Most Democrats here were South. They re-established record in Congress for reasons of traditionalism and provincialism of their constituencies. Given that the chairmen of the committees had the final say in the formation of the legislative agenda and procedural mechanism, you can understand why seniority system has become an important factor in the support of conservative tendencies in Congress. The system tried to destroy the most liberal Democratic Party.

Among the activities of the Congress of 1970 that extended his right, note the Law on military authority and act on the control of maintenance of the presidential budget. The latter was part of a broad and fundamental budget law. According to him, created budgetary management of the Capitol, which is preparing forecasts and calculations of estimated revenues and expenses along with OMB president. That possibility legislative and executive branches of government in the preparation of the federal budget aligned. Further, Congress gave itself the right to take two budget resolutions: the first included recommendations; the second establishes strict control costs, which adjusted the amount appropriated funds. Already in the 1980s, Congress approved a law on balanced budget and emergency measures to control the deficit. In practice this meant reducing semi-appropriated funds, if adopted budget deficit exceeded planned. This cost reduction was to be equally civil-military items [8, p. 49-53].

Among Rights of Congress that emerged in recent times, should highlight the right to veto executive decrees. It was first used in 1932 for the abolition of the executive orders of President Herbert Hoover (Herbert Hoover). Subsequently legislative veto was used more and was especially effective in neutralizing the presidential decree aimed at reorganizing the federal state apparatus. Legislative veto, which is in contrast to the president's absolute nature has made major adjustments to the classic model of checks and balances. It is understandable why American presidents have repeatedly rebelled against the new prerogatives of Congress.

Congress plays an important role in shaping US foreign policy. President if necessary take the initiative, but according to the Constitution, the President and Congress are equal branches of government. And last support is essential for the success of foreign policy. If the position of President on an issue not supported or supported without enthusiasm, it undermines and limits its ultimate success.

The power of Congress in foreign policy are not always used equally intense. In the relative calm on the world stage his participation may be modest. However, when, for example, spoke about the Gulf War or the conflicts in Central America 80 years Capitol significantly actively intervened in the foreign policy. Especially if between him and the president, there were significant differences of opinion.

Note that the consolidation of the Congress as a "mouthpiece of the will of the people and the depositary democratic ideals" active role in the system of foreign policy was, according to leaders of the American Revolution, strengthen the democratic foundations of society to prevent the authoritarian government. However, the historical practice has transformed much of the nature and distribution of these powers. The trend of significant growth in this area the role of chief executive began to noticeably occur during the twentieth century. First, the presidency of Theodore Roosevelt (Theodore Roosevelt), who advocated the functions of chief executive for the formation of the state apparatus in the future - Franklin Delano Roosevelt (Franklin Delano Roosevelt), that in carrying out the "new course" in concentration of powers, objective was to transform President of the main political figure and chief administrator of governance.

After the Second World War, when the rate on the containment of communism (taken as the basis of US international strategy) was developed and implemented by the president influences the prevalence of executive power in foreign policy was a natural phenomenon. This trend continued throughout the period of bipolar confrontation between Soviet and Western systems.

However, since the beginning of the 1990s. (Believed - the most controversial period of the foreign policy of the country) activities of Congress acquires fundamentally new trends from the adoption of laws determining allocations, confirm appointments, ratification of agreements to exercise institutional control supervision over the executive in foreign policy.

The powers of Congress on issues of international politics in recent times, especially in the last quarter of the XX century increased. However, in turn, the same can be said about the power of the executive. This occurred evenly and simultaneously. Presidential Board strengthened in times of crisis, the post-crisis - the legislature took revenge by trying (and not without success) to restore the status quo. In general, these relationships were in a state of dynamic equilibrium, i.e. a rise wings invariably rise to the empowerment of others. So provided the founding fathers of the US balance of power restored.

At the same time remains relevant analysis of the ways and methods of cooperation and compromise the Congress with other branches of the United States.

The practical feasibility of this theme matches the needs of Ukraine in the formation of an effective and pragmatic oriented political system, deepen the foundations of democracy, asserting the political process standards that reflect the proven historical practice achievements of western political systems. It is significant fragment of a speech by Vice President Joseph Biden (Joseph Biden) during his speech December 8, 2015 at the Verkhovna Rada of Ukraine (referring to the words of a member of the UK Parliament Edmund Burke): "Parliament is an advisory body of one nation, one people of interest only where not local purposes, not local prejudices have to manage, and the common good." And then from himself added: "I respectfully suggest you make a standard for each of you, for which you will be judged by your grandchildren and your history."


1. Gheorghita A.Z .Constitutional and legal institutions of foreign countries / A.Z. Gheorghita. - Chernivtsi: Ruta, 1994. - 138 p.

2. Gheorghita A.Z. The historical role and place of parliamentary institutions in society at the turn of XX-XXI centuries. / A.Z. Gheorghita // Scientific Bulletin of Chernivtsi University. -Vyp. 11. - Chernivtsi, 1996.- P. 17-32.

3. V. Shapoval Foreign parliamentarism / V.Shapoval. - K .: Fundamentals, 1993.- 143 p.

4. V.M. Shapoval Politics of the world / V.M. Shapoval. - K: Eng. Center for Legal Studies, 1999. - 320 p.

5. The catalog of American political parties [Electron resource]. - Access mode: www.politics1.com/<wbr>parties.htm

6. Senate of the United States: The United States Constitution [Electron resource]. - Access mode: www.senate.gov/civics/<wbr>constitution_item/<wbr>constitution.htm

7. The United States Constitution [Electron resource]. - Access mode: www.usconstitution.net/<wbr>const.html

8. US political institutions. History and modernity. M. - 1988.

Otto von Bismarck and the German colonial policy 1884-1890: the diplomatic confrontation between the great powers

Sergiy Troyan

Part II.


In the mid-1880 XIX century German Empire undertook colonial land grabs in Africa (South West Africa, Cameroon, Togo, East Africa) and island territories in the Pacific (Samoa, New Guinea and others). Its overseas territorial possessions gained international recognition, there has developed a specific system of military administration. Go to the colonial conquests took place in an atmosphere of excitement in the German colonial society. Inspirer and guide of the German colonial aspirations made the first Chancellor of the German Empire, Prince Otto von Bismarck. He cleverly used the favorable international environment for the strengthening of transatlantic position of Imperial Germany and diplomatic settlement of the colonial conflict with Great Britain and other European countries.

Keywords: German Empire, Otto von Bismarck, colonial policy, diplomacy.

Reich Chancellor Otto von Bismarck went down in history as the founder of the German colonial empire. It was under his tenure German Empire officially took possession of the first colonies in Africa and Oceania. The first German colony in late April 1884 the area became Angra Pekeny in southwestern Africa. Starting colonial annexation of much later than many European countries, Germany has shown with great aggressiveness. European colonial countries, especially the United Kingdom, very quickly proved how dangerous competitor was in the fight for the final division of the world. The success of the German colonial expansion is largely explained by a favorable international situation, which facilitated the Kaiser's Germany conducted diplomatic fixing conquest. Favorable foreign situation was, firstly, there is then not engaged in overseas lands and, secondly, the development of acute conflict between Britain and its allies. English-Russian clash in 1884-1885. On the approaches to Afghanistan and Anglo-French contradictions in Egypt and Indochina were cleverly used by German diplomacy to carry out its colonial policy.

Alternating methods of persuasion, blackmail, threats, Philips in the Reichstag and the official press, the German Reich Chancellor sought to force the British to accept the invading Germans in the colonial area. As a result, Britain went to considerable concessions and 22 June 1884 recognized the German protectorate over Angra Pekenoy. Even three months after the British government was forced to agree to the Kaiser's Germany protectorate over the whole of South West Africa from the district. Orange to Portuguese colonial possessions. The Germans have to press the British not only on the Atlantic coast of South Africa, and in alliance with the Boers of the Indian Ocean.

At the initiative of Germany in November 1884 in Berlin was opened an international conference on the Congo, which played a key role in the future colonial policy. As mentioned in "Notes on the task of the Berlin Conference", it was convened "to determine the relative position of the European nations who traded on the banks of the South River Congo. The conference was to ensure freedom of navigation on the river for all commercial nations and at the same time, to determine the conditions under which civilized state can occupy the newly discovered lands that belong to nations or tribes or semi-wild "[1]. The purpose of the Berlin conference was "the opening to European industry and colonization - and the way the German - new sales and new career with full equality, i.e. the elimination of monopolies, which enjoyed in this respect to the last time England" [2]. The balance of forces at a conference in the German interpretation demonstrated satirical magazine "Kledderadatsch". The picture, entitled "Separation of West Africa" ​​depicts Bismarck, who cuts a large watermelon that says "Congo"; Frenchman, an Englishman and a little Portuguese patiently waiting for them to appropriate pieces of watermelon. Under the picture the caption: "The Kid (Portuguese), which would disrupt the fruit when it is not ripe (Anglo-Portuguese agreement on February 26, 1884) wants now, when will the division, to get the biggest piece" [3].

In February 1885 Berlin Conference ended with the signing of the "Final Act". Pool Congo and some neighboring areas were declared a free trade zone, a claim rejected by the UK and Portugal to these territories. According to the outcome of the conference on the importation of goods the zone were not going to taxes. Participants "Act" pledged to respect the neutrality of the areas that were under the contract free trade zone there and enjoyed equal rights in respect of acquisition of property and industrial activities. This was the case in Germany and that, therefore, able to penetrate into this region of Africa. Was established freedom of navigation for merchant ships of all nations on the river Congo and its ducts on the basis of complete equality. In order to implement these regulations provided for the establishment of an international commission of representatives of all states that have signed the "Act". The Berlin conference was not only an attempt organized by the colonial division of Africa, but the first attempt to use the system of international measures for a peaceful political settlement of colonial conflicts.

Berlin Conference on Congo confirmed the fact that the colonial division of Africa between the great European powers entered the final stage. The rapid pace of completion of the distribution of the African continent evidenced by the statement of the British political leader Lord Salisbury. He said: "When I left the Foreign Office in 1880, no one thought about Africa. When I returned there in 1885, the nations of Europe almost quarreled with each other on different pieces of "[4]. In Germany itself, as the Russian press wrote, "the first timid attempt of the Germans to assert its authority in one of the areas that is adjacent to the Cape Colony in Africa, once released into the category of events ... paramount; newspapers greeted the move with extraordinary enthusiasm "[5].

Bismarck was made a report in the budget committee of the Reichstag with the official proclamation of the colonial policy of the empire June 23, 1884. Reich Chancellor made a statement about the possibilities and methods of colonial policy in general and particularly in African lands and assured collection that interference by Britain in this regard eliminated. Bismarck also drew attention to the link between politics and the colonial project of postal subsidies for steamship lines, proposing to consider the project of colonial position, not only of economic interests of Germany. Reich Chancellor hinted that for Angra Pekenoy quickly the turn of other colonial achievements, the management of which the government will pass into the hands of "enterprising compatriots are floating seas and trade" [6]. Bismarck promised them protection from the state.

Popular colonial policy was to dispel growing frustration Government and strengthen its credibility. Well studied the balance of political forces in Germany, British Ambassador in Berlin Russell autumn of 1884 reported to his government: "Bismarck had gradually increasing German colonial delusions act on the issue of Angra Pekenu contrary to their best convictions, discovered unknown until the source of popularity colonial policy "[7]. Sam Reich Chancellor openly acknowledged importance colonial policy as a domestic argument. In a letter to the German ambassador in London, Count Munster on January 25, 1885 he wrote: "colonial question at least in terms of domestic policy for us is vital ... Public opinion has recently paid so important colonial policy that position government greatly depends on its success. The most granular piece New Guinea or West African coast, even if it is objectively worthless, now our policy is more important than all Egypt and its future". [8] Bismarck hoped by the policy of colonial expansion and further strengthen the foundations to encourage political and economic development of the empire. In addition, increased promotion and development of colonial conquest overseas expansion were to some extent help to eliminate social contradictions within Germany.

Although the colonial policy of the mid-1880s and caused political debate in German society, but most of the leading and influential part of the success to support colonial field. Leading positions in the colonial propaganda and support for colonial expansionist policies of Bismarck took the National Liberal Party, which advocated the mouthpiece of the party organ newspaper "Kelnishe Zeitung" newspaper Leipziger "Hrentsboten" and influential monthly "Prussishe Yarbyuher." Authors apologists for colonial conquest on their pages, usually guided by considerations of prestige, which wrote the German historian P. Darmshtetter: "Among the supporters of the then German colonial policy often prevailed opinion that colonies of great powers are as necessary as the rich man of known position in society required carriage, horses and liveried lackeys "[9]. Overall, in the mid 80's XIX century German press played an important role in providing ideological support of colonial conquest and the Kaiser's Germany in Africa and Oceania. Press on the one hand, reflect public opinion on the colonial question, on the other - has shaped this idea, trying to primarily affect the middle classes of German society that would become carriers of the ideology of colonialism.

The most famous of issued at that time in Germany books on colonial subjects considered work W. Roscher "Colonies, colonial politics and emigration", published in 1885 third edition. [10] Special additional chapter to the book Roscher wrote the director of the Central Union trade geography and director created in February 1884 "German Export Bank" R. Yannash. Thinking as in the previous two editions, primarily for the development of German foreign expansion on the territory of South-Eastern Europe, the authors, however, much more space took prospects and possible consequences of overseas colonial policy, why was devoted written Yannashem separate section. Turn the book toward overseas policy was because the third edition of Roscher came out at the height of German colonial conquest in Africa and Oceania. However, despite a telling fact, the authors believe that the main task of the German Empire should be expanding at the expense of neighboring areas on the Eurasian continent. The colonial policy of overseas should play a secondary role and expect positive results fast it is not necessary. Authority Roscher while in Germany and abroad was great. Proof may be handing him (as well as historical and historian L. Ranke German Empire) September 8, 1884 the diploma of honorary member of the Kiev University. [11] So certainly in government circles and listened to it after 1885 "the colonial fever" in German society significantly subsided.

In addition, already in the second half of 1880 changing international situation led to the official colonial policy of the German government had to consider the position of the United Kingdom and the situation in Europe. Thus, for the settlement of all disputes in East Africa was established Anglo-Franco-German demarcation commission. The result of the signing of November 1, 1886 agreement, under which the UK received 400 and Germany 600 sq. miles East African land. And the Germans could actually control the British zone in the north and south. Trying to subdue the colonial expansion of its continental problem and prevent violent conflicts with the British Empire, Bismarck in December 1888 declared defiantly: "My map of Africa is in Europe" [12]. Reich Chancellor said that the proclamation of the new colonial conquest in East Africa is dictated by the ambitions of individuals (first geographer and colonizer Charles Peters) and not in the national interest of the country. Especially the situation escalated after a failed expedition to saving Peters in East Africa, the Ottoman governor of the province of Uganda Emin-Pasha. Reich Chancellor was forced to speak openly favorable for the preservation of the Anglo-German relations, as reflected in his address to the Reichstag: "I see England as the old traditional ally with which we have no disputes. The term "ally" should not be taken only in the diplomatic sense, because we do not have any contracts with it; but I also want to keep in contact while colonial matters with England, who have been with her for at least fifty years" [13].

Thus, in the mid 1880's Kaiser's Germany has taken a number of official colonial conquest, seizing land in Africa (South West Africa, Cameroon, Togo, East Africa) and island territories in Oceania (Samoa part of New Guinea, etc.). Its overseas territorial possessions received international recognition, there has developed a specific system of military administration. Go to the overseas conquest took place in an atmosphere of excitement in the German colonial society. Despite numerous, sometimes quite sharp and intense discussions on various issues of colonial policy, all political parties, expressing the interests of the ruling social forces, eventually supported by the German colonial expansion. Otto von Bismarck, chancellor extended its power over long overseas possession, though, paradoxically, is not considered a great success colonial achievements of foreign policy of the German Empire: general until his retirement in March 1890, he continued to provide critical continental European politics.


1. Archive of Foreign Policy Archives of the Russian Empire, the diplomatic department of the Russian Federation Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Moscow. - F. Embassy in Berlin. - № 167. - Op. 509/1. - D. 3663. - 1884-1885. - L. 14.

2. There itself. - F. Office. - № 133. - Op. 470 - D. 24 - 1884 - 230 ML.

3. Kladderadatsch. - 30.11.1884. - № 55.

4. Vinogradov K.B., Naumenko O.A. In the service of the British colonialism (Pages political biography of Lord Salisbury) // Modern and Contemporary History. - 1981. - № 2. - S. 127-128.

5. The Bulletin of Europe. - 1884. - № 9. - S. 393.

6. Bismark O. Die gesammelten Werke: In 15 Bde. - B., 1924-1933. - Bd.12. - S.481.

7. Taffs W. Ambassador to Bismarck. - L., 1938. - P. 339.

8. Bismarck O. Die gesammelten Werke. - Bd.4. - S.96-97.

9. Darmstadter P. Geschichte der Aufteilung und Kolonisation Afrikas seit dem Zeitalter der Entdeckungen: In 2 Bde. - B.-Lpz., 1920. - Bd.2. - S. 50.

10. Roscher W., Jannasch R. Kolonien, Kolonialpolitik und Auswanderung. 3. Aufl. - Lpz., 1885.

11. Central State Historical Archive of Ukraine. - F. Kyiv University. - № 708. - Op. The Council, 1884 - Spr.139. - Arc. 225, 286.

12. Die Groβe Politik der europaischen Kabinette 1871-1914: Sammlung der diplomatischen Akten des Auswärtigen Amtes. Bd. 1-40. - B., 1922-1927. - Bd.4. - S.176.

13. Ibid. - Bd.VI. - № 945.

Foreign language training as a means of formation of professional competence of diplomats

Oksana Snigovska


The universal and national tendencies of societal development (as a base for changes in education) have to be taking into account for ensuring of effectiveness of educational activity. The main modern priorities of the higher professional education system are revealed. The article is devoted to the development of professional competency of future diplomats. The author shows one of directions for future implicit changes in language speciality training of students. Basic communicative strategies and tactics, which deliver the efficiency of communication in the diplomatic area, have been defined.

Keywords: foreign language, effective communication, future specialist, diplomat.

The rapid formation of a global political system against the backdrop of leveling the borders of related diplomatic, political, social, cultural and financial relations, a process that determined the face of the world of the XXI century. The expansion of international relations of Ukraine and deepening of integration processes led to increasing demands for advanced training of specialists.

Political crises, hybrid war, the search for investment projects provoked an information explosion, caused massive involvement of professionals in the direct implementation of international relations, and expand diplomatic, business and cultural contacts. Stable operation of the international media without ruling out diplomats who are fluent in foreign languages ​​and able to quickly extract information independently from foreign sources.

Diplomacy in our country is one of the most advanced structures and operation meets international standards in terms of national interests of Ukraine. "Today the art of diplomacy has become a meaningful effective work is highly qualified diplomats have extensive intellectual support for the leadership of the state" [1]. However, traditional approaches and substantive learning model students for future diplomats - not fully reflect the real needs of the practice of their profession.

It is extremely topical subject of globalization and integration processes in the field of education, determine trends forming a unified world civilization and modern patterns of development, the subject of numerous works of local scientists.

We should also mention an interest in this issue Russian colleagues, in view of which is a problem for a long time to improve the system of foreign language teaching in universities, including the specific language training of international diplomats.

Identifying opportunities for improving foreign language training of future diplomats in terms of European integration and globalization of world processes will enable "... better - anticipating their impact on future events ... ensure effective educational activities, the result of which will be prepared, competitive young man who fully meets the professional and social and public life requirements in the future" [2].

Today, foreign language, which is a tool not only receive professional and scientific information but also expand professional and philosophical ideas, deepen expertise, intercultural communication, plays a huge role.

Undoubtedly, the level of diplomats largely a matter of safety, efficiency, political and economic, social and cultural development of Ukraine. It is no exaggeration to say that foreign language literacy diplomatic category. Because one of the barriers to effective professional work of diplomats in the multicultural space is insufficient foreign language training, which leads to misunderstandings, conflict situations and reduce the rate of cooperation, increasing the duration of the contract, the breakdown of contracts and so on. Therefore quality foreign language training for purely personal needs rose to national scale, was the national capital.

The modern concept of language education should provide for the transformation of the system of training that allow them to easily adapt to the rapidly changing conditions of professional activity, that would be aimed at professionally oriented foreign language teaching with regard to the needs of students learning a foreign language determined by the features of the future profession and has formula "Mastering professionally oriented foreign language development + personality of the students + knowledge of culture of language study + Special skills based on professional and linguistic knowledge." Since mastering linguistic structures of a foreign language is in artificially created multicultural environment, then, on the one hand, it is difficult to form the language skills of future professionals, on the other - allows the teacher to model content appointed process taking into account the dominance of functional goals and objectives.

This requires the professionalization of the content of foreign language training. The term "professionalism" in the literature generally used in two ways: refer to the social process of identity formation and professional transformation of any activity by the inclusion of its content components that caused the nature of the activity. Professionalization content, integrating both aspects, allows considering foreign-trained students as a social process of becoming professionally oriented linguistic identity. Therefore professionalism is physiological properties open, because determines the formation of a specific type of activity of the subject through the development and systematization set of properties specific to a group of people of one profession. However, each entity of the group is characterized by individual characteristics displays these characteristics in behavior, communication, and creative implementation of the regulation in the profession.

It is necessary to point out that with the term "professional competence" in the scientific and educational literature uses concepts similar in content but not identical - "professionalism", "training", "professional skills", "qualification", "competence" and "competence". Moreover, some researchers often they hardly differentiate, making it difficult multivariate analysis such thing as "professional competence diplomat."

Let's defines how these concepts are derived from the first reflecting certain properties at or condition of formation of professional competence of future specialist. In this sense, "professional competence" determines adequate level of training and professionalism diplomat. "Qualification" is defined as a set of professional requirements to it and its compliance with these requirements. "Professionalism" is understood as a general concept that reflects the qualitative characteristics of the subject of diplomatic activity, due largely possession of professional culture, while "professional skills" describes a certain level of competence or state diplomat.

We offer to consider professional competence diplomat interpreted as integrative quality, which is determined by the level of knowledge and way of possession of different types of competence that allows skilled effectively to its functionality and provide their own social and professional mobility. There are three elements of professional competence diplomat:

1) activity component, which reflects the knowledge, skills and personal tools to carry out;

2) communicative - the knowledge, skills and means to implement professional communication;

3) personality - the ability to self-development and the need for self-realization.

Emphasize that crucial in the structure of professional competence of a diplomat of communicative component, considered as possessions complex communication skills, knowledge of cultural norms, customs, traditions, ethics, communication and orientation in communicative means peculiar to certain national mentality.

For the formation of professional competence, including the component of communicative foreign component requires integration:

1) simulated object-technology and real foreign language of the student;

2) the subject matter of a foreign language and special subjects in relation to areas of competent professional specialist;

3) the content of foreign languages and professional subjects specially-cycle;

4) academic, educational and professional activities of the student;

5) its reproductive and creative activity.

Therefore, foreign language training of students-future diplomat is a process of formation and development of complex integrated personal formation specialist that makes use of foreign language as a means of self-realization and professional.

At present foreign language training of students in the educational process university has a number of specific features, which are, realized in the study of foreign languages, direct its use as a language of professional communication with teachers, fellow students, and representatives of other countries as well as within individual work. Specificity of learning a foreign language is that as teaching tools can be used various sources of information, texts - scientific and journalistic literature, historical and artistic works, sample documents, books, archives and more.

Thus, the function of foreign language training of future specialists can differentiate in overall didactic and special. Overall didactic include:

1) educational function that contributes to the formation and development of knowledge and skills in a foreign language and related subjects, the ability to planning and self-organization;

2) educational, developing personal qualities, professional orientation of the individual, expanding the scope of activities and interests of future specialist;

3) controlling that detects the quality of learning, developing the capacity for introspection, self-correction learning activities and its results, and the practical application.

Special features of foreign language training of students are:

1) linguistic communicative that promotes linguistic identity, development of foreign language communication skills in professional field and different areas of life;

2) professional competence that determines the level of professionalization of personality, the formation of its competence in the specialty;

3) cultural and aesthetic that promotes a high level of general culture based on the study of historical and cultural heritage of other countries, its traditions and linguistic features, exploring the best examples of art and culture.

Based on the experience of teachers of international relations faculty of the Institute of Social Studies of Odessa National University named Mechnikov, in teaching a foreign language professional direction appropriate jobs aimed at the formation and development of knowledge and skills that are the foundation of professional competence of future professionals, diplomats, including:

1) conversation in a foreign language, participate in discussions, public speaking within the socio-political, professional, social and cultural spheres of communication in accordance with linguistic etiquette;

2) foreign language interpretation of information from print and audiovisual sources on topics devoted to socio-political, professional, social and cultural spheres, its processing according to the purpose;

3) translation of foreign language texts to Ukrainian and from Ukrainian to foreign language;

4) interpretation of written texts and audio and video in a foreign language Ukrainian language and Ukrainian foreign socio-political sphere of communication;

5) consecutive two-way translation of social and political spheres of communication; entry in the translation of the conversation;

6) annotation and abstracting Ukrainian language print and audio and video in a foreign language;

7) execution of documents relating to the field of diplomacy and international relations.

Professional discourse of diplomats, politicians and international communications is an area that includes policy issues and events of public and social life. Solving such problems requires knowledge of the specific formation of communication with business partners, including linguistic indicators of social status; understanding of the particularities of humor; adequate perception of political metaphors in professional discourse and more. Thus, by effectively organized education professional speech communication environment for the students to be formed by a set of competencies (communicative, linguistic, analysis, etc.) that allows adequate understanding of foreign partners, employing verbal and non-verbal means of communication that are specific to a culture . Thus, they should form a willingness to exercise professional activities in a foreign language, taking into account the importance of contextual situations linguistic features worldview, linguistic and extra linguistic factors that contribute to the conduct of international negotiations.

Indeed, the formation of professional competence of students should take place by means of learning a foreign language through the introduction of national characteristics, history, social norms of behavior and etiquette in the countries studied languages ​​and intercultural nature of conflict and ways to solve them. Thus, modern foreign language training diplomat correlates with the result of formation of professionally significant competences that ensure individual to carry out diplomatic activities with the use of foreign languages ​​in the international community. Content-technological support foreign language training of future specialists contains linguistic and extra-linguistic factors, forming meaningful technological field different from other accounts, and implemented on the basis of variability, consistency and integration (realization of the growing professionalization of foreign language training in terms of the relationship professional disciplines, humanitarian and socio-economic cycles), congruence (matching content-technological scientific and methodological support of professional competence content) [3].

The presence of professionally-communicative skills of the individual to communicate in a typical environment of professional activity, have potential political discourse to present regulations, the ability to solve the communication problem situations in professional communication, i.e. communication, linguistic competence in the future define conceptual ways of improving foreign language professional training future diplomats in terms of learning foreign languages at a high level of skill.

So, taking into consideration the integration of Ukraine into space, its accession to the Bologna process, strengthening of cultural relations with other countries and so to higher education faced an urgent need for training, qualifications which must meet international requirements for professionals working in the field of diplomacy. Then prepare competitive professionals able to navigate the rapid flow of information, has become a priority of higher education, which define modern globalization.

The role of foreign language as a means of international communication and will continue to grow as the leading areas of communication in the diplomatic activity of graduates are international negotiations, discussions with the use of socio-political and general vocabulary, business correspondence, drafting letters, participate in press conferences and so on. Diplomats have distinguishable and skills to design a professional dialogue with different cultures, to present results of operations on a global level, participate in international discussions of professional issues, possessing excellent foreign languages.

Given the above, we note that foreign language training should focus on the formation of their readiness for professional activities. Achieving this goal is ensured in the implementation of the educational process system of principles that reflect a comprehensive approach to improving teaching skills and address specific foreign language component of the future diplomats.

In the future, further research is lingo communication training university students as one of the vectors of reforming the language training of graduates in the context of a focused process of mastering important professional competencies focused on the formation of complex linguistic identity in the educational environment of the university.


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2. V.G. Kremen Education in the context of contemporary socio-cultural changes / V.G. Kremen // Philosophy of Education. - 2008. - № 1-2 (7). - P. 18.

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Protecting the environment in the assessment of Ukrainian students as a reflection of the environmental education

Karolina Tsynk


In first part of article is placed description of concept ecological education. Ecological education presents raised process affecting members of societies in order to create at people attitude respect for environment. Process education can be accustomed to different manners, subjects and assumption worldviews. In second part of article is placed analysis of data sociological research. It have been realized among Ukrainian students at the State Humanistic University of Rivne in may 2015. On base of data it is possible to ascertain, that differences in opinions between students of natural sciences and students of humanities are not significant. Process of ecological educating lasts in time and it should bring positive results in future.

Keywords: ecological education, sociological research, future, worldview.

The continuous progress of civilized societies has numerous threats, among which is one of the largest environmental crisis. It manifests itself in an imbalance between the functioning of the human species and nature. The result is a risk to members of certain societies come under physical and psychological pressure. It is clear that progress has a positive effect, because the effect on improving the quality of human life, but it also leads to deterioration of operating conditions as a result of progressive degradation of the human environment. Civilization process contributed to the fact that a human being is no longer perceived as an element of nature to the same person does not want to take responsibility for the destruction of the environment through its system operational activities. One of the most important instruments of human attitudes towards nature should be the environmental education that develops the environmental awareness of members of certain communities [1, p. 330].

The concept and essence of environmental education

According to the encyclopedic definition, the word "education" means "a set of educational process, covering education and training and educational activities widely perceived" [2, p. 200]. That education is a psycho-pedagogical process of human exposure (training and education) in order to develop its social consciousness. So likewise you can define the concept of environmental education (Environment), which is psychological, pedagogical process influence the members of societies for the purpose of their training and education in the spirit of respect to the environment [3, p. 421] under the slogan "think globally - act locally". It should be added that environmental education should provide a thorough and comprehensive knowledge of the environment, to shape the imagination, arouse environmental conscience and vulnerability to natural beauty and develop the ability and the desire for the good of the environment. Thus, a reasonable ecological education is not limited to conveying the necessary information about how the natural world, and helping find a place for all living beings in space, which is perfect harmony between man and nature. Environmental education should also promote activity in humans and responsibility for the fate of the Earth. The basis of this strategy is the formation ecology position and hierarchy of environmental values, i.e. elements of environmental awareness. So the purpose of this process is the desire to:

- Creating excitement and vulnerability of people to the beauty and value of nature;

- Formation towards a holistic perception of natural and social phenomena and processes that create an integrated picture of reality;

- An active learning environment in direct contact with nature;

- Formation of ecological culture skills and ethical positions as through informal social organizations in the region;

- Encouraging the creative activities to careful use of nature and their maximum protection [4, p. 275-276].

Despite the fact that environmental education is a requirement of our time, its origins are to be found in the teaching of Aristotle or later JJ Rousseau. It should indicate that the need for general environmental education is noticeable from 1969, when it was published in a report-Tan, the then UN Secretary-General entitled "Man and his environment", which discussed the state of the Earth's ecosystem. The following documents, which related to the environment humans were "Stockholm Declaration" in 1972, "International Bulletin of training and environmental protection", so-called "Belgrade Bulletin" 1975 "Tbilisi Bulletin" in 1977, which sets out the main tasks environment environment, "Directive of international strategy in the field of education and environmental education for 90 years", adopted by the international Congress UNESCO-UNEP in Moscow in 1987, of the Declaration of Rio de Janeiro in the case of "environment and development" of 1992 [5, p. 39-40]. In these documents formulated amount of environmental education, which should cover all levels of education, spread to the whole of life, reflecting changes occurring in the world, and consider the implications for future generations.

There are many classification of the environmental education, particularly by way of receipt:

- multidisciplinary education, within which there content related to environmental protection, in the traditional curriculum subjects;

- interdisciplinary in which environmental content singled out and placed in the special subject;

- multidisciplinary, integrating, which is a combination of previous approaches [3, p. 422].

Another division that is based on the individual person that provides training, allows to distinguish:

- formal education, covering children from preschool to university students as well as teachers and professionals related to the protection of the environment;

- informal education, which is held outside formal schooling system, for example, through the media or information from others [5, p. 41].

UNESCO research results make it possible to assert that the most successful is the implementation of education in the formal aspects, based on multidisciplinary, integrative model.

Equally important criteria for the classification of environmental education with the philosophical and ideological foundation. On this basis pointed out:

- conservative movement - it is transmitting knowledge from the field of biological, chemical and geographical sciences and information relating to the environment and the rights that govern its use. According to this flow assumes that the basis for activities related to environmental protection, have a thorough knowledge;

- radical current that gives less importance to the knowledge of the environment, offering instead a direct contact with nature. Essential in this case there is activity on the territory;

- moderate flow, which in return provides a close link between natural and social aspects with the knowledge and practical skills, while recognizing and supporting activities for the benefit of a balanced development [1, p. 331].

The principles of environmental education, formulated by various researchers can share so.

Structural principles:

- The principle of universality, according to which environmental education should cover all of society, touching every sector and all levels of formal and non-formal education;

- The principle of permanence, which means that environmental education should extend to the whole of life and be a constant element of learning.

The principles relating to the content and the method:

- The principle inter discipline and holism, which provides calculation and integration of natural, social, political, economic, technological, moral, axiological and other problems;

- The principle taking into consideration and use of knowledge and values ​​close educated people;

- The principle of a combination of local and global environmental issues of measurement;

- The principle of adapting the content and methods to the needs and capacities of man;

- The principle of criticism which takes into account in education dilemmas and challenges related to the protection of the environment;

- The principle focus on the problem;

- The principle of practicality, which means science mastery which is a component of environmental education should be useful in personal and professional life;

- The principle of differentiation, which recommends the use of diverse methods of education;

- The principle of participation, which offers educated individuals to influence the decisions about the content and teaching methods;

- The principle of dynamism, which involves modification of the content and form of education in accordance with changes in the world of knowledge;

- The principle of subjectivity that allows you to move away from purely objective knowledge towards integrating environmental issues;

- The principle of education in an environment that requires use nature as a stage of education, source of knowledge and emotion;

- The principle of participation of foreign entities, which suggests that the process of education participants were actively engaged in activities aiming at the protection of nature [3, p. 424-425].

Environmental values in the minds of Ukrainian students of Humanities and Natural Sciences

The survey, carried out in May 2015, was intended to clarify the position of young citizens of Ukraine on the state of the environment. The most important research problem was formulated as follows: How studied assess the state of the environment? Who, in the opinion of the students responsible for the current state of the environment? Whether respondents expressed concern definite environmental threats? What kind of values ​​to the position, according to the students takes environmental protection? What sources of information most trusted investigated persons? Is it appropriate manner the process of environmental education respondents? And finally, is there a difference in the assessments on the state of the environment among students of Natural Sciences and humanities and social sciences?

According subjects poor state of the environment and responsible for this are mainly heavy industry. The greatest concern is investigated in contamination of water, soil and air. Students claim that environmental protection is very important for them. In the formulation and evaluation of the scale of environmental problems, respondents most trust in scientists. Instead, the process of environmental education is important to transmit knowledge, values ​​and promote environmental positions. And finally, the study found that students Natural Sciences show more interest as natural position than representatives of the humanities and social sciences.

Studies were made during testing 130 students Rivne State Humanitarian University. And half the students were studied humanities or social faculties second half - natural. Respondents were students studies part-time higher education or engineering (except for first year students) - Bachelor - students and magistracy. Notably, 73.8% of respondents - the women, the other - men. In addition, 29.2% - persons aged 17-19 years, 69.2% - 20-22 years, and 1.5% - aged 23-25 ​​years.

During the poll method was used classroom questionnaire study. Research instruments were questionnaires questionnaire containing 18 closed and half-open questions. Instead, the relevant calculations were made in the statistical program SPSS.

Based on the data it can be argued that the variable "education department" did not significantly affect the perception of the students of the natural environment. It should be noted that the same high rate of response is "deteriorating due to human activities" among students and science and humanities faculties, although more complete answer is the statement "deteriorating due to human activity and natural changes."

Analysis of data indicates that the variable "education department" definitely affects the considerations regarding student actors responsible for the poor state of the environment. Students of Natural Sciences pinned responsibility for environmental degradation to nuclear power plants and other departments - to all the inhabitants of the earth, including himself. The following data first pointed out that the blame for the deterioration of the environment are all inhabitants of the Earth, and the second - that corporations and factories. One should note the significant differences in the responses naturalists and humanitarians the consequences of nuclear power plants and factories and corporations. Quite a large percentage of both groups has also answer "transport vehicles". Least of all students, not including faculty training, shift the blame for the state of the environment in the nature and development of agriculture.

The data also indicate that the storage of nuclear waste more disturbing Natural Sciences students than humanitarian. Regarding the pollution of water, air and soil are not recorded significant differences in the attitude of students in both groups, although the level of concern Natural Sciences students is higher. Note that for air pollution nobody answered "strongly not." Increasing the number of garbage are also concerned about the students, the difference between the percentages of both groups is minimal. In turn, when it comes to consumer habits that are manifested in acquiring excessive amounts of benefits are not always right people, respondents' opinions were divided. Students who argued that excessive consumerism disturbs them and they are a phenomenon not care students were approximate percentage of Natural Sciences. Some humanitarians expressed concern about this, but most of them did not cause significant consumerism fears. Regarding the variable "approaching existence of the human race" almost half of the students identified no concern that humanity could become extinct. Noteworthy is the fact that almost 1/3 of respondents could not decide regarding this threat. This can be explained by the fact that students are not aware of the existence of such a threat. Yet the vast majority of them were concerned this vision, besides, no one answered "strongly not." It can be noted that the variable "education department" does not affect the considerations expressed studied on environmental threats. Note that these threats, in addition to air pollution and future existence of the human race, have not caused anxiety in more humanities.

Next data shows that the majority of respondents, regardless of the faculty of education, the problem of protecting nature is more significant than economic development. And for naturalists it has more weight than the humanities. Regarding the variable "scientific progress" most naturalists argued that environmental protection is important with this opinion do not fully agree humanities. In turn, the terrorist threat more than half of surveyed declared as important, compared to conservation. But in relation to the political system of care for the nature of most important was investigated value. And eventually, weight versus cultural tradition conservation Natural Sciences students identified as more students have a different opinion humanities. It should be noted that many of the respondents, mostly the humanities, failed to determine the attitude to the above problems.

Data shows that students are more willing Natural Sciences trusted environmental organizations and scientists, humanities students - primarily scientists and environmental organizations. It should be noted that a higher percentage of humanities, compared with naturalists, trust mass media and international institutions, including the European Union. Few respondents said that the issue of environmental protection more trusted family or friends. A small group of students said that does not trust any information source. Single humanities respondents were inclined to trust the government.

So, we can say that the variable "education department" does not affect the credibility surveyed claimed to individual information sources containing data on environmental issues and environmental protection.

Based on research we can state that the students showed interest in the problems of ecology and environmental protection. It should be emphasized that, according to respondents, the environment is deteriorating; responsible for this are numerous entities whose activities are directly leads to destruction and over-exploitation of natural resources. Investigated shown as "ecological vulnerability and the idea" that manifested concern about the storage of radioactive waste, soil and air pollution, increasing the number of garbage, excessive consumerism and future existence of mankind. We can argue that environmental issues compared to other cost were too important not good, as you might think, guided by data obtained at the beginning of the survey. Respondents found the care of nature, but when things were mapped ecology with other problems, the first sometimes lost value. The study found that respondents drew knowledge of the state of the environment from various sources: trust environmental organizations naturalists and humanists - scientists. Specify that no group found the slightest confidence in the political power. Students of Natural Sciences regarding most excited problems showed slightly higher results than the humanities, particularly in relation to the environment and environmental threats. We can argue that naturalists showed a reduction mindset, whereas humanists - holistically. Such conclusions can be drawn based on the responses to questions about the subjects responsible for the poor state of the environment, naturalists basically accused nuclear power plants, and the humanities - all the inhabitants of the earth; and in response to questions about the value environmental, scientific and technological development were good for naturalists deeper than environmental protection, while for the humanities were important political change and cultural tradition. It should be noted that the respondents are not always answered honestly.

Method perception of environment students points to the fact that the formal education process probably less effect on their views and attitudes to nature than informal. This observation is based on small differences in the responses of subjects. It should also be noted that the impact on Ukrainian students a comprehensive environmental education process is visible and aims to complete the formation of their environmental awareness, why some extent contributed to this study. As every educational process, this also takes time and is sure to bring positive results in the future.


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