Wavy 2015: foreign-policy summary of the year
From the domestic point of view the latest events in the eastern part of Ukraine were inevitably perceived as a destructive war, which has become a tragedy and a challenge for the citizens of Ukraine. However in the international context the Ukrainian authorities have to adapt to the political and legal approaches of the main partners and their actions aimed at de-escalating the conflict and curbing Russia's expansion. Having rather limited resources and means during 2015 the Ukrainian diplomacy managed to gain several important goals including localization of the conflict area in Donbas and reduction of the level of its intensity.
Keywords: foreign policy, diplomacy, conflict, de-escalation, 'Normandy format', the UN.
Extreme conditions in which Ukrainian society appeared after the change of government in February 2014, determined the condition of the country and the main foreign policy objectives for 2015. Pressing issues of domestic and foreign policy were loss of control over a large part of the state, including annexed the Crimea and the desire to ensure the settlement of the armed conflict in the Donbass.
During the year, the main directions of foreign policy of Ukraine continued a series of traditional accents such as the development of cooperation with key partners, and at the same time reflected the impact of situational issues related to the crisis complication of relations with Russia and the mobilization of external support to strengthen the international position of the state.
Although the circumstances, Ukraine's leadership paid most attention to relations with partners of Ukraine among the states Euro-Atlantic community (USA, Germany, France, Poland, Lithuania, etc.), Considerable attention was paid to relations with individual member countries of the CIS including Belarus, Kazakhstan and Turkmenistan.
The crisis in relations with Russia and the Donbass conflict remain major problems of foreign policy and security situation in the state. Since the escalation of the crisis in the Crimea in March 2014 Ukrainian diplomacy has been focused on the formation of a collective international response to aggression, political and economic pressure Russia against Ukraine. This approach has been applied in the context of diplomatic response to the massive intervention of the Donbas.
Diplomatic efforts around Minsk negotiations (protocol and memorandum signed 5 and September 19, 2014), initially had a multilateral and multi nature. In the center of the diplomatic process remained the task of organizing international solidarity with Ukraine as a victim of aggression and receiving external assistance to stabilize domestic economic situation and strengthening the country's defense.
The situation after the signing of the first Minsk agreements was marked by the absence of a stable truce in the Donbas and contained a direct threat of military danger. Began in 2014 negotiations and consultations mechanisms with the participation of the OSCE (Minsk process) and "Norman format" negotiation consisting of representatives of France, Germany, Russia and Ukraine have been unable to secure a ceasefire and prevent intensification of hostilities.
December 29, at a press conference following the 2014, president Poroshenko called it the most difficult since the Second World War and warned that the rapid overcoming the difficulties should not count. The President assured that the Ukrainian authorities will try to restore control of the Kyiv Donbass peacefully resolve the conflict and rejects power tools. The main goal was to transform fragile truce called for "a stable and lasting peace," the key to which is the strict implementation of all 12 points of Minsk agreements. First of all, this observation applies to the holding areas outside the control of local elections under Ukrainian law, under the supervision of international observers (paragraph 9). 
Considerable hopes pinned on the meeting of Heads of State and Government in "Normandy format", scheduled for January 15 in Astana, as well as the possible connection of negotiations leaders US and EU. Poroshenko refrained from forecasting the possible recovery times lasting peace in the Donbass .
Year started with attempts of participants "Norman format" provide at least the quality of formal guarantees cessation of the fighting. Despite the agreement on the cultivation of military contingents of the conflicting parties and the removal of weapons from the contact line, remained in active conflict phase. At the meeting of foreign ministers of member countries' Norman Quartet "in Berlin January 21, 2015 adopted a joint statement which called on" all parties to cease hostilities and withdraw heavy weapons "from the contact line, as envisaged in the annex to the Minsk memorandum of 19 September 2014. It was expected that this process would take place under the supervision and with the support of the Special OSCE monitoring mission in Ukraine, which had staff directly control the process of allotment of weapons. Negotiators in Berlin expressed the expectation that the significant progress achieved in the implementation of Minsk agreements will create conditions for a meeting of leaders of the participating countries "Normandy format". Monitoring of Implementation related to ensuring a ceasefire and the withdrawal of heavy weapons, relied on tripartite contact group within which proposed the creation of specialized working groups of the main aspects of implementation of Minsk II .
Priorities of the MFA of Ukraine in multilateral negotiations to the content Minsk agreements. These included ensuring a ceasefire, the withdrawal of heavy artillery, the removal of barriers to access to the conflict zone of humanitarian aid, the release of the hostages, regaining control of the Ukrainian-Russian border. Instead, Russian representatives viewed the negotiations as a way of preserving the conflict in the semi-state, which hindered as freezing the conflict and its move towards a political settlement.
Some experts interpreted this "experimental" tactics as tested model of "nonlinear war" in which Ukraine was ground testing hybrid conflicts that may be provoked by needs in other regions. German historian M. Shturmer expressed the view that "small war" a new type of Russian leadership used to achieve certain political and economic results without the risk of overcoming the "critical threshold", which may result in a massive escalation of armed conflict. According to the scientist, in the XXI century. logic and practice of war have changed. The war could last without beginning and end. "Violence is part of it, based on the political, economic, information technology and other non-military means." Although the Kremlin says his nominal opponent of the West, the Russian government can not afford war with members of the Western alliance. With this in mind eastern Ukraine has become a local arena of rivalry between Russia and the West. But if Russian President Vladimir Putin succeeds in Ukraine, it may encourage it to continue its offensive without crossing the "critical threshold", which leads to a direct conflict with the West. 
Continued conflict in the Donbass in the absence of positive developments resulted in the growth of world leaders concern the situation in Ukraine. Kyiv almost simultaneously 5 February 2015 visited the US Secretary of State John. Kerry, German Chancellor Merkel and French President F.Olland.
During the meetings with the Ukrainian leadership of John. Kerry reiterated support for Ukraine by the US, including its right to self-defense. Stressing the importance of a diplomatic solution to the conflict in the Donbass, John. Kerry said that "Russia must also make a choice ... and comply with obligations under the Minsk agreement that it signed." They provide cessation support separatists and their participation in the negotiations to reach a long-term political solution. Kerry stressed that US President Barack Obama ready to help "all parties" to reach a political settlement. The intention Chancellor Merkel and President Hollande contribute to the development of settlement schemes indicate that France and Germany with Ukraine also urges Russia unlock the settlement process. This development is the only way in which Russia will be able to avoid international isolation.
Kerry assured the Russian authorities that the US and the EU do not consider resolving the conflict in Ukraine as "a game with zero sum" and not trying to "split between East and West." Meanwhile, Russia's actions in eastern Ukraine can not be called otherwise than aggression. However, the United States is not trying to "enter into a conflict with Russia, and no one wants - no president of Poroshenko, nor the US, nor the European community."
In passing, John. Kerry recalled the promise P. Poroshenko to give Donbass "special status" that would expand the political and economic powers of the region on the basis of legitimate elections and local government plans for constitutional reform in Ukraine towards decentralization of power .
Along with John visit. Kerry came to Kyiv interview US Vice President J. Biden in the German newspaper Süddeutsche Zeitung (February 5). It noted that the United States Administration believes supply lethal weapons Ukraine "almost impossible" because not see prospects of a military solution to the crisis in the Donbas. Instead, argued John. Biden, Moscow is pushing all the military escalation, but the United States hopes to reverse scenario.
It noted that the diplomatic initiative Merkel and Hollande was fully autonomous in nature. The representative of the US State Department M. Harf (6 February) informed that the United States Administration was not involved in developing the proposals Merkel and F. Hollande, with whom they came to P. Poroshenko and Vladimir Putin, though acquainted with their contents. In turn, the US is ready to welcome this initiative if it will enable progress to solve Ukrainian conflict.
Describing the initiative of Merkel and Hollande should be noted that it was the impetus for Putin's letter, which he sent to Berlin and Paris to intensify dialogue with the leaders of major European countries. Merkel and Hollande saw this as an opportunity to take this opportunity to accelerate the settlement of the conflict in eastern Ukraine. The result of their urgent visits to Kyiv and Moscow was the emergence of additional schemes that had supplement and specify the Minsk agreement of 5 and 19 September 2014.
According to then Deputy Head of Presidential Administration Alexander Chaly, the talks in Kiev, the parties did not discuss a "plan of Putin." Instead dealt with the "common position to resolve the situation on the basis of agreements Minsk, concrete steps to achieve the result, the cease-fire, the withdrawal of heavy artillery and political decisions" . Merkel talks with Vladimir Putin (6 February) and expressed doubts about the success of the ceasefire in the conflict zone. She confirmed that the basis for resolving the crisis in the Donbass should remain Minsk II, and warned that Germany would not decide the issue of the territorial integrity of another state (i.e., Ukraine). In his comments, F. Hollande followed the thesis that a ceasefire should be the first step to resolving the crisis in general. However, in his view, of the ceasefire is not enough: "We have to reach a comprehensive agreement." In this sense, the Franco-German initiative provides a "last chance" for peace. He also explained (TV channel France, 02, 07.02) that the Franco-German initiative involves the creation of a conflict zone demilitarized zone between 50 and 70 km wide and "very broad" autonomy for the eastern regions of Ukraine .
After a series of preliminary talks next meeting of political leaders and experts participants "Normandy format" in Minsk (11-12 February) adopted a framework document of title "The set of measures to implement the agreements Minsk" .
The document called for a ceasefire, the withdrawal of weapons and activities related to a political settlement of the conflict. Feature of the document was that in contrast to the Minsk Protocol of September 5, 2014, all outlined measures were outlined in sequence - starting with "comprehensive" ceasefire (February 15) to restore Kyiv control over the Ukrainian-Russian border (till the end of the year). However, the scheduled implementation of the provisions of the document and the sequence of events envisaged therein were disrupted immediately after the signing.
According to Putin's comments the morning after the Minsk talks, during discussions on the stages of the peace plan Russian military commanders trained and launched a major military offensive in the district Debaltsevo. A new offensive to encircle Ukrainian troops planned to complete before the signing of agreements "Minsk-2", and if that fails - at least to a certain "complex measures" give the cease-fire (15 February 2015). In addition to demonstrations of force, capture Debaltsevo provide little control over the pro-Russian groups large railway junction, Vuhlehirska and Myronivska TPP.
Despite the obvious failure of the implementation of decisions taken in Minsk diplomatic contacts to resolve the conflict continued. Given the militants shelling residential areas of Mariupol (24 January), Artemivska (February 13) and a number of other incidents, the official Kyiv enhance demanded international pressure on Moscow and the separatist leaders. In the Ukrainian political circles, raised questions about the investigation of militant leaders in the international tribunal in The Hague and the recognition of the NPT and FSC terrorist organizations.
Each of the participants of "Norman format" pursued own interests. Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Ukraine, except ceasefire violated follow up on the two main demands - the withdrawal of Russian troops all forms of subordination of Ukraine and regain control over the entire area of the Ukrainian-Russian border, at least from the SMM OSCE. Instead, the Russians saw the continuation of negotiations means of pressure on the governments of France and Germany, and the ability to impose a number of conditions Kyiv constitutional law, including the recognition by the NPT/FSC certain status. The leaders of France and Germany hoped to persuade Putin to return to the normalization of the political climate in Europe to the relative deterioration of relations between the EU and Russia did not become irreversible.
In the course of negotiations and consultations individual value structures has gained local conflict since achieving any arrangements needed to conclude certain agreements and their enforcement. As for the Russian leadership, despite the obvious initiative and direct participation of Russia in the conflict, the representatives of Russia pointedly stressed that Russia cannot act as a business solution; because Russia does not bear any direct obligations Minsk II and should not follow them. Instead, Putin proposed to recognize the autonomy of the NPT and FSC, to give them the status of a free economic zone, adopt individual constitution and conclude agreements with the Ukrainian authorities on the separation of powers. 
Merkel and Hollande refrained from estimates about the possible scenario of the final settlement. Giving preference to tactics of "small" positive steps, they realized that the crisis could be resolved only by the fundamental interest of the Kremlin. Instead, the administration of Barack Obama favored the strengthening of economic sanctions against Russia that Russian officials had to prove that if the price escalation attempts for conducting RF revisionist course will only grow. At the hearings in the US Congress Director of Intelligence Department of the Ministry of Defense B. Stewart suggested that Russia wants to create in Eastern Ukraine "long conflict" and exert pressure on Kyiv through military and non-military methods.
The governments of NATO member countries have reached prior agreement not to grant Ukraine armored precision weapons, because such a decision could encourage the Russian government to escalate the conflict.
In September - October 2015 for a discussion about settlement of the conflict in eastern Ukraine influenced by two important factors - installation fragile truce in the Donbas and the start of Russian military operations in Syria. On the one hand, direct intervention in the Syrian conflict has demonstrated significant growth of Russian military power. On the other hand, the lull in the Donbas was the impetus for renewed efforts to implement the agreements Minsk, the validity of which is limited to the end of 2015.
The Paris meeting of leaders of member states "Norman Quartet" (October 2) was another round of exchange of views at the level of senior officials and members of delegations. Negotiators expressed preliminary findings and suggestions concerning selective and not always consistent specific items of "complex measures" of 12 February. In focus, were the question of holding elections on a non-controlled Kyiv Donetsk and Lugansk regions, the adoption of the law on amnesty for the participants of the election, order the next steps if the results of the elections to local authorities will be recognized observers Office for Democratic Institutions and Human Rights OSCE. One of the main decisions of the Paris meeting was the mutual consent of the parties to proceed with the next Minsk II, 2016. Such a decision, despite its apparently palliative in nature, there is little to prevent the escalation of tension and to defer further discussion to "better times". After meeting Merkel and Hollande reported for further steps, (Ukraine Parliament will adopt a special law on elections to Donetsk and Luhansk, the amnesty law, the law on the special status and consideration of the law on the special status in the Constitution of Ukraine). However, according to Merkel, these measures do not guarantee solving the "Ukrainian crisis." In general, we can say that "Norman" negotiating format - is more than a regular monitoring mechanism, but no guarantees of decisions he obviously does not provide.
The basic approach political leadership of Ukraine to the issue of conflict settlement in Donbass and response part of it is determined by the requirements of the US and the EU maintain sanctions concerning Russia up to the performance of the Minsk agreements in their entirety.
Among the foreign partners Ukraine leading role of the United States. During the visit of Foreign Minister of Ukraine Mr. Klimkin the US in October 2015 from the administration of Barack Obama expressed assurance the preservation of sanctions against the US and its strengthening "in violation of the Minsk agreements and the continuation of Russian aggression."
The potential agreement to comply with the requirements for the preservation of sanctions and was expressed by German Chancellor Merkel and other European leaders. According to Merkel, as the withdrawal of mercenaries from Ukraine is the "cornerstone" of the Minsk agreements, the validity of EU sanctions against Russia will depend on the full implementation of the agreements Minsk.
On the other hand, international negotiations about the settlement of the conflict, as the process of tripartite consultations in the contact group, may take a long period. Meanwhile European business is interested in the resumption of economic relations with Russia, has substantial pressure on European governments to end or weaken the sanctions in force since the summer of 2014.
Supporting Minsk agreed goals and political settlement in Donbass, European politicians demand from Ukrainian side would fulfill a number of obligations and conditions referred to in the "complex measures" of 12 February further meetings and decisions of "Normandy format." The same position expressed by representatives of the US and as the delay performance Kyiv conditions related to the preparation of elections and the specification of "special status" of local governments in areas of Donbass deprive Barack Obama administration arguments for a coherent response leaders of the US and the EU on the Russian-Ukrainian conflict. While in Kiev (December 7), this statement very openly expressed his Vice President J. Biden, who urged not to hinder compliance with such items Minsk II as amending the constitution and the adoption of the law on elections to the uncontrolled territories as it will give the US an opportunity "Russia's demand that the relevant steps and the Europeans - unity on sanctions."
Among the significant trends in Ukraine's foreign policy is worth noting further convergence and intensification of cooperation with NATO. During his visit to Kyiv (21-22 September) NATO Secretary General J. Stoltenberg attended a meeting of the NSDC Ukraine on reforming the security sector and defense. The parties signed a number of documents, the Joint Declaration on strengthening military-technical cooperation; Status of Mission Agreement on NATO in Ukraine; Roadmap Program Partnership with Strategic Communications between NSDC of Ukraine and NATO International Staff.
During the meeting of the Association EU - Ukraine (7 December), Defence Minister S. Poltorak Ukraine and EU High Representative for Foreign Affairs and Security F. Mogherini administrative agreement signed between the Ministry of Defense of Ukraine and the European Defense Agency. The agreement creates the legal prerequisites for military-technical cooperation with the EU and participation in programs and projects agency.
Government and Parliament of Ukraine completed 97% of the points outlined in the "road map" towards visa liberalization with the EU. A significant success of our country in the international financial and economic relations was the successful negotiation of the restructuring of debts to private creditors.
Public defense of sovereignty and territorial integrity value increases Ukraine's active participation in international organizations. At a meeting of the UN General Assembly on October 15 Ukraine was elected non-permanent member of the UN Security Council for 2016-2017 years. The membership of our country in Russia supported UN 177 countries. Previously occupied Ukraine three non-permanent member of the UN Security Council (in 1948-1949, 1984-1985 and 2000-2001). Direct participation of Ukraine in the daily work of the UN Security Council significantly increase opportunities to shape the agenda of its meetings, influence the content of the discussions and decisions discussed.
Describing the task of the Ukrainian diplomacy in the UN, the President Poroshenko stressed the urgent need for the implementation of the objectives and principles of the UN Charter, including constant values underlying the world order - "a peaceful resolution of conflicts, respect for the principles of justice and international law", and improve peacekeeping activities UN counter-terrorism and its manifestations, the provision of legally binding security guarantees to countries that voluntarily renounced nuclear weapons. Ukraine will pay considerable attention to the reform of the Security Council and the veto counter abuse of its permanent members.
Active participation of Ukrainian diplomacy in international organizations gaining weight principled non-membership in Ukraine defense alliance and the absence of explicit legally binding guarantees its security from external allies and partners. This situation encourages external security of the state to appeal to the UN Security Council and other international organizations about the deployment of the peacekeeping mission in Donbas, able to ensure the cessation of hostilities and to guarantee the security of the country from external armed intervention.
Another important area of external actions of the state, along with the normalization of the domestic economic environment and fighting corruption should be the intensification of economic diplomacy, ensuring support for Ukrainian exports and foreign interests.
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2. Press conference of Poroshenko. Conference highlights / Korrespondent.net, December 29, 2014. - Access: ua.korrespondent.net/<wbr>ukraine/politics/3461883-pres-<wbr>konferentsiia-poroshenka-<wbr>holovni-tezy
3. "Normande four" agreed to the withdrawal of heavy weapons / Voice of America, 01/22/2015. - Access: ukrainian.voanews.com/<wbr>content/normandie--fourth/<wbr>2608922.html
4. Stürmer M. Die Ukraine wird nicht das letzte Kapitel sein // Die Welt, 09.03.2015. − Режим доступу: www.welt.de/debatte/<wbr>kommentare/article138223349/<wbr>Die-Ukraine-wird-nicht-das-<wbr>letzte-Kapitel-sein.html
5. Carry - Putin: West does not offer Russia zero-sum game / ZN.UA, 5 February 2015. - Access: dt.ua/POLITICS/kerri-<wbr>putinu-zahid-ne-proponuye-<wbr>rosiyi-gru -z-nulovim-rezultatom-163403_.<wbr>html
6. Chaly: Hollande and Merkel did not offer Poroshenko any "Putin's plan" / Ukrinform, 02.06.2015. - Access: www.ukrinform.ua/<wbr>rubric-iac/1812560-chaliy_<wbr>olland_i_merkel_ne_<wbr>proponuvali_poroshenkovi_<wbr>planu_putina_2018959.html
7. Hollande revealed the details to do with Merkel "peace plan" / Ukrainian Pravda, February 7, 2015. - Access: www.pravda.com.ua/news/<wbr>2015/02/7/7057849/
8. The set of measures to implement the agreements Minsk. Full text / Ukrainian Pravda, February 12, 2015. - Access: www.pravda.com.ua/<wbr>articles/2015/02/12/7058327/
9. Silina T. // War for peace "The Mirror of the week. Ukraine". - № 4. - 6 February 2015 - Access mode: gazeta.zn.ua/internal/<wbr>voyna-za-mir-_.html
Turkey at the UN in 2003-2015: way of establishment of a leader-state
The article examines Turkey's UN policy in 2003-2015 against the background of this country's modern foreign policy as well as its ambitions for regional and global leadership.
It outlines priorities of Turkey within the UN as well as successful initiatives which helped to strengthen prestige of the state on the international arena.
By analyzing the statements of Turkish top officials at the general debate of the UN General Assembly sessions promotion of Turkey as powerful regional and global player is scrutinized.
Keywords: Turkey, UN, foreign policy, image, leadership
During the last decade, Turkey is increasingly asserting itself as a serious player on the regional and global scale and claim to participate in almost all world processes due to its unique geopolitical position, rich historical heritage and extensive experience in international affairs.
Indicative terms of demonstrating active involvement in global affairs, including in the UN, was meeting Prime Minister of Turkey Ahmet Davutoglu with UN Secretary-General Ban Ki-moon, in the framework of the 70th session of the General Assembly in September this year. Subjects talks covered a wide regional agenda, including the situation in Syria, Iraq, Yemen, opposition IS, settlement of the Middle East conflict, the resolution of the Cyprus issue, as well as current global challenges, including terrorism, refugees, preparation for World Humanitarian Summit, scheduled for next year in Istanbul. The world media focused on Turkey sincere gratitude from the Secretary-General for its generous assistance to Syrian refugees, whose number exceeded 2 million. Turkey did state that receives the largest number of refugees in the world as of 2015.
During the 70th session of the General Assembly of the Turkish Republic also mentioned in the context of its presidency of the G20 and the planned summit in Istanbul this association, active participation in UN peace operations, organize ministerial meeting of least developed countries, donor activities, measures to counter climate change .
Increased activity of the Turkish side at the UN is the result of modern foreign policy aimed at gaining the status of an influential state regional and global level. UN platform widely used for strengthening the country's image, increase credibility and influence. The Turkish experience is of interest to Ukraine, to which is now the task of strengthening the position in the world.
New approaches in foreign policy
The introduction of new approaches to the international arena in general and within international organizations in particular began in 2002 when the party came to power, justice and progress with the new vision of the role and place of Turkey in the world. In party political declarations that were transformed into government programs during the entire stay of the party in power (2002-2015), declared a clear goal - to make Turkey one of the leading countries of the XXI century. International organizations including the United Nations, designed to be a tool for achieving this goal.
In the "political vision 2023" , which is aimed at the centennial of the founding of the Republic, declared ambition regarding the decisive role of Turkey in the formation of a new world order, the UN reform and global economic system.
Turkey - UN activity, initiative, assistance
Based on the goal, the activities of Turkey to the UN, since 2002, characterized by proactive, ensuring the widest possible representation in the UN structures and increased participation in international processes implemented under the auspices of or within the Organization.
Priorities at the UN by the then Foreign Minister A. Gul in 2006 and include the following areas: the development, peacekeeping, strengthening humanitarian component, the fight against terrorism, enhancing global energy security.
Among the achievements of Turkey in the UN should note its successful initiatives. In particular gained significant success of the Turkish-Spanish initiative "Alliance of Civilizations", which has become a major forum for dialogue between different cultures and religions, is currently supported by 141 countries. There was also welcomed the initiative of the Foreign Ministers of Turkey and Finland's mediation in the settlement of conflicts. Relevant Group of Friends includes 37 countries and 7 regional and international organizations. Every year in New York held ministerial meetings on the subject. As a result, adopted resolution of the UN mediation in the settlement of conflicts.
Serious steps taken by Turkey to transform Istanbul into the center of international life, including UN. In recent years ensured the transfer to the city Regional Office for Eastern Europe and Central Asia, United Nations Population Fund and the International Center for accommodation and private sector development UNDP. Istanbul was the venue for a considerable number of international events, including through the UN. Turkey stepped up its activity in the peacekeeping area. According to Prime Minister A. Davutoglu, the Turkish military and police serving in 16 peacekeeping missions under the UN around the world, including Afghanistan, Kosovo, Lebanon, Somalia, Haiti, the Democratic Republic of Congo .
In addition to the above, was significantly increased financial and humanitarian component of Turkey's Organization. According to the Turkish Ministry of Foreign Affairs , in terms of assessed contributions to the UN budget Turkey rose from 25th position to 16th among Member States, due to the significant increase in voluntary contributions to the Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs Turkey was adopted by the Group of donors, and took the 22nd position in terms of contributions to the UN Peacebuilding Fund. The volume of humanitarian assistance to that country rose to 1.6 bln. USD. in 2013, development assistance - to 3.5 bln. USD in 2015.
An important success of Turkish diplomacy was the election of Turkey's non-permanent membership of the UN Security Council for 2009-2010. Almost half a century after the break.
Significant increase in Turkish activity in UN direction and rapid socio-economic development were the result of a new look at this state of the Organization. Accordingly, it was decided to develop on the basis of Turkey's new model of partnership with the UN, which later could be applied to any country with an average income level in order to facilitate the achievement of the Millennium Development Goals. As a result, a significant divergence has become the UN system in Turkey, up to 13 organizations.
General debate: the image of the country's leader on the court of the UN
The main success of Turkish foreign policy, many initiatives of Turkish diplomacy, implemented since 2003, significant transformation in the country, as well as ambitions for regional leadership and global influence are reflected on the site of the UN.
Analysis speeches leaders of Turkey at the General Debate of the UN General Assembly during 2003-2015 years shows well thought of building the country's image.
The main components of the proposed international community is following Turkey's image.
Country-Bridge between East and West. In this context, the emphasis is on a combination of Turkey in European and Asian identity, the presence of a rich historical heritage and great international experience that is essential to facilitate compromise among cultures and ways of reconciliation. The fact that Turkey is the only country in the world that, as a member of the Organization of the Islamic Conference, is a candidate to join the European Union, served as the need to promote dialogue between the Islamic world and the West.
The country at the epicenter of events. The geopolitical situation "in the center of most issues of concern to the international community", according to Turkish leaders, necessitates the involvement of their countries to discuss issues of virtually all of the world agenda. In addition, knowledge of this turbulent region from the middle must be accepted as exceptional value Western community.
Defender of Islamic values. Muslim identity is actively used and even the Turkish side stressed on UN box. Turkey from the rostrum of the UN actually has the mission of protecting the rights and dignity of Muslims, was the voice that speaks strongly against Islamophobia. As the President of RT Erdogan in his speech at the General Debate of the 69th session of the UN in 2014 , "that Islam, which means peace, used along with the concept of terrorism, we strongly condemn."
The country-peacemaker. Mediation in conflict resolution, participation in peacekeeping missions, as well as a significant contribution to the reconstruction and recovery of countries affected by conflict, were dominant Turkish foreign policy in the first decade of the XXI century. Own success in establishing relations with the neighbors (normalization of cooperation with Greece, steps towards Armenia) helped to actively promote Turkey as a country of a regional peacemaker. Praised received numerous Turkish initiative to formats interaction between countries in the region having relationship problems - Trilateral Summit Turkey - Afghanistan - Pakistan, indirect talks between Syria and Israel, trilateral cooperation mechanisms with Bosnia and Herzegovina and Serbia and BiH and Croatia initiative on creation of the Platform for Stability and Cooperation in the Caucasus, Istanbul forum neighboring countries of Iraq and the efforts to resolve the problem over Iran's nuclear program.
A special place is always given to the issue of "frozen conflicts" in Azerbaijan and Georgia, the settlement of which way Turkey has always seen on the basis of territorial integrity of states. This position was supported by Prime Minister A. Davutoglu and on Ukraine in the framework of the 70th session of the UN in September 2015 . "We want to see a political solution to the crisis in Ukraine based on the territorial integrity of Ukraine and Minsk agreements. Any solution to the conflict must ensure the rights and safety of Crimean Tatars ", - said the head of the Turkish government.
As for Cyprus, the Middle East and Balkan issues that remained constant in all the speeches of Turkish leadership within the UN, Turkey strongly defended the rights of Turkish Cypriots and Palestinians Kosovars.
Inspirer of reforms. Significant progress in reforming their own country, which made possible the internal stability and to begin negotiations on joining the EU gave the Turkish leaders to talk about their homeland as a country that inspires the reform of its neighbors is an example of economic success, deepening democracy, civil society development, the rule of law and human rights.
Assistant of poor people. An increasing economic weight, increasing amounts of humanitarian assistance and development aid, withdrawal of cooperation with Africa one of the priorities of the foreign policy made it possible to speak of Turkey as a generous helper poor countries. The problems of the least developed countries, particularly in Africa, occupied a prominent place both in Turkish foreign policy, and in this state of the UN.
Criticism and demands justice
Statements of leadership of Turkey in UN since 201 characterized by the increasing salience and rather sharp tone.
First of all, most criticism has been subjected to the United Nations. The then Foreign Minister A. Davutoglu openly said in his speech at the general debate at the 67th session of the UN in 2012  that "the structure and working methods of the UN does not correspond to the realities of today's world." A commonly used phrase of President RT Erdogan on the UN Security Council is "the world - more than five countries." "Helplessness" and "shame of the international community" described RT Erdogan UN operation in Somalia, where he personally traveled, saw firsthand the death of tens of thousands of children from hunger. Accordingly, consistently emphasized the need for reform of the UN so that it "protects the rights of all people and not acting in the interests of certain countries." At the same time stressed the urgency of a more balanced and representative UN Security Council.
The object of harsh criticism from the Turkish side became Israel in the context of the Palestinian problem. Then another Turkish Prime Minister RT Erdogan blamed this state 89 of ignoring UN Security Council resolutions and hundreds of resolutions of the UN. He rebuked the international community failure to "stop the tragedy that the Palestinian people is going through," and "Law and Justice sacrifice for the sake of political sensitivity" .
In recent years scathing criticism of B. Assad, as well as major international players actions with respect to Syria. Increasingly in the speeches of the leadership of the Turkish state sounds of justice. A just global order, according to the Turkish side, to be inclusive, to prevent conflict, to ensure respect for human rights and more equal and sustainable distribution of wealth. Thus, considered unfair by the international community to the Turkish Cypriots, who once supported the Annan Plan to settle the Cyprus problem, but so far are isolated, suffering from restrictions imposed on the movement of people, goods and services, sea and airports. Egregiously unfair, according to the Turkish side, is the attitude of the Palestinians, depriving them of their right to have their own state. In the same context and seen the need to recognize Kosovo.
Along with the notion of justice has recently drawn attention to extreme inequalities and the gap between the richest and the poorest. It is overcoming inequality Turkey has made priorities of its leadership in the G20 this year.
Attention is drawn to the problems of ordinary people around the world. "How can we speak of freedom and justice?" - Said Foreign Minister A. Davutoglu , referring to the people in Syria, Palestine, Somalia and Afghanistan. "If the right people sacrificed and power politics is subject to debate or even ignoring negotiations among several states in the UN Security Council, how can we achieve universal human rights and security?" - Said high-ranking official.
It should be noted that the complexity of Turkey's relations with some countries in the region, including the Middle East and North Africa over the past five years and the emergence of some internal problems in the field of democracy and human rights significantly reduced the potential image of the state as a regional peacemaker and models in implementation of reforms.
Analysis of Turkey to the United Nations during the 2003-2015 biennium. Proves that a solid foundation for success in UN made towards active foreign policy, efforts to establish peace and stability in the region, effective internal political and economic reforms. During this period was implemented a number of successful initiatives under the UN increased financial contributions to the Organization and its funds, significantly increased humanitarian and development aid from Turkey, increased peacekeeping. City Istanbul was one of the centers of international life. Playground UN skillfully used by the Turkish leadership to build the image of Turkey as an influential nation in the world.
These factors contributed to the increase Turkey's prestige in the UN and its establishment as a regional leader and influential global player.
However, the change in rhetoric toward harsh criticism of the international community and individual countries can influence the development of Turkey's foreign policy and its position in the world. Thus, the country's non-election to non-permanent members of the UN Security Council for 2015-2016 may be one of the signs of changing the perception of Turkey as a country that is friendly with everyone plays a role of a bridge between East and West and regional peacemaker.
1. The political vision of the Justice and Development Party 2023. - Turkish. Access: www.akparti.org.tr/<wbr>upload/documents/<wbr>akparti2023siyasivizyonuturkce<wbr>.pdf
2. Ahmet Davutoglu says Turkish army ready to train troops serving in peace missions. - September 29, 2015. Режим доступу: https://www.akparti.org.tr/<wbr>english/haberler/turkey-to-<wbr>contribute-more-to-un-<wbr>peacekeeping-says-pm/78412
3. The United Nations and Turkey. - Turkish / Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the Republic of Turkey. - Entry 10.10.2015. Access: www.mfa.gov.tr/<wbr>birlesmis-milletler-teskilati-<wbr>ve-turkiye.tr.mfa
4. Statement by the President of the Republic of Turkey RT Erdogan at the General Debate of the 69th session of the United Nations. - Turkish. - 09.26.2014. Access: www.tccb.gov.tr/<wbr>ozeldosyalar/bm/konusmalar/
5. Address by HE Ahmet Davutoglu, Prime Minister of the Republic of Turkey at the United Nations General Assembly. - 30.09.2015. - Режим доступу: gadebate.un.org/sites/<wbr>default/files/gastatements/70/<wbr>70_TR_en.pdf
6. Address by HE Ahmet Davutoglu, Minister of Foreign Affairs of the Republic of Turkey to thr General Debate of the 67th Session of the UN General Assembly. - 28.09.2012. Режим доступу: gadebate.un.org/sites/<wbr>default/files/gastatements/67/<wbr>TR_en_0.pdf
7. Address by HE Recep Tayyip Erdogan, Prime Minister of the Republic of Turkey to the General Debate of the 66th Session of the UN General Assembly. - 22.09.2011. Режим доступу: gadebate.un.org/sites/<wbr>default/files/gastatements/66/<wbr>TR_en.pdf
8. Address by HE Ahmet Davutoglu, Minister of Foreign Affairs of the Republic of Turkey to the General Debate of the 67th Session of the UN General Assembly. - 28.09.2012. Режим доступу: gadebate.un.org/sites/<wbr>default/files/gastatements/67/<wbr>TR_en_0.pdf
The impact of new media on the communication strategy of Ministry of Foreign Affairs and International Development of France: diplomatic and institutional and historical aspects
Iolanta-Anna de Vris
How has the communicational strategy of the French foreign affaires ministry changed? Why do the new media become integral instrument of the diplomatic practice? During the globalization, social journalism phenomenon which favour by the swift development of web 3.0, the new media force the state bodies to conduct the active informational policy.
Keywords: ministry foreign affairs and international development of France, communicational strategy, open government, digital revolution.
When Alain Peyrefitt assumed to his duties in April 1962, he showed a group of buttons sound, which gave an opportunity to the French Minister of Information, CEO RTF (Radiodiffusion-télévision française - Radio Television France) and the editor of the latest news to be on the air.
General de Gaulle gave the following guidance information minister: "Your role will be to inform. You will do this in two ways, as government spokesman, that is mine. Of the authority, which gives you a law on radio and television. You need to speak as little as possible, but to convey a message in the best possible interests of the country. You have to tell the French that the government does for them. Journalists will ask you hostile questions. Member of the Government has only to say the least part of what he knows. Every six months I give a press conference every two months - appearances on television. Meanwhile, you take the baton. The less you say the better you feel."
The communication strategy of the French state has undergone significant content, political-diplomatic, historical and institutional change, ranging from the abolition of the Ministry of Information back in 1974, to complete reversal from secrecy to openness.
Rhetoric and actions France state leader also reflect an understanding of the changes occurring in the global information space. Last year during a reception in Elysée Palace in the presence of bidders conference on Open Data (ouverture des données - open data), François Hollande reiterated his support for "enhanced inter-ministerial policy for opening data" (1).
Results of Studies of the openness of knowledge (Open Knowledge Foundation, OKF) as of January 2015 show that France has risen to third place in the openness of access to public information in the international "Open Data Index" from 16 order, which it occupied in 2013.  (2).
Foreign Affairs and International Development of France was among the first initiative supported the widespread use of new media government, introducing in 1995 its own website. From 2008-2009 French Foreign Ministry has implemented an active communication policy, and again first among public institutions of the republic has opened an account in Twitter@francediplo. In autumn 2009 the ministry also conducts session of question/answer in Twitter, which gives the opportunity conduct a dialogue with responsible persons of ministry via hashtag #QRdiplo.
For foreign ministry there are two axes of communication in new media - between the government and the public of those foreign countries where the French diplomatic mission. Aware of the potential communication possibilities State institutions through new media with the public directly, Ministry French Foreign Minister hosted on multiple platforms in different languages: Twitter French@francediplo, English @francediplo_EN, @Arabicfrancediplo_AR, @Spanishfrancediplo_ES, Twitter tips for travelers @ConseilsVoyages. In addition, Ministry Foreign Affairs of France has in accounts at Facebook, Google+, Storify, FrancediploTV on Youtube and FrancediploTV on Dailymotion. MmZSinisterstva for Foreign Affairs of France inherent individual approach to communication channels and new media, based on the positioning of social networks, and compliance with the rules of one account - one language.
Communication strategy of Foreign Ministry of France carried out in the areas of strengthening dialogue with civil society (French and foreign), strengthening measuring "public service" French diplomacy and improving the quality of services provided, in order to strengthen the network of diplomatic missions in the field of digital diplomacy. For this purpose were taken and the following practical steps - graphic and ergonomic re--Site ("adaptive design") in April 2013, customer conversion entire Web page focuses on accommodation infographic, opening new accounts on Twitter and Facebook in foreign languages development of new practical services, graphic and ergonomic model conversion websites of embassies, consulates and missions and permanent. The French diplomatic network, in turn, actively joined to build a dialogue with their peers and society of host countries. 256 diplomatic offices of France have a web page and I speak 15 languages. French embassies and consulates have over 100 accounts in social networks, mostly using Twitter and Facebook. Of course, foreign institutions French Foreign Ministry adapted to local realities, for example, communicating online in Weibo in China.
Digital Diplomacy Strategy impact Orsay diplomatic network includes the main directions of development. It provides editorial support of the Embassy site typical layout, advice on distribution of materials, information telephone and on-line, as well as the overall management of the official web page, so accounts in social networks. Since 2011, the Ministry of Foreign Affairs and International Development of France introduced an education program in social media for all diplomats appointed to foreign missions.
In 2014 at the initiative of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs and International Development of France was established inter-ministerial portal diplomatic correspondence, called "Diplomatie". Its unique features allow you to apply various forms of diplomatic correspondence - correspondence from the outside to the diplomatic cables.
The project "Diplomatie" switched to open source under the guidance of the Prime Minister move to electronic documents in professional social network. It was introduced as part of a general secretariat for the modernization of government regulation (Secrétariat général pour la Modernisation de l'Action publique, SGMAP) route maps and ads elektronnoyiho management (E-MAP), paving the way for users to keep abreast of digital institutional transformation of the state.
This project contributed to strengthening the French position in the field of digital communications, and it has become a powerful tool for French diplomatic missions abroad.
This new communication tool provides substantial advantages of Public Administration by the following factors:
- Systematization of diplomatic information: portal gives individuals who make decisions Catch-all and prompt information using correspondence purely on performance, as well as various types of documents ;.
- Productivity: Portal "Diplomatie" simultaneously is the answer to requests of civil servants and increases productivity through its interdepartmental nature;
- Innovation: interministerial management and information and communication technology (Direction interministérielle des systèmes d'information et de communication, DISIC) makes institutions that use the portal as inside and outside the system, understand the fact that the state is able to use digital revolution in favor society.
"Diplomatie" combines the latest technical and software solutions in the field of information systems security, working closely with the National Information Systems Security Agency (Agence nationale de le sécurité des systèmes d'information, ANSSI).
The French state holds an active policy of open access to public information and on the international scene. An example is the Partnership for open government (Open Government Partnership, OGP), a multilateral initiative, which joined France in April 2014. By the initiative of the Board (Steering Committee, Steering Committee) was elected representative of France Thierry MANDON, Secretary of State, Commissioner and reforms and simplification. He received the mandate of two years, ie until October 2016. In addition to delegates of 11 countries elected to the Board as representatives of civil society.
The main role in implementing the state policy of openness in the structure of the General Secretariat of the modernization of public administration institution belongs Etalab, whose functions include coordination of government departments and agencies to simplify the use of public information. Etalab is a unique inter-ministerial portal administrator data.gouv.fr, designed to collect and provide free access to information in government agencies, units and subjects of public and private law authorized to represent the state power.
The principle of free, simplified and free access to public information enshrined in the signed circulars Prime Minister of France from 26 May 2011 and 13 September 2013. The main emphasis is on the opening of public information, which is sotsientalnyy impact and great innovative potential for the economy and society.
June 18, 2015 French Prime Minister Manuel Valle presented the digital strategy for France, which includes a number of government initiatives in the digital revolution. During the press conference, which took place the presentation of the strategy, the State Secretary for Digital at the Ministry of Economy, Industry and Digital France Axel Lemaire noted that France "cannot afford to be passive in this revolution, we have set the bar as high as possible and implement changes over to modernize public administration " (3). The introduction of this office is the Ministry of Economy of France demonstrates the clear sense of the potential of the digital revolution to raise the economic role of the state, which is one of the priorities of the foreign policy of the French government.
"Maybe you need to successfully carry out state digital revolution, while the economy has successfully used his revolution," - said Henry Verdye, head of the state agency Etalab, coordinator of public data. Being in office for two years, Henry Verdye carried out significant work of ministries and departments, overcoming the traditional tendency over the state apparatus to protect any information. Now the portal data.gouv.fr find a message about the structure of payments made by health insurance, national database of accidents with bodily injuries letter railway stations, the number of people for an inheritance taxed with the general indication of the amount of tax and inheritance and so on. More than 14000 group data originating from ministries, units and official agencies such as Eurostat, the statistics office of the European Commission raised in the portal data.gouv.fr.
As stated in the White Book, a document that defines the French strategy of defense and national security, versatility information system is an integral part of diplomacy. Modular Information Network - is central purpose to reform the ministry and its activities. Safety and multilateral support and French citizens who work abroad, have always been one of the priorities of the French Foreign Ministry. Given the growing intensity of the threats, the evolution of network information is included in the global process of rethinking the organization, equipment and doctrine and safety of French nationals abroad.
Working in the program improvement and modernization (programme de'amélioration et de modernisation de l'administration consulaire, PAMAC) envisages improving the user experience and update management process. At the forefront of the dialogue with consumer information, which provides easy access to neinformation strengthened approach to the user, electronic document management, which is extremely important for citizens abroad, whose number continues to grow. In turn, this requires a complex interaction with other ministries and agencies.
Regarding the organizational structure of the departments responsible for information policy of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs and International Development of France, it should be noted that according to the regulations of December 28, 2012 and July, 17 2013NOR: MAEA1239441A (4) under the Office of Communications and Press are two divisions, which respectively carry tactical and strategic functions. PAS commissioner be responsible for relations with domestic and foreign media representatives, involved in explanatory work on French foreign policy, preparing input data for the Spokesman ensure consistency public speaking services central office and diplomatic and consular missions, organizes participation of the press in the activities of the Ministry, monitors the press. Communications Department is responsible for defining and implementing external communication strategy of the ministry, in liaison with the other services of the foreign ministries and institutions, communicates through the Ministry due to internet and internal network and communication other departments of the central apparatus and foreign agencies responsible for audiovisual component and publishing ministry.
Of course, information material relating to the competition for positions in the Ministry of Foreign Affairs and International Development of France, as the regulatory framework, and lists of issues submitted to the exams, etc., posted on the web-site office. Writing essays and motivation letter to justify the purpose of the desire to join the diplomatic service are key to admission to the competition. Letter persons admitted to the competition or its stages, available on the website of the Ministry in the public domain and is constantly updated. Application for participation in the competition also served electronically. Full transparency of the organization and passing the competition for work in the central office and foreign institutions, multilevel exams, which thanks to the digital revolution can follow every citizen and high requirements for the candidates is a daily practice of the French diplomatic service.
The central message for assessment of the actions of the French government in terms of the digital revolution is effective simplification of public administration. The digital revolution is a fundamental lever of success of reforms carried out in the framework of inter-agency program of modernization and simplification. The development of new means of communication, mobility, access to electronic resources is a key factor in the efficiency of public institutions, policy-makers and improve the image of a particular region or state agency.
So, we need to emphasize that the French diplomatic network is the third in the world behind only the US and China. Website of the French Foreign Ministry France Diplomatie one of the most popular Internet resources of state and has 1.5 million. Monthly visitors. Heading "Advice to travelers" Ariane portal and enable real-time to receive security advisories in the event of a crisis abroad. More than 2.5 thousand people annually go abroad for work funded by the Ministry of Foreign Affairs and International Development of France (civil service training). There is a system of professional help for French citizens in search of consular work councils on employment and vocational training (comités consulaires pour l'emploi et la formation professionnelle, CCPEFP), represented in 27 countries as part of consular offices of France. During 2013, 685 enterprises have invested in the French economy and participated in the creation of 29 thousand. Jobs (an increase of 14% per year). France is the first in Europe in terms of investment in industry in 2011, 6 million. Jobs (28% of the total in France) linked to exports.
Strategy implementation all such activities include the establishment of specific Internet resources by which information is updated constantly. These data clearly demonstrate the effectiveness of the French diplomatic service, and good use of the potential of new media that contribute to the implementation of one of the main priorities of French foreign policy - economic growth of the country. For information possibilities of new media not only contribute to the implementation of specific tasks of the diplomatic service, but also an essential element of state policy. "If I had to choose one word to describe our country, it would be the word" creativity "- said the Minister of Foreign Affairs and International Development of France Laurent Fabyus.
"The issue of Sevastopol is diplomatic, for very high professionals."
The article discusses the importance of the experience of the Ukrainian diplomats and politicians for the formation of current international Affairs. Special attention is paid to scientific research and artistic works about the Crimea and Sevastopol.
Keywords: Crimea, Ukraine, Russia, the Russian fleet, history, heritage, ships, Turkey, Zaporizhzhya Cossacks, the government of Catherine II.
The role of diplomacy in the global instability cannot be overstated. Unfortunately, a new reality and a challenge in spring 2014 there was an extremely difficult question of Sevastopol - the city, which has long crossed the interests of many countries. Crimea is a region in which lives multicultural, multi-ethnic and multi-confessional society, which has a rich and diverse historical heritage. This land, in fact, an open air museum - here and now can be found with traces of ancient cultures, the Iranian world, antiquity, perednoaziyskyh, Turkic, Slavic, West and southern nations. Now living in Crimea, Christians, Muslims, Jews, adherents of other faiths and agnostics. The life experience of people belonging to different ethnic groups and peoples, faiths and cultural circles, mutually enriching, helps create new values, to seek and find solutions to complex problems. However, living alongside members of groups belonging to different societies, carries the risk of serious confrontations and open conflict.
Therefore, for the Crimea, as for other similar regions of the planet, it is important the art of living together in constant dialogue and compromise. In multicultural relationships lands a positive balance of different groups never end, and requires good will and sustained efforts to support it. Crimea History can be a factor consolidation Crimean society. It is this land for centuries studied many famous politicians, scientists, historians. Experience events in the Crimean land, their mapping and analysis should be a weapon for today's diplomats and politicians who sincerely wish to resolve peacefully, and just as painless Ukrainian-Russian conflict in Crimea and Sevastopol.
Famous Ukrainian, the experience of which should be treated repeatedly, is renowned diplomat who had "subtle and perceptive mind was patient and cunning" - Bogdan Khmelnitsky. With the election of the Hetman Khmelnitsky, who "fluent Polish, Russian, Turkish and Latin" (Prosper Merimee), and most importantly - because of his military victories, international contacts Cossacks greatly intensified and expanded. L. Kuban Polish researcher claimed "it seems there was a day when Khmelnitsky failed to meet foreign ambassadors, diplomatic agents, couriers and messengers and sent his".
Were worthy followers of Bohdan Khmelnytsky. Among them - Chigirinsky Colonel Fedor Veshnyaki-Yakubovich, who headed the first Ukrainian embassy in Warsaw (1648) and Moscow (1649). Prilutsky and then kropyvenskyy Colonel Filon Dzalaliy led the Ukrainian Embassy in Istanbul (1648), which concluded an alliance with Turkey. General Captain Damian Lysovets was ambassador in Moldova and Wallachia (1654). Talented diplomat was Belotserkovsky Colonel Ivan Gyrya, which at the end of 1848 headed the embassy in Warsaw. Hadiach Colonel Kondrat Burlyay became the head of the first embassy of troops took the Crimea. Korsun Colonel Maxim Nesterenko accompanied Khmelnytskoho to Warsaw for talks with King Władysław IV in the case of war with Turkey and Cossack march on the Black Sea. In December 1649 headed the Ukrainian embassy in Warsaw in the case of ratification Zboriv Ukrainian-Polish agreement. Nijinsky Colonel Ivan Zolotarenko was a member of the embassy, which Khmelnytsky sent to Moscow requesting military assistance in the fight against Poland. This and other managing officers led by the Cossack Khmelnytsky created an independent Ukrainian state European orientation. However Hetman efforts were insufficient to ensure the independence of Ukraine.
After B.Khmelnitsky greatest contribution to the development of Ukrainian diplomacy did Ivan Vigovsky, Ivan Mazepa and Pylyp Orlyk. It is appropriate to take into account the great achievements in diplomacy and political battles of Catherine II is the international arena. She knew how to surround himself with intelligent and experienced men of government, including M. Panin, A. Bezorodko and, of course, G. Potemkin.
During the coming to power of Catherine II Russian diplomacy had to first take steps to restore the international prestige of Russia. The new foreign policy was that Russia was able to be guided by its own system, consistent with its true interests, not being in a permanent dependence on the wishes of a foreign court. The plans of the Russian Empire in the days of Alexis and Peter I was to reunite the Ukrainian and Belarusian lands that were still under the authority of the Commonwealth, is secure in the Baltic States and Russia move to the Black Sea. In the implementation of this program was primarily France, supported by Austria. The entire French political system in Eastern Europe has long been built on Poland, Sweden and Turkey, which were to hold harmless the growing influence of Russia.
Actually, Crimea and Sevastopol fanned aura of heroism, valor and glory.
Since the twentieth century, for seven centuries for possession Crimea fight Kuman, Crusaders, Mongols, Tatars, Turks, Russians, because of the peninsula in the center of the Azov-Black Sea region, close to the Bosphorus and the Kerch Bay and its relative isolation from the mainland do Peninsula strategically important in the entire Black Sea coast. Crimea is the historical crossroads of peoples and trade routes. In the XVI-XVII centuries the Black Sea is actively mastering the Don Cossacks and repeatedly appearing at the walls of Constantinople and Trebizond. All of the XVIII century, especially its second half, was marked for Russia and numerous protracted wars with Turkey. One of the aims of these wars was the conquest of access to the Black Sea and establishing control over it.
"Sevastopol" (Gr.) - "Great city", "City of Fame". The first settlement in its place was an outpost of Hersonissos, appeared in VI. B.C. In 988. The city was captured by Prince Vladimir of Kiev, and in the period from 1475 to 1781 came under the control of the Ottoman Empire.  Establishment of Sevastopol centuries preceding the battle of Slavic tribes, and later the Russian and Ukrainian peoples for access to the Black Sea, Crimea, whose territory has long been inhabited by Slavic tribes. Already in the IX -X centuries slavs were hard struggle with the powerful Byzantine Empire at the time by the Black Sea. In times of Kiev Rus were made trips to the heart of the Byzantine Empire - Constantinople. In the second half of the XI centiry Crimea was cut off from the rest of the territory of numerous nomadic hordes Polovtsy, and in XI century it invaded by hordes of Batu. After the collapse of the Golden Horde in 1443 there was the Crimean Khanate from 1475 - vassal of Turkey, which used it as a weapon in the implementation of its policy of aggression to attack the Russian, Ukrainian and Polish lands . Foreign domination lasted about five and a half centuries.
During the Russo-Turkish War (1768-1774) Russian troops seized the Crimea. Under the contract with Khan (1772) and Kuchuk Kainardji peace agreement (10 July 1774) the Crimean Khanate was declared independent from Turkey and passed under the patronage of Russia. Command of Russian troops in the Crimea sent Alexander Suvorov, who 15 June 1778 on both sides Ahtiarskoyi (Sebastopol) positioned bays and artillery troops, and at night, he ordered the construction of fortifications was carried out on the banks. Turks soon recognized his dangerous position and on the night of June 17, 1778 brought their ships from the bay to the open sea.  So Suvorov became one of the first who appreciated the military-strategic importance of Ahtiarskoyi bay and started building fortifications on the site where soon laid Sevastopol.
History Sevastopol became the subject of a number of monographs and special studies. Studied in detail during the defense of the city during the Crimean War and World Wars, reviewed the history and purpose of its founding, the close connection with the history of the Black Sea Fleet (which, incidentally, intertwined history of the Ukrainian and Russian peoples), as well as the present. As a general, survey work can be distinguished collections of documents and G. Vaneeva "Sevastopol 200 years: 1783-1983", E. Vyenikyeyeva "Sevastopol and its surroundings," S. Naida "History of Sevastopol", A. Nedelin "Sevastopol. Historical Review." Especially interesting are the classics: Alexander Griboyedov "Travel Notes. Crimea", L.M. Tolstoy's "Sevastopolskye stories", A. Ostrovsky's "PPP T.14 Scripture 1842-1872", A.P. Sumarokov " Leisure of Crimean judge", "Traveling over the Crimea and Bessarabyy in 1799", Karl Marx "Secret diplomacy XVIII", Engels' "Foreign Policy of Russian Tsarism", M. Twain's "Innocents abroad, or New stranstvyya of palomnykov." They see Crimea and Sevastopol not as scientists but as masters of artistic expression through the prism of their individual experiences and worldview, and this experience can be very helpful to address contemporary issues diplomats and politicians.
Thus, A. Liakhovich in the study "The Crimean War 1853-1856", V. Volkovynskyy in the book "Ukraine in the Crimean War of 1853-1856", A. Kravets in his essay "The writer and military figure of "Crimean War" Michal Czajkowski", L. Reva in the study "Taras Shevchenko and the Crimean War," Ivan Romaniuk in the book "Legend of defense of Sevastopol - a sailor from Vinnitsa region Petro Koshka", Vladimir Vinokurov in his work "Brynkovski scouts in the Crimean War," Sokolyuk S. in the study "Ukrainians in the Crimean (Eastern) War of 1853-1856)", T. Ignatieff in "Raising Ukrainian lands in the Russian Empire geopolitics implementation period of Nicholas II", P. Lyashuk in the essay "The Crimean War in Ukrainian" explored the close relationship Ukrainian and Russian people to fight the Ottoman Empire and its allies in the coalition, Britain, France and the Sardinian kingdom in the Crimean War. It was not just a military conflict between the two empires - Russia and Turkey, which on the side of one party for the first time were other powerful state, but a prologue World War.
His contribution to the study of international relations in the Black Sea region in the making of this policy, starting with the XVIII century, has made many outstanding people, including D. Smirnov , S. Soloviev , N. Dubrovin , V. Krestyannikov . Their works are of great importance for the formation of international relations in the Black Sea and Mediterranean regions, especially Ukraine and Russia.
Content of history is equivalent to the history of life since the past determines both current and future. Human history - a history of discovery and oblivion, achievements and downs of war and peace; is the story of humanity and civilization relationship - in other words, is the story of the passage through diplomatic ways different countries and peoples. Therefore, the current international conflicts caused by unprofessional sometimes-indifferent politicians and diplomats.
Recall the words of Kant: "In order to reach the truth, do not need to be courageous and prudent." After all, history is not peculiar quiet course of events. There are critical, crisis moments. Then the interest in it is particularly acute. And in such a difficult and troubled times we live.
1. Mnicha I. "Remembrance and praise to Prince Vladimir." - RAS. IRLI; Ed. DS Likhachev, LA Dmitrieva. - Science, 1997. - S. 35.
2. TSB, Moscow, 1973, t.13, S. 509.
3. TSDVІA RF, f. VDA, d.208, l.193.
4. B. Goncharov "Admiral Senyavin. Biographical sketch with application notes D.N. Senyavin. M .; L., 1945.- 124 pp.
5. D. Smirnov Crimean Khanate under the rule of the Ottoman ports in the XVIII century. - Odessa, 1889.
6. S.M. Solovyov History of Russia since ancient times, Vol. 3, t.14.
7. M. Dubrovin Incorporation of the Crimea to to Russia. T.1.- SPb., 1885.
8. V.V. Krestyannikov Historic streets and monuments of Sevastopol: a tutorial / V.V. Krestyannikov. - Simferopol: Tavria, 1996.
The migration factor in the context of national security: struggle with the past or contemporary realities
This article is the part of a larger study of the current problems of migration. The author analyzed the influence of migration crisis on national security sector.
Keywords: migration, immigration, migration crisis, security, national security, EU, Ukraine
Research and understanding of migration process is one of the important elements of successful existence of any society. For the XXI century the term "migration" is not only a symbol of change of deployment or moving from one point to another. We soon realize its mobility, which in turn is one associative array with the ability to get stability and prosperity. As an example - the return of immigrants to the country of origin of the accumulation. According immigrants have the opportunity for a better life, including using acquired skills in everyday life in return. It should be noted that the perception of immigrants as temporary but a permanent phenomenon, would help ease the burden for those societies that are afraid of cultural and political change. Yes, it is possible and most appropriate is to encourage the integration of newcomers to the host society and through the adaptation of laws whose primary purpose would be to stimulate respect for traditional European culture, centuries-old traditions. Currently, due to prolonged policy that cherished above all tolerance, have a mass migration crisis that year risks becoming a humanitarian disaster - the largest since the Second World War. For objectivity, we note that dissatisfaction migration policy began long before the escalation of the situation in general. The crises of various kinds and nature, aggravation of existing military conflict - one of the main reasons that compel officials to remember Migration and once again seek methods to solve the problem, or at least pretend or make efforts.
A positive for the migration is to encourage the population dynamics and demographic potential further disclosure. The aging population automatically leads to a reduction in the workforce, which in turn reduces the economic potential of the country as a result - it loses a head start compared to others. After losing the economic potential, the country is losing its risk rating and national security. If the production of the twentieth century important was the large number of jobs, thanks to automation, this figure has dropped, but the need to rejuvenate the demographic component remains in the top, this time for the development and adaptation of new technologies.
Speaking about migration crisis, not to mention the multicultural policy would be awesome. The policy of multiculturalism, which practices a number of countries, in some cases only helps to ensure the desired results. Thus, despite the successful implementation in Canada and the United States, European countries did not get the desired result. Of course, for the sake of objectivity, we note that among the failures were the lack of understanding of reality, ignoring existing mental differences, historical heritage and too tolerant attitude towards immigrants (the period after the Second World War). Tired of the numerous defeats, the leaders of the most powerful countries were forced to publicly acknowledge the ineffectiveness of the policy of multiculturalism. In October 2010 Ms. Merkel publicly admits defeat in February 2011 - Sarkozy criticized the policy of "salad". Later they joined by D. Cameron.
In the context of crisis aggravation migration including after the attacks in Paris (on 13 November 2015), it is worth mentioning other cases in history when immigrants provoked deterioration in the national security and have caused deterioration of the existing social order. In May 2011 in London (Woolwich area) had committed murder (later recognized terrorist attack). Police declared the incident a pre-planned (the "politically motivated attack by Islamist"). According to official figures killer shouted "Allah Akbar" and were video fixation their actions. Such blunt provocation was the trigger hook for mass protests. Representatives of the NGO "League for the Protection of England" were against migration, mass distribution condemning Islam. In other cities were reported repeated attempts to set fire to the mosque. Although the official version motives that guided the attackers vary - the result is not affected.  Remembering the events of 2005-2006. France of arson, the events in 2011 in the UK have to sadly admit that migration crisis - no more permanent phenomenon and stable problem that is not being treated on time, every year more and more exciting territory, parasitizing on the remains of still existing European civilization. We propose to focus on the role of modern tools of information transmission and communication. It is since 2011 the use of social media and the Internet has become an important element of communication in Europe as a tool of rapid mobility in case of threats to the stability of the breach of national security.
With the developing of social networks and the proliferation of Internet, communications to organize a demonstration has become much easier and faster . Using the new features requires significantly less effort. More rational to talk about the role of the Internet during the revolutions, coups and new forms of interaction between citizens and the state. It is advisable to talk about a new type of revolution - the Internet revolution, revolution tweeter. In the twentieth century, the role of social networks is taken as a priority element in creating a new world order in terms of the modern world. Social networks - paramount political tool of political influence on the social component of society. Understanding that social media control and under over access to social networks will help control and prevent social discontent mass meetings - just one element of multi-vector kaleidoscope of influences present. More plausible is viewed Facebook as a platform of human rights, such as Twitter as a guarantee of rights and freedoms of citizens, people. The impact of social networking is huge. On the one hand, they help people share information, and accordingly, act as a driving force riots. After all the great achievements no longer, need somewhere to meet on a regular basis. Simply put cursing either - and a sense of one completely appears automatically.
Among the positive aspects worth mentioning the role of social networks in the modern revolutions and the overthrow of regimes. With the penetration of Internet in the lives of people, understanding the issues of freedom and control is an integral part of their existence. Internet is a mover and instrument control freedom of a citizen of a democratic country, it's a great little tool of protest against the violation of human rights, is an important element indispensable in the modern sense of security, it would seem safe, but really this dangerous world. It is important to remember that social networks - is not only a total positive and comfort, but also social risk. The intelligent use of modern technology helps to transmit the required information at ultrafast rates, share ideas with friends from around the world invited to inform the meeting or event. However, we must keep in mind that the possibility of communication provided by the Internet, providing rapid response to events, so it is possible that it may use to base purposes. Social tools taught people receive the information quickly, superficially, without unnecessary sentiments, provoking decisions involving minimum effort (the machine) and time.
Social networks help to find a job, friends and acquaintances, to prepare the conditions for living in another country and promotes mobility of workers. 2015 year will be remembered as the year when European leaders were forced to recognize the fact that an implementation of humanitarian policy and, consequently, the massive invasion of immigrants to Europe from the Middle East and Africa led to a humanitarian catastrophe. Overcoming the path to the new old world, many refugees risk their lives, going sometimes to inevitable death. Of course, such behavior seems absurd many Europeans, because indigenous citizens know that life in Europe is not that easy, but for people from the Middle East who are suffering from war events, the opportunity to get a peaceful sky above seems quite justified reward for the entire consequences trip. Greece and Italy are suffering primarily because of geographical proximity to the African continent. They first take on its borders illegal immigrants and refugees. Later last goes to France, Austria, Germany and the UK. Currently migration crisis increasingly resembles a volcano, which is still a bit asleep, but is about to explode ...
Uncontrolled migratory waves threaten freedom of movement - one of the most important and fundamental principles of the EU. In one of the speeches Home Secretary T. May, recalling the well-being of asylum without undergirding words, and once again justified the introduction of tougher sanctions, closing borders and selective policy. In her opinion, the guiding principle was for immigrants to take advantage of the privileges of European countries - receive unemployment benefits and social assistance. This reaction is not objective, because a large number of immigrants are quite successful in the professional field, regularly paying taxes, filling the state budget. Aggravation of military conflict in the Middle East contributes to worsening critical situation as a whole.
The need to implement transparent rules during admission, application of the system of control over immigration flows (both five and ten years ago) - a problem that is not only not solved, but from year to year is becoming more acute, threatening to reach the point abroad. Official statistics have information about numerous casualties on land, at sea - in May 2015, about 2 thousand. Workers killed (most drowned, but there were those who died due to lack of oxygen in the body trucks). The most critical issue is to migration illegal immigration. Carriers use the gullibility of migrants and for their own money at last expose undue risk. 2015 is a time when newspapers were the front pages with pictures of hostilities and crowds brutalized refugees stormed the European borders. The greatest resonance acquired photos of the body of a small boy-immigrant, which the sea washed up on shore after a failed attempt to cross the road to Europe via Turkey . The boat, which was used carriers, had a violation of all possible rules of operation.
According to the President of the European Parliament M. Schulz, the lack of solidarity badly hit by the unity of the European borders.  It is possible that maintain and stimulate an increase in migration flows and the creation of collapse because of the humanitarian disaster was one of the visionary plans of Russia to prevent further maintenance of sanctions against the country itself and accordingly - an attempt to create the terrible conditions for old Europe, who expressed full support to Ukraine and continues to put pressure on the country - aggressor. Previously, European leaders set out to combat social stress through illegal migration, the threat of economic collapse has made adjustments to the existing order. In 2015, the European Commission allocated more than 2.4 billion. Euros to solve the problems associated with migration.
France continues to suffer. During 2015 palm among the most troubled city divided between Calais and Paris with its surroundings. For typical Calais immigrants existence of man-made town, where the latter are for the purpose of further border crossing on the way to a better life in the country relaxing Albion. In July 2015 feeds were filled with images of how fearless immigrants trying to enter the UK through the Channel Tunnel, situated on trains and the risk of being sandwiched between the top of the train and the tunnel ceiling, or simply the risk of falling through a great rate. According to official statistics - this is happened.
Ambiguous is the proposal of the European Parliament to address the migration crisis. One of the decisions was to introduce a quota system for a uniform distribution of migrants (talking primarily about asylum seekers and illegal immigrants). At a time when the leaders of Germany and France favor a uniform quota of migrants, smaller countries (such as Hungary, Poland) are totally against, seeing it is inappropriate in a uniform quota formula and the lack of geographical distribution criteria (regional) indicators.
According to European Commissioner Neighborhood Policy and negotiations J. Gana problems with migrants will not become an obstacle for the expansion of the EU, because EU enlargement - it's a long process with many actors, which involved many parties. "Over the past 12 months I have talked and worked with all our partners and we have continued to invest in something to help them to overcome all the challenges that await them on the road to the EU", - said J. Gan.
In turn, D. Tusk has identified five basic principles of cooperation. According to him, if the country will agree their actions, migration may well become an important driving force for the rapprochement of peoples, not a burden that always provokes a tragedy. It is important to find methods by which the problem of migration could become a possibility. It would be great if people were able to sell their home and not have fled to other countries in search of a better life. For example, you can increase financial aid to Africa and to arrange for their adaptation centers unacceptable for European immigrants - those who voluntarily returned to the country of origin. Forced return of migrants is an integral part of a successful migration policy.
According to officials of the UN Office for Refugees, today Europe is experiencing the worst crisis since World War II. In summer 2015, the situation worsened also because immigrants began increasingly to resemble the barbarians because of their inappropriate behavior. For example, while in Hungary, refugees stormed the station, demanding refer them to Germany.
The path of migrants to Europe is a classic - mostly across the sea. There are three routes of migration flows. The most popular are Italian and Turkish coast. Crossing borders by land is not so popular, but is still used. Among the countries which sent migrants - Germany, Austria, Great Britain, France. Among European countries first stay most popular are Hungary and Poland, but they are only interested migrants as temporary stay on the way to a prosperous Europe. This year, immigrants repeatedly attempted to storm control checkpoint, endangering the national security of residence and the existence of the EU as a whole. In some cases, police had to use tear gas, water cannons. Among the countries that most migrants stormed - Croatia and Serbia.
We can not bypass Ukraine. At this time, until the country is not an EU member, we are considered as a buffer zone, a zone of transit, but it does not mean that there is no need for the formation of a true migration doctrine aimed at the protection of Ukrainian national interests and prevent the same problems at the borders, as in Croatia or Hungary. According to the Minister of Foreign Affairs of Ukraine Mr. Klimkin, Ukraine will be able to take part migranrs of the Middle East. Minister said in particular on one of the channels: "We have not sent Syrian refugees in Ukraine. They understand that we are fighting with Russian aggression ". In addition, according to Pavlo Klimkin, the Middle East problem - a problem of a wider scale. It is still strange that migrants give preference to European countries, which are inherent tradition and European culture. It is surprising that migrants from the Middle East are not traveling to Arab countries, where great need for adaptation exists.
It should be noted that despite the high probability of increasing migration flows from Ukraine, first of all, because of the presence on the territory of Ukraine Russian invaders, least of all the EU fear increasing migration flows. As the static data, the number of those wishing to leave the country - a drop in the ocean compared to the Syrian refugees. However, it is important to create appropriate conditions to improve and facilitate Ukrainian border guards control methods and checks national borders. During the 2014-2015 biennium. National Border Service is much more active - information on the detention of illegal immigrants on the borders of Ukraine, Poland, Ukraine, Hungary ever more common phenomenon.
1. Keep away from Britain! Governments around world warn citizens to avoid riot-hit UK. - Available from: www.dailymail.com.uk/<wbr>news/article-2024159/UK-RIOTS-<wbr>2011- Keep-away-Britain_Governments_<wbr>world_warm_citizens.html
2. If you doubt that social media has changed the world take a look at Ukraine. - Available from: www.forbes.com/sites/<wbr>gregsatell/2014/01/18/if-you-<wbr>doubt-that-social-media-has-<wbr>changed-the-world-take-a-look-<wbr>at-ukraine
3. Shocking Images of drowned Syrian boy show tragic plight of refugees. - Available from: www.theguardian.com/<wbr>world/2015/sep/02/shocking-<wbr>images-of-drowne-syrian-boy-<wbr>show-tragic-plight-of-refugees
4. Martin Schultz: EU is facing "victory of national egotism over solidarity". - Available from: www.m.france24.com/en/<wbr>20151024-taking-europe-martin-<wbr>schulz-eu-parliament-migrant-<wbr>crisis-pegida-far-right
5. Klimkin: In the future Kyiv must be prepared to show solidarity with the EU to help refugees. Klimkin interview "5 channel" [electronic resource]. - Access:http://ua.112.ua/<wbr>polityka/klimkin-v-maibutnomu-<wbr>kyiv-povynen-buty-hotovyi-<wbr>proiavyty-solidarnist-z-<wbr>ievropeiskymy-krainamy-<wbr>shchodo-dopomohy-bizhentsiam-<wbr>256656.html
International Security of Ukraine:
political and diplomatic possibilities and means
International talks on the situation in eastern regions of Ukraine which continue from early September 2014 has not led to sustainable resolution of the conflict. The situation in the Ukrainian-Russian relations is perceived in a different way by main global actors who have their own interests and goals in the context of European security. For Ukraine the external aspects of security retain existential nature that urges the official Kiev to search for mechanisms ensuring real practical results. With a very low probability of providing external political and military guarantees such mechanisms of external support include activating Russia's containment by the West and setting up a regime of an active dialogue with priority partners whose positions to the greatest extent coincide with Ukraine's interests.
Keywords: crisis, conflict, international security, foreign guarantees, diplomacy, conflict resolution.
Loss Crimea and Donbas conflict in Ukraine demonstrated the critical vulnerability in the system of international security, which is going through acute crisis since the Soviet collapse and the war in Yugoslavia. The main task of rebuilding an acceptable level of external and internal security of Ukraine will be relevant. The crisis requires a realistic assessment of the possibilities of using external factors capable of resolving the conflict in the Donbass, an acceptable level of political stability and help create conditions for economic recovery.
In the hierarchy of objectives and specific directions and most urgent priority is the cessation of hostilities and settling the conflict in Donbas. Rather, the full-scale settlement of the situation in this area so far has not yet said. The position of the Russian leadership demonstrates the intention to preserve this local conflict as advantage constant pressure on Kyiv in particular to prevent its rapprochement with the West to destabilize the situation in the country. From the perspective of Ukrainian parties, any action, involving de-escalation of the conflict, necessary and reasonable, including the likelihood of freezing (cessation of its military phase) under the conditions of a stable truce, disengagement and solid sides to agreements on ceasefire. In this regard, the presence of international observers, and possibly peacekeeping force that can guarantee stopping hostilities, seems quite appropriate.
The conflict in the Donbas creates additional problems in Ukraine's relations with the EU and NATO at this stage determine the unavailability of their members openly provide Ukraine new weapons and military equipment.
In terms of violation of the sovereignty and territorial integrity of the country on whether to grant Ukraine international safeguards is even more problematic. In this sense, rightly of formal-logical point the idea of converting the Budapest Memorandum on Security Assurances in connection with Ukraine's accession to the Treaty on the Non-effective mechanism to guarantee state sovereignty and territorial integrity is a political declaration rather than a suitable part of the plan action .
First, the terms of the memorandum are clearly violated, and its direct participants - the US, Britain and Russia - have taken the opposite position. Failure to assist to Ukraine from the United States and Britain against Russia because of their apparent reluctance to enter into open conflict with Russia.
Second, the sanctioning of any decision to use force against the Russian Federation with the help of UN Security Council resolution is not possible due to a first veto. In this context, the UN Security Council continues to perform its primary function, which is to prevent the legalization of international legal decisions on the use of force by one or more permanent members against others. That comes to preventing direct conflict between traditional great powers. Since other principal actors of international relations associated with the permanent members of the UN Security Council by certain allied or partnerships that the Council maintains the role of the mechanism that prevents the authorization actions that could lead to another world war.
Under these circumstances is quite appropriate to the question of how realistic do under the present circumstances it turns providing direct international security guarantees for Ukraine and that status may be granted by external players. Note that a return to the initial conditions that existed prior to February 2014, to say unlikely. Regarding the Donbass, internationalized local conflict could potentially be resolved because of the full implementation of Minsk II, and especially - Output illegal military formations Kyiv and recovery control for the whole area of the Russian-Ukrainian border. However, the extent to Minsk II and settlement possible scenario depends mainly on the position of Moscow. As for the Crimea and Sevastopol, the actual change their status are enshrined in the Constitution, which creates virtually insoluble legal and political problem. So restoring Ukrainian status of Crimea actually requires the recognition of the ruling circles of political and economic crushing defeat, predict that today is not taken no analytical respected institution.
Taking into the consideration the situation, multilateral guarantee may cover only certain aspects of the settlement of the conflict in eastern Ukraine or placement along the contact line in the Donbass international peacekeeping contingent. Since Russia is present in all international institutions, authorized to make decisions on peacekeeping operations or deployment of the mission (UN Security Council Permanent Council of the OSCE), there is hardly any reason to expect the approval of their decisions aimed directly against the actions of the separatists or the displacement of Russian military forces from the conflict zone.
Apparently, very weak in terms of the scope of powers and practical features Special OSCE monitoring mission in Ukraine reflects threshold consent of on the international presence in the conflict zone. Daily dialogue "Normandy format" allows Moscow to rely on the internationalization of the final decisions regarding the settlement of the conflict in the eastern regions of Ukraine. Moscow's position on this matter was very frankly outlined the Russian Foreign Minister S. Lavrov in a radio interview on April 22, 2015:
- Formal integrity of Ukraine (without the Crimea and Sevastopol) is required to preserve peace and security in Europe;
- In the interests of the Russian Federation to hold a neutral Ukraine, especially in military and political terms;
- Ukraine should be "friendly" and with respect to Russia, "and towards Europe." For this we must abandon the "unitary Ukraine compulsory saving" her from trying Ukrainianization areas, including areas DPR and LPR;
- Russia sought to conclude agreements Minsk to Ukraine "has remained only" and that there was no attempt to drive all in one Procrustean bed nationalist ideology. For this purpose, the agreement Minsk-2 ("The set of measures to implement the Minsk II" from February 12, 2015) observed the need for decentralization of Ukraine and constitutional reform with the participation of and in agreement with the DPR and LPR;
- Ukraine will split NATO attempts to turn the country against Russia .
In other words, Moscow increases pressure to control the foreign policy of Ukraine and Kyiv imposing its geopolitical scenario. Such proposals will be presented with the Russian leadership and the negotiations in the "Normandy format", and in the Minsk talks until the inclusion in the joint document requirements for the recognition of Western military neutrality of Ukraine and Autonomous unless nonfederal status of "special areas" Donbass.
Note that the possibility of providing international guarantees final settlement scheme is also questionable. Referring to non-membership of Ukraine in NATO, the West will not provide military security guarantees for our country. On the other hand, possible Russian guarantees are worthless, since Moscow has opened a whole package of multilateral (CSCE Final Act of 1975) and bilateral obligations issued in numerous Ukrainian-Russian treaties and agreements. In this situation, any security guarantees Ukraine may have, firstly, bilateral, and secondly - conditional, informal and / or indirect. Rather, they will be accompanied by requirements concerning observance Western partners Ukrainian Government a number of conditions, performance hard pack their recommendations, and may be due reference to the occurrence of certain extraordinary circumstances. Moreover, the scope and volume of response and assistance determined unilaterally.
The governments of the US and leading EU and NATO coordinate their policies towards Ukraine and Russia in the G7 and NATO structures, as well as in the form of consultations at the highest ministerial level and between the US and the most influential EU countries, including Great Britain, Germany, France and Italy. This hosting a meeting at the highest level with the participation of Barack Obama, the leaders of these states and the President of the European Council took place March 3, 2015 (in videoconference). Highlights of the meeting concerning sanctions against Russia, in Ukraine and anarchy in Libya .
Although the approaches of the US and EU countries seen significant nuances and differences, they agree that a balanced position and consolidated Euro-Atlantic community is important and necessary to prevent the expansion of Russian aggression and destabilization of a full European security system. Thus the concept of European security as aggregating certain categories meaningless through undermining the necessary basis, defining common interests and common rules of conduct for its members.
- Suspension of military phase of the conflict in the Donbass and prevent it spreading to other regions of Ukraine.
- Ensure political, military and financial support for Ukraine by the US, EU and international financial organizations.
- Increasing the level of defense capability in order to prevent the occupation of other areas of the state.
- Use all available means to ensure a political settlement of the conflict in eastern Ukraine or freeze if the first is not possible.
- Pragmatic normalization of trade and economic and transit relations with Russia involving the European Commission as the third negotiator.
- Consolidation of the regime by strengthening European security standards required and means of collective security.
- Review and improve peacekeeping principles, clarify motivational factors and ways of making decisions about creating and directing peacekeeping missions.
- Ensuring permanently support of the international community to restore the territorial integrity of Ukraine.
- Development and implementation of a model of economic development based on actual conditions and limited opportunities for economic potential.
- Improving the efficiency of the economy by fighting corruption, streamline state regulation and improving the climate of business activities.
- Streamlining the system of economic relations involving domestic resources for economic modernization and boost the internal market.
- Use of state regulation for technological upgrades and attracting foreign investment.
Thus, if we exclude various extreme scenarios, such as all-out attack Russian troops on the territory of Ukraine or another coup, meaning conduct official Kyiv involves minimizing losses from the loss of the Crimea and the conflict in the Donbas to ensure withdrawal of systemic crisis, creating conditions for economic recovery and raising social standards, providing positive prospects for accelerated development.
The conflict in the Donbass has four logical alternatives, including war, the state of "neither peace nor war" (constant firefights without any major offensive operations), "freezing" (sustainable ceasefire dilution forces parties, placing peacekeeping mission) and settlement (determining the status of the territory, coordination and application of political decisions).
In these circumstances, when choosing between different alternative scenarios on the conflict in the Donbass top priority is to stop the military phase of the conflict. The fighting may be terminated in three cases including a result of (a) conflict resolution by using political and diplomatic methods; b) freezing the conflict - fixing the position of the parties and the cessation of hostilities; (c) the military defeat of one party. Given the disparity of power potentials of Russia and Ukraine, this option is interpreted as inability to resolve the conflict through military methods or failure of Ukraine to win the war with Russia. If we consider a priority to end the war, not escalate it to address the territorial integrity of military methods, preference should be given clearly those aspects of the Minsk agreements that can provide cease military phase of the conflict and stable separation of the parties.
Listed variants of the Ukrainian-Russian relations, given by adviser to President of Ukraine Viktor Horbulin, can be seen as a general abstract logic, but by no means as a practical guide. Mr. Horbulin observes that the present situation is a stalemate "neither peace nor war." In this case, all parties suffer significant losses: Ukraine suffers from prolonged conflict on its territory; Russia - from participation in this conflict, keeping unprofitable and annexed the Crimea and from international sanctions; Western countries - the gap of economic ties with Russia. If the Russian government decides to start an open military aggression in order to obtain a land corridor to the Crimea or free access to its military contingent in Transnistria Mr. Horbulin suggests the possibility of "total" Russo-Ukrainian war. However, his arguments on this issue appear mixed. Well already that Mr. Horbulin not consider such a scenario "goal of Ukraine", because the state "will have to implement it only if the full open attack by Russia." However, he argues "this scenario can not only bring victory, but also cause significant loss of the country" . Thus, V. Horbulin concludes that the victory Ukraine in total conflict with Russia, although it does not provide any arguments in favor of this assumption and does not specify the means that could achieve such a result.
Given the potential threat and the danger of escalation of local conflict in the Donbass in full-scale interstate war, we note that the few forms of direct support, which in certain circumstances could expect Ukraine's leadership belongs sure of "closing" the airspace of our country for Russian aviation facilities held by the US and NATO. That is, under certain circumstances Washington would promise, and perhaps publicly declare that if the expansion of aggression of Russia against the West Ukraine will provide the Air Protection in Ukraine using space reconnaissance, air defense forces and defense. As of August 2015 the official Kyiv has received from NATO's only consent to the exchange of information in the field of aviation safety data and dispatching services from Poland, Norway and Turkey. According to unofficial sources, Kyiv also transmit some data space exploration, but with considerable delay and carefully edited form.
In the sphere of international relations, official Kyiv had to look for and use of such mechanisms and ways to strengthen their positions, allowing ensuring the achievement of goals and getting real tangible results. This involves setting priorities relationships with partners that have similar or comparable interests within the European security in general and with Russia in particular. However, these countries obviously a bit. NATO and the EU have substantial multilateral security guarantees are based on the principles of solidarity and mutual obligations. Turkey, Azerbaijan and Iran have their own interests and contradictions in relations with Russia, which makes them difficult diplomatic holding game. Japan can act as a remote political ally. However, despite the existence of the problem of the South Kuril Islands, the main foreign political circles danger still see Japan militarily strengthen and enhance China's geopolitical ambitions.
The basic method of working out common approaches and coordination of joint actions with external partners can be formal and informal structures "active dialogue". The basis for concerted action must be common interests that Ukraine has a number of states located along the perimeter of the borders of Russia, including the Baltic States, Finland, Poland, Moldova, Romania, Georgia. Mode "active dialogue" can be based on formal institutions strategic partnership or maintain informal. Regarding other potential problems and possible ways of positioning the Ukraine, their assessment makes sense only in light of the degree of realism.
Paradoxical though clear sign of this situation is the fact that in a local military conflict in the Donbass US and NATO, based on fears of further escalation of the conflict, Kyiv refused to provide high-tech lethal weapons, and the administration of Barack Obama - in special status ally outside NATO membership. In the case of escalation of the conflict through direct activation of Russian interference, position of the West in the choice of forms of support for Ukraine will be even more vulnerable, as indicated by the insolvency Euro-Atlantic community to stop the expansion of and provide settlement or at least freeze the conflict.
The attitude of leading countries of EU combines an understanding of the dangers of Russian expansion in the CIS while awareness of the necessity of understanding with Moscow. Indicative speculation European policy makers that declare willingness to return to cooperation and normalization of relations with the Russian Federation provided ceasefire in Donbass and achieving agreement on suitable terms of settlement so far this local conflict. At the annual conference with German ambassadors abroad, Foreign Minister of Germany F.-V. Steinmeier cited German politician Egon Bar: "We can not abandon the relationship with our American allies, and Russia can not be removed from the European continent." Calling for better relations with Moscow, Steinmeier said "European peace order after all is only possible with the involvement of Russia." Therefore, "beyond the scenes of crisis management" in the conflict in eastern Ukraine to Moscow again must "integrate into the global order" .
According to the observations, often allied status given to countries that are not directly at war, but feel a threat to its security. Note that making alliance agreements do not always lead to the implementation of these commitments in practice. Moreover, after the "cold war" leading states of the West preferred to install from countries not members of NATO, less binding partnerships that are significantly different from alliances defense and military-political nature. Currently, for objective reasons Ukraine has no alliance with any other state and this fact is considered inappropriate to blame the previous state leadership.
Taking into the account the potential threat of full-scale conflict between Russia and Ukraine appropriate and useful to the practical side would look to obtain from the US and UK express clarification on how, in what form and under what conditions they can return to the obligations outlined Budapest Memorandum 1994. However, the return to such rhetoric in public perspective is possible only if a substantial weakening of and changes in its foreign policy, and in the event of further tangible financial and economic support for Ukraine by the US, EU and international financial institutions.
In the development of various analytical centers meet international evaluation experience and proposals for the establishment of transitional regional security structures, such as "North defense cooperation" (2008) or the Conference of Defense Ministers of Southeast Europe (1996). The American expert J. Friedman outlined a similar plan as a "deterrent arc" stretching from Estonia to Azerbaijan in March 2014 .
However, practical implementation plans for establishing regional security community orientation, which greatly resemble the Baltic-Black Sea projects 1920-1930 g. To deter and partial isolation of the USSR, is encountering a number of obstacles such as specific interests Finland, Turkey, Azerbaijan and Visegrad countries. It is equally important to consider the status of Poland and the Baltic states are obliged to observe the collective line EU and NATO. Thus, in a situation of a regional community or communities with the aim of countering such as "North defense cooperation" significantly hampered. One of the main reasons that Lithuania, Estonia, Poland, like other members of the Visegrad Four, consider an external threat to its security as a potential and significantly lower compared with the already identified and fully materialized security threats Ukraine, Georgia and Moldova.
Thus, an important characteristic of a typical crisis of European security is a different situation and status of European states, which determine their attitude to the Russian factor, and assessment of the nature of existing threats. In terms of the EU leading countries Ukrainian crisis is a significant challenge to stability and security, but this factor is not seen as a direct threat to European or even war as the beginning of a large-scale territorial expansion in Eastern Europe. In the example of the West Ukrainian was only another proof that Moscow will not allow the continuation of the expansion of NATO to Ukraine and Georgia joining. The conflict in eastern Ukraine is considered a serious destabilizing factor, which demonstrated the collapse of "residual" regulatory framework of the bipolar era, including the Helsinki Final Act (1975) and the control regime of conventional arms and armed forces in Europe. The EU declared cessation course on strategic partnership with Russia, on which negotiations were suspended in 2006. However, using a package of economic constraints and tightening control over banks located in the western Russian assets warning event confined to Moscow for the bulk of economic sanctions will be lifted on condition of settlement in Donbass and the return of Russia to the dialogue on international security.
In the end, we can say that for EU and NATO, which no one is guaranteed and even promised Ukraine will remain a non-aligned country and not be able to guarantee its security by using external bilateral or collective commitments. Existing problems and threats can be stored until a bilateral settlement of the conflict with Russia or multilateral settlement with the participation of the EU and the USA.
Strengthening the position of Ukraine in emergency crisis requires realistic planning foreign and security policy. This approach requires paying priority attention to use various tools that can provide long-term support from external sponsors and stimulate revitalization strategy of containment of Russia from the West. Seeking to weaken internal and external threats, the Ukrainian government should focus primarily on establishing the active dialogue with priority partners, positioning them most consistent with the interests and approaches of Ukraine or significantly affect overall trends in the evolution of international relations.
Rational-pragmatic approach in no way can mean the weakening of relations and dialogue with traditional partners in the transatlantic community (US, Canada, UK, Germany, France), although it requires a more active advocacy of the state in dealing with non-Western countries.
1. See: Decree of the President of Ukraine "On the decision of the National Security and Defense Council of Ukraine on May 6, 2015" On National Security Strategy of Ukraine "dated 26 May 2015 r. № 287/2015. - Access: zakon4.rada.gov.ua/<wbr>laws/show/287/2015/paran7.
2. Tusk: Obama and EU leaders held a video conference on Ukraine / RIA Novosti. 03/03/2015. - Access mode:
3. Demidova O. Steinmeier: It is impossible resolving many conflicts without Russia / Deutsche Welle. 08/24/2015. - Access:http://www.dw.com/ru/<wbr>штайнмайер-без-россии-<wbr>невозможно-урегулирование-<wbr>многих-конфликтов/a-18668769
Little-known pages of history
Political and diplomatic activity of G.O. Afanasyev (1848-1925)
Vyacheslav Tsivatyy, Olena Novikova
Reveals the life and political and diplomatic activity Omelyanovych Afanasyeva George is famous medievalist historian, public figure, politician and diplomat.
Keywords: foreign policy, diplomat, diplomacy, diplomatic service, medievalist historian, G.O. Afanasyev (1848-1925)
Among the outstanding statesmen of Ukraine, whose portraits adorn the grand conference hall of the Diplomatic Academy of Ukraine at the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Ukraine in Kiev (2, Zhytomyrska Str., 2nd floor, Hall of the Academic Council), is George (Yuri) Omelyanovych Afanasyev (1848-1925) . In such way is noted medievalist activity of scientist, Doctor of world history, who during a short time (from November to Dec. 14, 1918) served as the Minister of Foreign Affairs in the government of Hetman Pavlo Skoropadsky. In this we see the justice of time and those statesmen of modern Ukraine, which restored the memory of this almost forgotten, but an outstanding figure of national and world history . Until recently, only a narrow circle of historians, medievalists and early twenty-first century knew the name of G.O. Afanasyeva. Only at the beginning of XXI century were appeared some intelligence about him.
One of the most beautiful old buildings Kyiv - National Bank of Ukraine - was built thanks to his efforts, the second director G.O. Afanasyeva. About this fact History museum bank staff mentioned at the beginning of XXI century. Experts of Kyiv History Museum remembered about George when they were creating Hall of Hetman Pavlo Skopadskoho. Abroad, Ukrainian historian and diplomat quite famous, and information about him included in its register of reputable Ukrainian Encyclopedia, edited by Vladimir Kubyyovycha [3, p. 77]. Meanwhile, before his diplomatic post George Omelyanovych actually performed ambassadorial mission in Western Europe.
His studies, for example, the history of the French economy, the history of Ireland as other Kiev cohort of historians (Ivan Luchytskyy (1845-1918) and his disciples Vladimir Piskorski, Nikandr Molchanovsky, Dmitry Petrushevsky, Yevgeny Tarle) made a significant contribution to European science of history and thereby helped to shape Europe's outstanding knowledge of the Kiev school of historical thought and positive image of Ukraine (although it was then part of the Russian Empire) as an intellectual country.
The life of the scientist consisted difficult. Afanasyev had to be a scientist, researcher and teacher, lecturer and organizer of education, public figure, civil servant-leader, financier and diplomat. In his personal life there were tragic. After the Novorossiysk University in 1869, G. Afanasyev was left as privat-docent in the department of world history to prepare for a professorship. The main object of research the young scientist was France. In 1884 and 1892 respectively, he defended his master's and doctoral dissertations in the field of the economy of Western Europe. For residents of Odessa was quite naturally show a special interest in France, to which the city and the surrounding areas of southern combine ancient trade, political, diplomatic, institutional and cultural ties.
However, Afanasyev was not assigne as Professor, because since his youth professed rather moderate liberal educational views that reaction did not like the leadership of the university. After all, a student at the Novorossiysk University in Odessa (specialty - World History) took an active part in public and political and diplomatic life of the city. Together with fellow students S. Yuzhakov and I. Karvatskym George became the leader of the student group. Although students worried purely liberal educational ideas, they felt very "unreliable", and this fact adversely affected the academic career of George Omelyanovych Afanasyev.
Already in the student's years Afanasiev discovered his talent speaker, the ability to instantly capture new scientific knowledge, briefly and clearly describe the issue. He became noticeable not only among fellow students, but in the circles of the faculty. Famous professor - historian A. Brinker, philosopher R. Orbinskyy especially Slavic W. Grygorovych, had a significant influence on the formation of future scientist and his further research and politico-diplomatic fate. On the recommendation of R. Orbinskoho, George Omelyanovych, fourth year student, received lessons in a private women's gymnasium Hauenshyld. Twenty historian enthusiastically started his professional activities. His enthusiasm and love of science, belief in themselves replace the lack of didactic knowledge and teaching experience. After completing the course of study in 1869 of young teachers left to work at the university.
Pursuing economies scientist emphasized that "the only bread will live person," factor in the economic life of nations does not absorb everything, personality; intellectuals also make history and are responsible for it each time.
In his studies G. Afanasyev paid special attention to this important aspect of economic life of any society, as the meat trade. Since he studied trade contacts in the Black Sea region, and then expanded the geography of the quest - explored connections with the largest port of the Western Mediterranean - Marseille. He collected valuable material in the archives of Paris. After reading research Afanasyeva still in manuscript, a distinguished French historian Levasseur reported on them at the meeting of the French Academy of Sciences, and published an article immediately. In 1892 was published a book of G. Afanasyeva volume of 500 pages "Terms of the grain trade in France late XVIII century" . The report of the Academy Levasseur said: "This work, done by a foreigner ... it does great honor to the author and will undoubtedly benefit all those who deal with the economic history of the XVIII century". Almost simultaneously with the Russian edition of the book was published in translation in French. When created collection "The history of Europe for ages and countries," published by the famous lexicographer Brockhaus and Efron, G. Afanasyev asked to write the book "History of Ireland" (print was published in 1907). Research talented scientist combined with the reading public lectures.
The historian, who mostly studied economic history and interested in economic issues and practice of life, in public lectures said that history teaches us that "out of a single bread will live person and that the economic factor is not all-powerful in the lives of nations", along with people masses of individuals and the entire intelligentsia of the country play a significant role, and even more "create history", taking responsibility for every moment experienced (it should be noted that this is not entirely coincided with "dangerous" Marxist theory).
Speaking of public lectures, G. Afanasyev chose stories that somehow reminded of the situation at home and could arouse social and political thought: "... I read three public lectures on the latest Bourbons in France, including the June Revolution. Manifestations reaction in 1815 seemed to have too much fun with their pogroms, military courts and electoral tricks and bigotry ... ". His best lectures later published "Irish Destiny" / Odessa, 1887; "The foreign policy of Napoleon III / Odessa, 1885".
In lectures of Western history, Georgy Afanasiev attracted listeners to stories, similar to the events in his homeland. He promoted a positive democratic experience of European countries in the field of parliamentarism. Bitterly stated: "I think that all our domestic education will clutch by police vice and several years of science will be only one imaginary" (V. Piskorski letter of March 9, 1910).
After a lot of expectations to get the cathedra in his home university in Odessa G.Afanasyev finally accepted the offer take the post of Director of the State Bank in Kiev, where he was invited as though not a professional, but a famous scholar of international economic process. This is not the only case where economist by professional training and academic historian and economist with extensive experience in scientific research of economic history do not head a financial institution.Under his direction, the support of the Minister of Finance Witte house was built by the State Bank, which still adorns the street Institutskaya in Kyiv. This historian has successfully led the institution during the First World War (1914-1918), Revolutions in 1917 until 1918. During this period G. Afanasyev managed mutual credit, opened the Kiev Commercial College, high school (along with historian N. Molchanovsky) in which the system is based on progressive learning method. George Omelyanovych also led charitable activities in the field of medicine. In addition, he does not abandon a science. In 1907 was published "History of Ireland", in 1908 - "Historic Economic and articles" in several volumes .
G. Afanasyev and his family were welcome to many famous families in Kiev - father and son Zhytetsky, professor of Kiev University St. Vladimir I. Luchytskoho and his wife, Maria Viktorovna, outstanding interpreter, in whose house was visited by Starytsky and Lysenko, V. Stanyukovich, Tynyanov and others.
In these difficult times of social upheaval, the family of the scientist suffered a great sorrow. First daughter, poet Olga, died from the epidemic, then fell in the mountains climber son Vladimir, who could, but did not have time to rescue, comrades. Surviving younger son - Igor. This undermined the health of G. Afanasyeva. The younger son Igor remained the only consolation and hope of parents.
G. Afanasiev was the permanent director of the Kiev bank by the end of 1918. He and his offspring had to deal with very important economic problems during the Russo-Japanese War, the events of 1905 and 1917, civil confrontation.
After the formation of the Ukrainian state, which were based Academy of Arts, the All library there hope for cultural and scientific revival, G. Afanasyeva invited the government of Pavlo Skoropadsky first as the state controller, then - Minister of Foreign Affairs (until 14 December 1918). Skoropadskyi was able to bookmark such talented personalities as G. Afanasyev. The Cabinet of Ministers of Foreign Affairs has been in the current building of the National Museum of Russian Art in the street Tereschenkivska 9. For diplomat positions, in terms of the then European confusion George Omelyanovych was too pedantic and gullible. 22-year-old Nadia Surovtseva,
the future of Ukrainian writer, was in charge of the press service of the ministry. She saw that her chief concerns international intrigue, and sometimes distract his talk on historical themes, which he readily supported. At the same moment, foreign diplomats "soared" in his foster eagerly waiting audience.
"New foreign minister was Afanasyev, Professor, the most popular in Kiev, man of great erudition, he had a huge disadvantage - it was very old" - later wrote P. Skoropadsky. P. Skoropadsky spoke about him as a person too inclined to an alliance with the Entente. And it harm the alliance with Germany and "the real situation was paying attention," trusting people rather doubtful (for example, the French consul E.Enno). In the latter capacity, he tried unsuccessfully to change the foreign policy of Ukraine, tying alliance with the Entente.
Overall, diplomacy activity of G. Afanasyeva brought, albeit limited, but real results. On his behalf, all Embassy Ukrainian state tried to enter the diplomats of the Entente for making military and political alliance and get immediate military assistance. Especially successfully negotiated with the French hetman representatives in Iasi, despite the unfavorable work ONS. In its political and diplomatic activity G. Afanasyev preferred tactics of maneuvering, while defending the interests of the Ukrainian state.
The last state act in the drafting of which participated the Minister of Foreign Affairs G. Afanasyev, became the ruling Council of Ministers of the Ukrainian state on December 14, 1918, which stated: "Having considered the request of the Directorate, Council of Ministers decided to make of his powers and transfer power to the Directorate."
With the fall of the Ukrainian state, scholar at age 70 decided to emigrate. Perhaps disillusioned with political instability in Ukraine. His fate was told a few sentences in a book V. Buzeskula "Universal history and its representatives in Russia." Finally a dream of scientist came true. He was appointed as professor of the Faculty of History at the University of Belgrade. For a long time nothing was known of being a historian in exile. Recently it found out that G. Afanasyev taught a course at the University of World History, in French, to his last days [6, p. 245]. G.Afanasyev died December 15, 1925 of pneumonia. He was buried on December 17 in New Belgrade city cemetery. by the Russian Orthodox Church Vladislav Nekhlyudov. The fate of son Igor and other descendants is unknown. According to Belgrade resident Ivan Bosnians, burial place found. This new cemetery on Ruzveltoviy Street in Belgrade. Tomb scientist for №249 was located on the 46th plot, but there no monument to him nor the board, nor the cross. This town at the time of Yugoslavia buried some party members - father and son Tsvenchaninyh (Nikolai - 1905-1966 and Mile - 1923-1973). Probably just on top of the burial of G. Afanasyeva.
Such a sad story. At the beginning of XXI century in the University of Belgrade planned to publish a collection of scientist's biography immigrants. Today, unfortunately, it is unknown whether this project materialize. It would be good if the students of the institution of Ukrainian-found volunteers who would help in the search for scientists who find themselves in different circumstances outside Ukraine.
Somewhere in Slovenia in the Lublin University was lost traces of professor of Kyiv University, historian M. Yasinsky ... You can still remember many famous scientists who find themselves in different circumstances outside Ukraine. We think that the restoration of memory could help enthusiasts of the Diplomatic Academy of Ukraine under the MFA. Unfortunately, in Odessa (Novorossiysk) University named Mechnikova among the gallery of its honorary professors and students we have not seen G.Afanasyev. Archive of G. Afanasyeva partially preserved part of it is contained in the manuscript collections of the Institute Vernadsky National Library.
Time returns from oblivion the names of many leaders of national science, culture, art, politics and diplomacy. The turn of G. Afanasyeva, because he put considerable effort and made great contribution to the development and institutional development as Ukrainian and foreign science. New scientific exploration and opening gaps diplomatic history yet to come. Writing complete biography of the scientist remains a problem for modern researchers.
1. G.V. Strelskyy Ukrainian diplomats of the day's of national-state revival (1917-1920): Biographical directory / G.V. Strelskyy / Pod Society. Ed. V.G. Tsivatoho, L.S. Tupchiyenka. - K.v "DEMID", 2000. - 48 p.
2. Diplomacy UPR and Ukrainian State in the documents and memoirs of contemporaries: in 2 volumes. - K .: Ukr. writer, 2008. - T. 1. - 369 p .; T .2. - 379 p.
3. Encyclopedia of Ukraine. Edited by Volodymyr Kubijovyc. - Paris-New-York, 1955. - Р. 77.
4. G.E. Afanasiev Terms of the grain trade in France in the XVIII century. - Odessa, 1892. - 542 p.
5. G.E. Afanasiev Historical economic articles. - Kyiv, 1909. - T. I.
6. Stogodina filosofskog fakulteta. - Beograd, 1963. - S. 245.
The colonial policy of Otto von Bismarck
The article analyzes the nature and characteristics of the colonial policy of the German Reich Chancellor Otto von Bismarck. It is noted that for the first time after the unification of the German states the idea of colonial expansion was not popular at the head of the government. Chancellor changed his mind only under the influence of political, financial and economic circles, as well as an active colonial propaganda. At the end of April 1884 German Empire officially embarked on the implementation of colonial policy, and took control of the territory in Africa and Oceania. However, O. von Bismarck did not consider the acquisition of a large colonial foreign policy success of the German Empire, and until his retirement in March 1890 gave priority to continental European politics.
Keywords: Otto von Bismarck, German Empire, colonial policy.
The official proclamation of the new state - the united German Empire- took place in the Mirror Hall of the Palace of Versailles 18 January 1871. Fast and convincing victory over France in the war of 1870-1871 allowed Kaiser's Germany declare once a serious claim to a leading position in Europe. However, at first after the formation of Empire German government quite cold and even reacted negatively to the idea of winning their own overseas colonies. This item is most clearly reflected in the views on the colonial question of Chancellor Otto von Bismarck, the 200th anniversary of whose birth was April 1, 2015. Immediately after the Franco-Prussian War, he strongly rejected all bids on the transfer of Germany, the French colonial territories in Asia. "According to him, - reported the English Ambassador O. Russell from Berlin in 1873 - the colony would be only a source of weakness, because they can be protected only strong fleet, while the geographical position of Germany is not required to make it a first class sea state. He was immediately offered many colonies, but he rejected all and just wanted to have a coal plant with the consent of other States ".
Bismarck really feared that the German advance on the path of colonial conquest inevitably lead to clashes with the UK. However, in the mid 70's.XIX century he did not exclude the possibility of the nomination moderate claims of England to achieve agreement on the implementation of the German colonial annexations both in the African continent and in the Pacific. Moreover, even then he led the preparations for the practical implementation of such radical plans. This was manifested in the government policy of signing unequal treaties with the kings of Tonga and Samoa, acquiring coal bases, punitive actions against the German fleet population of the islands of Oceania, and other areas in the interest of German colonial circles. Already in 1875 the German warship was always in Oceania, "defended" there German trade and by force of arms has a German influence. Thus, in 1878 the Kaiser's ship entered the port Saluafata located near Apia - Samoa's main city, and setting its control over the port, were able to prevent the US protectorate over Samoa. In December 1879 the ship "Bismarck" made war against Germany hostile party "Haymua." After that indigenous leaders aboard the "Bismarck" signed an agreement that recognized the power of the German puppet Maliyetova over Samoa. Such decisive action to colonial career in the 70's. XIX century not typical for German government circles. Bismarck preferred tactics of compromise and expectations.
L. Bucher, an agent of Bismarck, was sent to London for realization of such intentions in 1875 to offer UK German assistance in the Russo-Turkish conflict that has been brewing in the Balkans, in exchange for compensation in the colonial question. Bucher sought to make English exercise designed to support the future colonial program, which included the receipt of the German colonies in southern and eastern Africa. However, the British Government rejected both proposals, which was one of the reasons for the negative attitude of Bismarck in the mid 70's. XIX century for immediate German colonial expansion overseas. Russian historian V. Chubynsky in connection with the position of chancellor wrote: "Colonies interested him only to the extent that helped solve European problems: England push for expansion in Egypt to embroil her with France to support France in its claim to Tunisia to distract her thoughts and strength of the idea of revenge, etc. ". It should be noted that this policy has brought Germany a success, and at the time of its accession to the path of colonial conquest in 1884 the UK was bound hand serious conflict with France in Egypt and the Middle East, Russia, and France decide their own colonial business in North and West Africa and Indochina and it was not until the German colonial annexations.
Bismarck firmly rejected the various colonial projects concerning Cameroon, Zanzibar, Transvaal, North Borneo and New Guinea. He even suggested that every German soldier sent in Transvaal, deserved to at least 10 thousand thalers. This hardly suggests any fundamentally negative attitude to the Chancellor of the colonies. Thus, in one of the interviews in connection with Weber traveler colonial project that took place in 1876, he said that "as big as the German nation cannot long exist without colonies. But the conditions for the beginning of colonial expansion has not yet formed. After 8-9 years, the issue could be considered ripe ". Indeed, Bismarck was prudent politician. Through this period, the German Empire officially embarked on colonial expansion and won its first colonies in the South West and East Africa and in the Pacific Islands region.
Defining favorable for the beginning of the German colonial annexations time that you fell about mid 80's. XIX century Bismarck probably followed the view that the Kaiser's Germany must first internally stronger, and then proceed with the colonial policy plans. Consequently, his negative attitude to the colonial conquest in the 70s explained primarily by considerations of the undesirability while, and weak organization of supporters of colonial expansion. Moreover, Bismarck feared that the active involvement of Germany in the struggle for colonies lead to an alliance of colonial powers against her. Therefore, he tried pre-selecting suitable balance of political forces in the international arena, sharpen colonial conflicts between Britain and France, and enlist the support of one of them and thus avoid possible political isolation when entering the path of colonial conquest.
Changing views on colonial policy of Bismarck, which took place in the late 70-80s. XIX century also associated with a significant strengthening of the position of big business in Germany, a change in the alignment of political forces in the domestic arena and that is very important in the Reichstag. Most places it took the Conservatives, the National Liberals, Progressives and members of "Center". Turn Bismarck and government offices to promote active colonial policy in the early 80s was directly related to the fact that they were in parliament original political cartel, who played the role of an influential force in matters of economic, social and foreign life and this purpose did the appropriate pressure on the German government.
As a result, in 1879 in Germany there was "black and blue block" conservatives, free of conservatives, liberals and national "Catholics" who pushed the bourgeois liberals secondary position and permanently removed the hands of state power. It is this political alliance demanded the government an active overseas colonial policy, which led to increased traffic in favor of colonial conquest. No wonder in 1879 became the starting point in a sharp rise of colonial propaganda in Germany and the final penetration of ideological colonialism in mass consciousness. At the turn of 70-80-ies. XIX century there was also a turn in the views of Bismarck and the German government on colonial issues in their relation to the necessity and possibility of the entry of Germany into the path of open colonial digestible.
Especially notable was in the process close to the government's social and political circles. According to M. Bush, Bismarck later wrote: "I fundamentally - a man not colonial; I had serious doubts because of colonial policies, and only the pressure of public opinion, most of the pressure has forced me to capitulate and surrender. I was against the establishment of colonies and only obeyed most of my compatriots, the majority in the Reichstag ". Link Bismarck public opinion and the Reichstag were exaggerated though (this is pointed out, for example, the failure of Samoan bill in 1880), but were under a serious reason. Thus, the debate in the Reichstag around the same Samoan bill showed the presence of a significant number of supporters there overseas colonial policy. Another mouthpiece of "public opinion" were colonial organization or a company close to them. Members of these groups were representatives of financial and industrial circles, Junkers, scientific intelligentsia. Representatives of these groups was that public opinion, which relied Reich Chancellor Bismarck.
In these circumstances, evidence of the growth of colonial claims of German ruling circles was positive response to the message of Bismarck's Prussian national economic council, which proposed to capture German colonies and annual allocation from the state budget of 10 million imperial. Marks the needs of colonial expansion. National Authority liberal newspaper "Kelnishe Zeitung" in September 1882 wrote "the colonial issue is extremely great attention. He indicated the importance of the programs of political parties and the press. Significantly increased the amount of literature devoted to this issue, and the idea of obtaining colonies need hardly opponents ". Speaking in the Reichstag June 4, 1881, Bismarck said: "When we decide, following the example of other states to proceed with the territorial conquests, we can only provide for the possibility of more strong support for our trade to our interest in it prevented foreign vigorous annexation policy" . In fact, while the formula colonial policy of Bismarck was to the famous slogan - "Trade raises flags."
Bismarck and the German government also strongly supported by practical steps merchant capital in order to capture colonies. First, we should consider the persistent efforts L. Bleyhredera and A. Hanzemana with respect to the implementation of their plans Oceania. After the failure of the bill they Samoan informed about its plans to further, Bismarck waged a constant conversation with him on this issue. Reich Chancellor, who had dared to vigorous government support these projects, yet positively reacted to their implementation. Hodefrua Company was transformed into a German trade and plantation company that bought and expanded twice in the bank laid Barminha plantations. Hanzeman 9 September appealed to Bismarck with the memorandum, which pointed to the great potential Oceania region regarding "colonial products production, trade and navigation." The banker suggested "conquest of some territory in the area suitable to the help of the German metropolis diligence supply most of its needs in colonial products and also participate with their products in world trade." After two months in the second letter Hanzeman already talked specifically about the conquest of New Guinea and adjacent islands, and the opening of state subsidized shipping.
The response was a letter Hanzemanu Acting Foreign Minister Shtiuma and twice repeated in 1881 in letters to the Reichstag Bismarck proposal for the introduction of government-subsidized steamship lines the Pacific Ocean. At the same time, intensified punitive activities of German ships in the Pacific associated with the implementation plans and Bleyhredera Hanzemana. This expedition, whose task was to be the capture of New Guinea and other Pacific islands, bankers were prepared long ago. But it was realized with Bismarck plans subsidies for steamship lines in the Pacific already in 1884-1885, respectively.
Bismarck also supports Bremen merchant A. Luderitz, which in 1882 decided to establish a colony in South West Africa in the Bay of Angra Pekena not yet occupied by any European country. To avoid the danger of the UK, which owned the Cape Colony, Luderitz November 16, 1882 sent to the Ministry of Foreign Affairs statement that requested the support of the German Empire he planned to create a colony. Luderitz was invited to Berlin for private talks. They held on 12 January 1883, the German merchant and laid out in more detail its plans. Perhaps even then it was clear that Luderitz did not need the land for the settlement of German colonists from the middle class - he hoped to find in South West Africa rich deposits of minerals, especially diamonds, gold, silver. Luderitz wrote: "I would be happy if the whole earth (district was about Angra Pekeny) consisted of deposits of ore and ore mining due to turned into a giant hole." However Luderitz, as he considered German economist G. Yakel meant no development of copper ore "Even then, because of the proximity of the Transvaal were dreaming about Angra Pekenu as a country of gold and diamonds. The only way to be understood costly expedition of Luderitz. What they are looking for are not rich deposits of copper, seen from the then low price of copper and the fact that previous attempts of this kind, even in the best of times, were unsuccessful because of high transport costs in the country ".
Reich Chancellor February 4, 1883 instructed the German Ambassador in London, Count Bismarck H. ask whether the British Government has no plans to extend its sovereignty or protection in the region of South-West Africa. In its reply of 23 February 1883 the British government noted that Cape Colony really has few settlements on the southwest coast of Africa, but we need the exact location of the projected settlement of German to English authorities could answer whether if needed to provide protection. So London asked for instructions that are more precise. Berlin did not yet intend to examine Angra Pekenu as a colony of the German Empire, Bismarck considered appropriate because great care regarding England. German representative in London von Plessen August 18, 1883 have been authorized to informally find out whether claims UK claims the bay of Angra Pekena and thinks her government company Luderitz. The British Foreign Office forwarded the request to the Ministry colonies and thus delayed the response.
Bismarck 12 November 1883 instructed the ambassador in London has to make a formal request, whether on the part of the UK any encroachment on the area of Angra Pekeny and if so, what are the reasons for this. The answer was received on November 21 and indicated that, although British sovereignty does not extend to Agra-Pekenu, but the British Government is of the opinion that the desire to express another state its claim to sovereignty or jurisdiction over this area would be an invasion of England legal rights.
Bismarck saw in the British note unsubstantiated claim on the possible proclamation of British rule over all so far "nezahospodarovanymy" countries. It could bury any colonial intentions of the German government. So, probably not without the impression of this English statement, Bismarck took action on occasion to Angra Pekenu under German protection. This possibility has occurred very quickly. In an effort to prevent the transition Angra Pekeny control of the Cape Colony, Chancellor of April 24, 1884 sent a telegram to the German consul in Kapshtadti, which instructed him to record that the Empire protects Luderitz and its colonial settlements.  Kaiser's Germany captured the first colony officially embarked on colonial policy.
Thus, since the late 70's. XIX century colonial movement led by the most powerful economic, political and social forces in Germany. Their growing colonial aspirations increasingly shared imperial government led by Chancellor Bismarck. Speaking at the first after the unification of the country against any overseas colonial projects, a government office at the beginning of the 80s has shown activity in a number of colonial issues. Bismarck supported the steps Hanzemana and Bleyhredera capture on New Guinea and other Pacific islands, as well as representative of the colonial enterprise Bremen merchant Luderitz capital in South-West Africa.
Contributing to the development of not only theoretical but also practical implementation colonial ideas, Bismarck and the German government also sought to save money on the receipt and management of colonies. Based on the motto "trade follows the flag" would subjugate the German Reich Chancellor impact area that are not claimed any European colonial powers. "Royal merchants," as he called this type of old-fashioned capitalists Bismarck should have received patents in the manner of the British "royal charters" self-control "their" colonies. However, some colonial dealers and trading company that received from Kaiser "Safe Conduct", tried to return as soon as possible the state granted them rights. Targeting "royal merchants" based on a misunderstanding or unwillingness to acknowledge the significant rise in the cost and complexity of colonial policy in the last quarter of XIX century. If the era of the monopoly bourgeoisie sought to manage the colonies without the aid of the state apparatus metropolis, in the new conditions, it would involve the state in economic development of the colonies; give her administrative and political functions. This colonial capital requesting access to a kind of system of "public feeding" and thus benefit from additional sources of enrichment at the expense not only of the peoples of the colonies and the mother country and the working masses. Especially sought of the German bourgeoisie, because it could get relatively poor, not able to pump the excess profits of the colony. The British, who had much more experience in colonial affairs, initially predicted that the German government will move quickly from a system of "security letters" to the military-bureaucratic methods of management of the colonies.
Bismarck counted by colonial policy to strengthen the base and further promote political and economic development of the German Empire. In addition, increased promotion and development of colonial conquest overseas expansion were to some extent help to eliminate social contradictions within Germany. In rousing, the colonial aspirations of the Kaiser's Germany joined the ruling political and financial-industrial circles and parties and the press, expressing their will.
Growing interest of Bismarck and the German government to colonial issues and action plans to support the German capital on the colonial scene showed in our view, that the ideology of German colonialism increasingly took on the character of a government public official political doctrine. At its core was supported imperial government principle on the need and feasibility of strengthening domestic and international position of the Kaiser's Germany by getting her colonial possessions. Go to overseas conquest took place in an atmosphere of colonial agitation that swept almost all the Junker-bourgeois strata and groups of German society. Despite numerous, sometimes quite sharp and intense discussions on various issues of colonial policy, all political parties, expressing the interests of ruling social forces, eventually supported by the German colonial expansion. German colonies received international recognition and there has developed a specific system of military administration. Otto von Bismarck, Chancellor extended his power over long overseas possession, but, paradoxically, is not considered a great success colonial achievements of foreign policy of the German Empire until his retirement in March 1890 gave priority to continental European politics.
1. Fitsmaurice E. The life of Granville George 1815 - 1891: In 2 Vol. - L., 1905. - Vol. 2. - P.337
2. Chubynsky-Nadezhdin V.V. Otto von Bismarck. Political Biography. - M., 1990. - S.349.
3. Herrfurt K. Fürst Bismarck und die Kolonialpolitik. - B., 1909. - S.7.
4. Busch M. Op. cit. - Bd.2. - S.157.
5. Kölnische Zeitung. - 15.09.1882.
6. Stenographische Berichte des Deutschen Reichstag. Bd.5. - 4.06.1881. - S.1048.
7. Jackel H. Die Landesgesellschaften in den deutschen Schutzgebieten. - Jena, 1909. - S.29.
8. Dokumente der deutschen Politik und Geschichte von 1848 bis zur Gegenwart. Bd.1. - B., 1951. - S.405.
Commonwealth of Portuguese Language Countries
The article deals the problems, principles, structure and activities of the Commonwealth of Portuguese languages countries. The uniqueness of the Commonwealth lies in the fact that its member states are on different continents, and it is built on a solid foundation - a common language, historical and cultural ties that objectively creates favourable conditions for its development as an independent integration association, subject of international relations.
Keywords: Commonwealth of Portuguese Language Countries, cooperation, International Institute of Portuguese Language, a former colony of Portugal, permanent member, associated observer, consultative observer.
Commonwealth of Portuguese Language Countries (IBS port. Comunidade dos Paises de Lingua Portuguesa, CPLP) - an international organization consisting of countries where Portuguese is the official state language. CPLC includes a population exceeding 230 million people, and the total area of 10,742,000 square meters km . Recall that the "Commonwealth - a form of union of sovereign states in order to achieve common goals formed from continental geography, ethno-linguistic, military, religious and others signs. Unifying feature can be economic community, the legal community, culture and others. "[2, p. 630].
The first step to the creation of the CPLC was the Summit of Heads of State and Government of the seven Portuguese-speaking countries: the Republic of Angola, the Federal Republic of Brazil, the Republic of Guinea-Bissau, Cape Verde, the Republic of Mozambique, the Republic of Portugal and the Democratic Republic of São Tomé and Príncipe in Brazil in the city. Sao Luis do Maranhao in November 1989, convened at the invitation of Brazilian President Jose Sarneya. At this meeting it was decided to establish the International Institute of the Portuguese Language (MIPM port. Instituto Internacional da Lingua Portuguesa, IILP) from headquartered in Cape Verde, designed to support the development and dissemination of the only means of communication of all Portuguese-speaking countries - Portuguese .
Even then it was announced the idea of creating a community association for Portuguese-speaking countries that have a common historical heritage, a common language and share views on ways of development of society and democracy.
According to Art. 1 of the Charter CPLC "Community of Portuguese Language Countries ... are privileged multilateral forum to promote mutual friendship, political and diplomatic consultation and cooperation between its members." It should be noted that according to Art. 6 of the Charter CPLC "any State, provided it uses Portuguese as the official language and shares the provisions of this Constitution, may become a member of the CPLC. Admission to the CPLC new state is carried out by a unanimous decision of the Conference of Heads of State and Government, and effective immediately ".
Today the CPLC consists of 9 member states since 2002 after independence, it joined the Democratic Republic of East Timor - a former colony of Portugal, and in 2014 Equatorial Guinea received the status of a member of the SEC (Portuguese in 2011 became the third official the language of the country after Spanish and French). Ekvatorialna Guinea was a Portuguese colony from XV to XVIII century and has some area where Portuguese is the basis of the Creole language.
Immediately after the creation of the CPLC became apparent need cooperation with other countries that are not part of the community. For this purpose, in 1998 the 2nd Conference of Heads of State and Government of the Portuguese-speaking countries in Praia observer status was adopted and the meeting of the Council of Ministers of the CPLC in 2005 in Luanda approved the status of observer and associated consultative observer. This move was aimed at providing luzofonnym States or regions the possibility of joining the Commonwealth based on agreements with full members of the community.
Candidates for associate observer status should show real interest in the common policy and the CPLC share its principles and objectives relating to the protection of democracy and human rights. Program candidates governments should pursue identical goals of the organization, but in particular, they may not meet the necessary conditions for the membership community. They can also become "international, universal and regional organizations, intergovernmental institutions and autonomous local governments that share fundamental principles and objectives of the CPLC." Associated observer countries "may participate without vote in the meetings of the Conference of Heads of State and Government and the Council of Ministers, with access to relevant non-confidential documents. They can do sanctioned posts. In addition, they may be invited to meetings of a technical nature."
List of associated observer opened in 2006 Mauritius. Before him, in 2008 joined Senegal. At the 10th summit of the Commonwealth of Portuguese-speaking countries, held on 23 July 2014 in the Democratic Republic of Timor-Leste (East Timor), Georgia received the status of associate member organizations. Together with its associate members of the CPLC were Turkey, Japan and Namibia. So today, in addition to nine full members of CPLC, there are 6 associated observers.
In addition, the CPLC is willing to consider an application for membership in the Organization as an associate observer of the world:
- Andorra (more than 15% of the population consists of immigrants from Portugal);
- Morocco (some were once colonized by Portugal);
- Philippines (historical ties established by Ferdinand Magellan expedition);
- Venezuela (many immigrants from Portugal and proximity to Brazil);
- Indonesia (Portugal conducted an active colonialist policy in this region the Dutch hegemony);
- Swaziland (shares a border with Mozambique and Economic Cooperation);
- Australia (Portuguese navigators discovered, has a large diaspora of Portuguese, Brazilians and tymortsiv);
- Luxembourg (census 2001 58,657 citizens were of Portuguese origin 11.7% of total population);
- Peru (comfortable establishing cooperation with African countries, historical relations with Brazil and Portugal);
- India (there are several former Portuguese colonies Goa, Daman and Diu, yet with Portuguese-speaking minorities);
- Macau (Chinese territory which was previously under Portuguese administration and has a small minority of Portuguese population);
- Malacca (Portuguese colony for more than a century, a small portion of the population is served by Portuguese (Creole) language);
- Galicia (cultural and linguistic ties with Portugal);
- Romania and Ukraine (a large number of migrants);
- Croatia, Czech Republic, Taiwan (expression of interest from these countries).
The category consultative observer include "civil society organizations interested in achieving the goals CPLC, including through participation in initiatives related to specific actions within the organization. Category "consultative observer" will allow institutions have the right to attend meetings of a technical nature, access to the decisions taken by the Conference of Heads of State and Government and the Council of Ministers ".
Today the Commonwealth of Portuguese Language Countries supports more than 400 such organizations. These include Portuguese-speaking countries of the Commission, Galician Academy of Portuguese, International Institute of Macau Luso-American Development Foundation, Portugal-Africa Foundation, Industrial Confederation of Portuguese-speaking Commonwealth countries, etc. .
According to the CPLC Statute governing bodies are: the Conference of Heads of State and Government, Council of Ministers, Permanent Consultative Committee, Executive Secretariat, Parliamentary Assembly, meeting coordinators cooperation and ministerial meetings.
The Conference of Heads of State and Government is composed of Heads of State and/or Government of all Member States, is the supreme authority of the CPLC. It is empowered to define and implement a common policy and strategy CPLC; use legal instruments for the implementation of the Charter, but with the right to delegate these powers to the Council of Ministers; to establish institutions necessary for the proper functioning of IBS. The conference usually meets in regular session every two years, and extraordinarily - for two-thirds of the members. The decisions of Conference adopted by consensus and are binding for all member states.
The Council of Ministers consists of the Foreign Ministers of the Member States. It has the authority to: coordinate the CPLC; oversee the operation and development of the CPLC; CPLC approve the budget; make recommendations to the Conference of Heads of State and Government on general policy issues, as well as operation and effective and harmonious development of IBS. The Council of Ministers is accountable to the Conference of Heads of State and Government, which it must make its report. Decision of the Council of Ministers are taken by consensus.
Standing Advisory Committee (SAC) shall consist of one representative of each participating country IBS. It monitors the performance of the Executive Secretariat of the decisions and recommendations of other IBS. SAC also controls the actions of the International Institute of Portuguese Language, ensuring their consistency with the general policy direction of IBS. Pac usually meets once a month and turn as needed. PKK activities coordinated by the representative of the country presiding over the Council of Ministers. Decision of the Standing Advisory Committee adopted by consensus.
Executive Secretariat is the main executive body of IBS. It is authorized to: carry out the decisions of the Conference of Heads of State and Government of the Council of Ministers and the Standing Advisory Committee; plan and implement programs to provide the; organize and participate in various meetings of the CPLC; control the decisions of ministerial meetings and other initiatives within the CPLC. Executive Secretariat headed by an Executive Secretary, who is a representative of one of the members of the CPLC. It is elected for two years. Change of candidates for the position carried alphabetically according to the list of members of the Commonwealth.
The Parliament Assembly is the body CPLC, consisting of representatives of all Commonwealth parliaments are based on results of elections to the parliaments of their countries. The Assembly has the following powers: to consider all issues related to the purposes of the Charter of IBS and its activities, the activities of its bodies and institutions; express their opinion on the guidelines, general policy and strategy of the SEC; meet to analyze and discuss their activities and programs with the Prime Minister, the Executive Secretary and the Executive Director of the International Institute of the Portuguese language, as well as with officials responsible for other equivalent institutions that may be created within the Organization.
In the Council Meeting at the level of ministers participating ministers and secretaries of state from different government sectors in all Member States. It is going for coordination and cooperation among relevant government sectors. Meeting coordinator collaboration brings together institutions of the Member States responsible for coordinating cooperation within the CPLC. Powers of the Meeting of help to other bodies belonging to the CPLC about development cooperation within the Community as well as on those that it provides a representative to the Standing Advisory Committee to implement the programs presented at the beginning of each semester. Usually both meetings are held twice a year and turn - for two-thirds of the Member States .
It should be noted that during the nearly 20-year existence of the organization aggressively taking steps to address the above-mentioned three main tasks. For example, in the field of international politics at the time Commonwealth contributed independence of East Timor, settlement of armed conflicts in the territories of Angola and Mozambique, the normalization of the situation in Sao Tome and Principe; now it is involved in restoring peace and stability in Guinea-Bissau after a coup in 2012. On the last 10th Conference of Heads of State and Government of the SEC, which took place July 23, 2014 in Dili, East Timor, Commonwealth of nominated candidates for the leading institutions of the United Nations, its Member States: Brazil - a permanent member of the UN Security Council in context of the future of the Reformation, Angola - non-permanent member of the Security Council for the biennium 2015-2016 years, Portugal - to the Human Rights Council UN in 2015-2017 gg., Brazil - to the Economic and Social Council (ECOSOC) for the 2015-2017 biennium ., the Commission on the Status of Women (CSW) for the period from 2016 to 2020, to the Human Rights Council for 2017-2019 years. .
CPLC Member States cooperate in a wide range of different spheres of human activity. Among these activities we can mention, for example, the adoption in 2011 of the Strategy of food safety and food CPLC (ESAN-CPLP) with the creation of the Executing Council on these issues; CPLC signature in 2010 cooperation agreement to fight AIDS of the Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS, reinforcing cooperation with this Organization; in 2013 in Lisbon on the 13th Conference of Ministers of Justice of Portuguese-speaking countries was accepted "Lisbon Declaration of general measures to prevent and combat trafficking in persons" and "Lisbon Declaration of general measures to prevent and combat the bribery of foreign public officials in international business operations "and others.
In 2005 the member countries of the Commonwealth meeting in Luanda decided to establish May 5th Day of the Portuguese language and culture in the world. In the context of the promotion and development of the Portuguese language and culture in 2014 MIPM decided to prepare and publish general spelling dictionary of the Portuguese language, which absorbed to national dictionaries of each Member State the CPLC under the new spelling agreement of the Portuguese language, which should take effect in 2016.
In 2010 and 2013, the CPLC held a series of international conferences on the future of the Portuguese language. As a result, in 2014 the member states signed two strategic plans for sectoral cooperation: Strategic plan multilateral cultural cooperation and Strategic plan multilateral cooperation in science, technology and higher education, which promote and encourage the study of Portuguese language and its application in international organizations Internet and research activities; spread the Portuguese language in the work.
Of course, to attract into the ranks of its allies among the world's countries and Ukraine may have the ability to join the organization as an associate observer status. In our view, the process of Ukraine's accession to the Commonwealth of Portuguese-speaking countries, members and observers, which spread almost all over the world, contribute to some factors.
The uniqueness of the Commonwealth of Portuguese-language countries is that member states are on different continents. IBS built on a solid foundation - a common language, historical and cultural ties that objectively creates favorable conditions for its development as independent integration associations, international relations. The range of interests and common values of the member beyond geographical distances.
Activities CPLC promotes international development and dissemination of the Portuguese language; political and institutional strengthening of its members in crisis and unstable situations; joint advocacy of member countries in the international arena; development cooperation programs in various fields. In our opinion, given the significant Ukrainian diaspora in Portugal and Brazil, a large representation of the worldwide CPLC and commitment to such a step, Ukraine should join the Commonwealth to further strengthen its position in the international arena.
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