Головні статті

№11 / 2015
14.03.2016, 13:11

Collective security in the global and regional dimensions

Alyona Godlyuk


The main approaches of security perception in a modern world were critically deliberated. Urgent global challenges have been exploring. It was underline on an necessity of further analysis of the main actors activity in the system of international relations. The overlook of globalization impact on security dimension has been realized. Main stressed on a following collective security research in a context of political interests of Ukraine.

Keywords: globalization, terrorism, safety, international relations, Ukraine.

In terms of continuing globalization of the world, the question arises conflict resolution in international relations. Collective security plays a key role in preventing and overcoming conflicts. The problem of the perception of conflict and the knowledge of this phenomenon is quite complicated, because the perception of conflict seems difficult not only in political science. Describing the various types and forms of conflict, can guide the eye to the origins of this phenomenon in psychology and sociology. Accordingly, in the system of international relations collective security is the main instrument of conflict resolution, as able to direct power to solve complex crisis contradictions.

Security system in all its modern manifestations on the world stage architecture building reaches the end of World War II. Aggravation of destructive processes in international relations was marked by the emergence of "cold war". The last, according to O.Sich and A.Minaev, was in the confrontation in international politics, ideology, economics, intelligence, military, etc. [1]. The division of the world into two politically, economically and ideologically opposing camps marked new challenges not only to globalization but also to world peace. The question of preserving the principles of sustainable development and further globalization and prevent full-scale conflicts that could escalate into open military clashes involving weapons of mass destruction are a priority worldwide.

Establishing and implementing collective security at the global and regional levels should be considered separately. It should be noted that there were still topical issue of security dimension of development at the global level, which gained importance during the "Cold War" and contradictions between the two blocks (capitalist - socialist). Issues of regional security in the world today are important and require further detailed analysis. Present gives new challenges to establish sustainable process of human development, namely the dynamic development of the world in the era of total globalization depends on the implementation of the regional security through collective response to threats. Under the challenges of regional and global security should be regarded as the spread of international terrorism, proliferation of weapons of mass destruction (nuclear, biological and chemical weapons) and environmental threats to the world.

The main objective of the analysis of collective security at the global and regional levels is a detection issue affecting the transformation in international relations. Thus, the purpose of this scientific exploration appears the problem of identification of threats to global and regional levels. Understanding the mechanism of occurrence and identify threat to modern societies and leaders of major powers in the international arena we can try to prevent the destructive processes of global and regional levels.

Researching the role of collective security in the prevention and de-escalation of conflicts, pay attention to the fact that the architecture of development and course has undergone significant changes. Changes that require detailed analysis in international relations can be divided into global and regional. Note that the current study were security globally in a day "cold war". After a confrontation in the international arena between the US and USSR ability to analyze global threats was quite simplified it because of the existence of two motion vectors in international relations.

In the period of the bipolar world, it was the problem of the emergence of actual full-scale nuclear confrontation between Moscow and Washington. Evidence of this, for example, can be considered "Caribbean crisis" in Cuba as a response to American systems in Turkey. The crisis that the average of the individual characteristics of the leaders of the two superpowers - M.Khrushchev and John F. Kennedy - could lead to tragic consequences across the whole of humanity [2, p. 327]. It should be noted that biheviorystskyy approach in analyzing global processes played a leading role, along with finding a balance day the bipolar world.

We should also mention other conflicts involving the two superpowers, including the Vietnam War between ideologically colored communist North Vietnam, the Soviet Union supported against South Vietnam, supported the US [3]. Overall military operation in Vietnam, having negative regional dimensions, has led to significant losses just from Washington, which was the catalyst for minor destructive processes within American society.

It should pay attention to the full-scale conflict in Afghanistan, which was attended by the US and the USSR. It was after his aggravation Washington stepped up financial support for Mujahideen, which led to increased confrontation between the insurgents and Afghan troops of the Soviet Union, which ultimately failed to stabilize the situation in the region. Robert Gates said that the CIA actively forged cooperation with the Mujahideen [4]. Protracted military campaign in Afghanistan also led to destructive transformations within the USSR itself.

We see that in the period of the bipolar world confrontation was quite predictable because of the conflict between the two superpowers. Of course, forecasting in international relations is quite comfortable to spend analyzing the two superpowers and their satellite countries. However, this division went to the past after the Soviet collapse. Transformation in international relations led to the emergence of new threats in globalization.

In the early 2000s a new threat of world level appeared in the international arena - international terrorism and the events of 11 September 2001. According to Brian Jenkin, international terrorism remains a major threat to the modern world and the newest type of conflict [5]. In the age of post-bipolar world the threat of regional destabilization can provoke destabilization and globally. Interesting is not only the distribution mechanism threats to global security, but also the formation of a collective mechanism for countering global threats, which unfortunately is not fully formed.

Main threats to global security should be given the most attention, because international terrorism is able to use weapons of mass destruction. Fighting the spread of international terrorism has failed because of the natural process of globalization of society, which not only prevents but also stimulates its development. The interconnectedness of globalization and the spread of international terrorism can be traced through:

- The need for open borders, which stimulates uncontrolled migration;

- The clash of different ethnic groups and ethnic groups, conflicts among which cause open conflict at the regional level that generally affects the process of globalization;

- An imbalance in the economic development of different regions undergoing transformational changes towards globalization;

- Religious differences and cultural differences and inability to adapt to the challenges of the global environment.

We see that the inability to overcome the major challenges of globalization leads to the spread of international terrorism, which acts as a catalyst and the cause of conflict in the transformation of societies. The main mechanism of prevention of global threats, international terrorism, and the threat of military conflict on the regional level is necessary to consider the formation of collective security and to develop mechanisms to counteract the newest types of terrorism. However, collective security should form the subject of globalization. The main purpose of the introduction and application of collective security must be effective regulation of regional processes affecting the transformation of transitional societies, particularly in the development of Ukraine.

Our country in the modern era also faced threats to national security and in recent years in a state of "hybrid warfare" [6]. In these circumstances, it is establishing a collective security with NATO and regional security implementation would prevent further escalation of the conflict and stabilize the situation. This will be achieved by applying:

- Tight control over the state border and migration;

- Localization and de-escalation of conflicts based on ethnic and cultural characteristics of the population of Ukraine;

- Measures to stabilize the economic, political and social components of regions;

- Promoting tolerance towards cultural and religious backgrounds of different populations.

Ukraine remains a member of several international organizations, including the main ones being the UN, EU, NATO, UNESCO, WTO, Council of Europe, OSCE etc. In this context, it is worth mentioning many Ukrainian politicians and public figures who after the events in Georgia in 2008 emphasized the inadmissibility of military conflict between Ukraine and Russia. [7] However, this does not guarantee peace. An intensification of the formation and aggravation of military confrontation in eastern Ukraine, the annexation of the Crimea, which was accompanied by the growth of conflicts in the Black Sea.

According remain unresolved question of regional security space, which can include: crisis management public authorities, combined with systemic corruption; economic instability associated with pervasive poverty reduction and social life; growing dependence on energy; increasing the level of risk associated with environmental and man-made threats; a complicated demographic situation.

We see that the further exacerbation or de-escalation of the conflict in Ukraine will depend on changes in the entire system of international relations, the issue of reformatting all security institutions.

We should also mention the conflict associated with the Transnistrian Moldavian Republic, despite the lack of international recognition is trying to prove himself in the international relations. [8] Although the activities of the TMR poorly reflected even at the regional level, it can also affect the regional processes in Ukraine.

So, Ukraine in today's world the process of transformations related to reformat approaches to the implementation of the system of internal and external security. Making a bold assumption that our country will play a leading role in the international security of the modern world, if overcome threats and challenges "hybrid war".

In general, a collective form of security with modern countermeasures spread of international terrorism and effectively combat the economic, environmental and technological challenges able to overcome the current threat. The dynamic development of humanity, mass migration will form new challenges.

Note that the concept of sustainable development proposed by Ukrainian scientist V. Vernadsky, combined with the creation of a collective security system able to stimulate and return to constructive globalization. Concept of sustainable development can be seen though in the context of collective security, but it requires a separate study.

Despite considerable difficulty and dilemma in determining regional and global security, is to emphasize the importance of the formation of the basic principles of implementation of safety at regional, interregional, international levels. In light of recent events it is necessary to stress the importance of this study.

Special attention should be paid to the analysis and research of the formation of collective security in Ukraine. Indeed, despite the considerable harassment in international relations Kyiv for over twenty years maintained a military neutrality. However, until recently there was an attempt to create its own national security concept and implement it.

Thus, collective security is an integral part of the system of modern states. Challenges and threats in international relations is part of the development and transformation of societies and the effectiveness of resolving threats and counter states correlated with the formation principles of collective security.

However, it would be interesting to explore the relationship of globalization and the formation of the causes of conflicts as major factors in the development of societies. It should be stressed that the conflicts in international relations catalyze rapid change. They lead to synergistic changes in the structure of international relations. Therefore, changes in regional and global levels caused not only by natural challenges of globalization, but also conflicts that are an integral part of the process of evolution in international relations.


1. Sich O.I, Minaev A.V. Period of "cold war": the basic trend of world development: Textbook. - Chernivtsi: Ruta, 2008. - 72 p.

2. Dyurozel J.B. History of diplomacy from 1919 to this day / transl. from france Marichev E., L. Pogorelova, V. Tchaikovsky. - K.: Izd. S.Pavlichko "Fundamentals", 2005. - 903 p.

3. Mineev A. Ours on the Vietnam War // Echo of the Planet. - 1991.- № 35. - S. 29.

4. ​ Gates, Robert. From the Shadows: The Ultimate Insider's Story of Five Presidents and How They Won the Cold War. − Simon & Schuster, 2007. − P. 146. − 604 p. − ISBN 9781416543367.

5.​ Jenkins, Brian M. International Terrorism: A new kind of warfare'. 1974. p. 4. - Режим доступу : www.rand.org/content/<wbr>dam/rand/pubs/pa​pers/2008/<wbr>P5261.pdf

6. Eugene Magda. Hybrid War: survive and win. - Kharkiv, Viva. 2015. - 304 p.

7. A. Gritsenko Greater threat than we do, for Ukraine does not exist // Zerkalo Nedeli. - № 30 (709) 16-22 August 2008. - http: // www.dt.ua/1000/1550/63775/

8. ​ Ostapyak V.I. The determining role of the security dimensions of NATO (using the example of the Ukraine) / V.I. Ostapyak // Gilea Historical Science. Philosophy. Political science. Coll-to science. works. - K: VIR UAS - 2014 - Vol. 84 (№5). - S.495-498.

Cuba to new institutional challenges

Vitalii Kosmyna


The article analyzes the problem of striking institutional change in Cuba in the twentieth century. The author come to the conclusion, that the regime of Fidel Castro had a populist nature. Formal institutions of communist (soviet) origin only partially supplemented it.

Key words: Cuba, USSR, USA, institute, F.Castro's regime, populism, totalitarianism.

Forced partial return to the management model 60's, when chief "manually", not too relying on party-state bureaucracy led policy, was also the key to saving mode. Indeed, in the second half of 1980 not only rapidly rolled down the country's economic indicators, in particular, because of the deteriorating situation in world prices for sugar and other commodities, but also began to emerge prospect of losing huge sponsorship from the USSR. The economic crisis has deepened in the last, and the Soviet leadership was not to get rid of this financial ballast and M. Gorbachev hinted this during his visit to Cuba in April 1989. In the autumn of that year began to fall one after the other communist regimes in Eastern Europe.

Quite deliberately Castro criticized the "building capitalism" by Kremlin, predicting the collapse of the USSR, and promoted the idea of ​​a "moral economy", voluntary work, modesty in consumption and so on. He thus in a sense psychologically prepared Cuban society to the test soon faced him.

Already in 1990 help for Cuba began to decline. Give it to unfavorable conditions released new governments in Eastern Europe. Limited her and the USSR, the economic situation is rapidly deteriorating. Meanwhile, these countries (mainly the Soviet Union) accounted for 85% of trade Cuba, including critical oil supplies, food, machinery and spare parts (according to some estimates, yearly aid Cuba for the USSR was 5.6 billion. Dollars and GDP reached 01.03 Cuba). In August 1990 Castro announced the onset of "special period in peacetime", when the terms of the survival of the country were saving energy and raw materials, increasing food production, the search for new markets, attract foreign investment.

From 1989 to 1992, GDP fell by a third, export - by 60%, imports - by 70%, the majority of industrial enterprises stopped. Daily norm of bread by cards, introduced in 1962, was reduced to 80 g (!) per person.

The country also left without any military support. Back in February 1980 the Kremlin, which started the war in Afghanistan, privately reported Havana no longer able to defend it in case of US attack, although it will continue to provide the necessary military and technical assistance. Then Cuba launched a massive military training people for several years and created territorial militia troops, which amounted to 2.5 million. Reserve (this is in addition to the 300,000th regular army). Now these military needs and costs were kept, and relevant external assistance has been deprived of Havana.

Thus, the formal political and economic institutions created as leaders of Soviet influence in Cuba, have lost their effectiveness. It was an institutional shake-up, the strength of not less than 1960.

There is a question: how Castro regime can be so long, when Washington wanted to eliminate it (described numerous attempts of physical destruction policy), and Moscow too? Especially given the fact that Cuba is now generally could not count on any trade preferences that once had or the US (until 1960) or USSR (1960). It is clear was given felt very nature of the regime that ruled for over 30 years in Cuba.

It is necessary to highlight some nuances of its theoretical understanding because analysts often refer Cuban and Soviet regimes to one type, treating it as a totalitarian, communist (communist party), egalitarian-authoritarian and more. Such regimes are usually attributed to the full nationalization of society, the monopoly on power of a single party joined in the party and state apparatus. However, it was only one time in the USSR rigidly centralized Bolshevik Party organization actually absorbed state organization and created anew the entire state apparatus around its own hierarchical structures. Then there was a direct fusion of party and state, or rather, the party structure came into elements of state with all the attributes of the latter, including heavy-duty repressive apparatus, and the government has become a thoroughly ideological and party organization. The concentration in the hands of the party-state ownership of all power generated and the notorious state (party-state) absolutism. Defamation and decay parties inevitably led to the disintegration of the regime. The same fate befell the regimes planted in Eastern Europe.

In Cuba, there was a different process. The centralized ruling system was created by the populist scheme "leader - executive staff - organized mass" after the victory of the revolution in 1959, and the party (Communist Party of Cuba) was subsequently created artificially, in favor of the Soviet leadership that promised a new Cuban ally generous help. The party did not systematizing Heap institutional regime and remained one of the auxiliary organizational levers in the hands of a leader who usually did in its sole discretion, not in consultation with the party and acting to bypass it. The populist regime in Cuba is not transformed into a totalitarian and this gave him the opportunity to be flexible, to maneuver, to adapt to new prevailing circumstances and, ultimately, to survive.

Some role-played rhetorical shifting the responsibility for any difficulties to "US imperialism" because the so-called evidence of US pressure on the regime of Fidel Castro did not lack: what was worth the economic blockade of the island, launched in 1960 in response to the Castro government expropriation property of American citizens and corporations. Since trade and economic embargo supplemented by new sanctions, especially after the recognition of Cuba country sponsor of terrorism (1982). In 1992 and 1996 the United States was introduced sanctions against subsidiaries of US companies in third countries and foreign companies trading with Cuba.

Anti-imperialism/anti-<wbr>Americanism formed the general background for various ideological twists regime. First, it was the idea of ​​the heritage of national hero fighting for the independence era poet Jose Marti, from the mid-1960s - mostly "ideas of Marxism-Leninism," and in the 1990s to the fore, again the idea came H. Marty. Indicative is change the wording of Art. 5 of the Constitution of the Republic of Cuba (analogue odious Art. 6 of the Constitution of the USSR). As amended in 1976, it said "Communist Party of Cuba, organized Marxist-Leninist vanguard of the working class (our italics - V.K.), is the leading force of society and the State, which organizes and guides the common effort to achieve the high goals of building socialism and to promote a communist society." In 1992 the wording was officially replaced by another: "The Communist Party of Cuba, the follower of the ideas of Martí and Marxist-Leninist, organized vanguard of the Cuban nation (our italics - V.K.), is the leading force of society and state <...>".

We can see that the term "vanguard of the Cuban nation" and "the ideas of Martí followers" have little in common with the "Marxism-Leninism" and with communist realities. The main idea of ​​H. Marti - Cuba's freedom and independence, justice, patriotism, humanism, the right of nation, the Republican motto "With all and for the good of all!" - Is primarily ethical and humanistic ideas, not the class. However, the ideologists of the regime and talked about communist "principles." However, in the 1990s if they had sense to appeal, is it in the context of the survival of the parameters of "self-restraint in equality" (a sort of "war communism").

Ideological "communism" for Cuba this is not inspiring idea, but rather a ritual entourage to describe the uniqueness of the country, its special status in Latin America, after all, self-defense (the US). This kind of screen to save par, familiar to millions of Cubans, many of whom knew the other. There has also created ideological machine reasonable fear of the powerful neighboring state, capitalism, the usual loss of state support for many populations relatively successful fields of education and medicine. Furthermore, entire social strata (party and state bureaucracy, military, intelligence services representatives, activists, etc.) finally would lose certain privileges.

In the frames of new policy, regime implemented quickly forced low institutional easing in the economy. Already in 1992 the constitution was amended legalized the right to private and mixed ownership, although the basic industries were to remain with the state. It was soon allowed the free use of foreign exchange and money transfers to their homeland by Cuban immigrants. Created thousands of private companies having hundreds of joint ventures with foreign capital, to 2000 received 5 billion. Dollars. foreign investment. Particular emphasis was placed on the development of tourism. The main economic partners of Cuba became EU countries (especially Spain), Canada, China, Latin America. Recover lost after the collapse of the Soviet Union failed, but the decline stopped disastrous economic situation partially stabilized. The total control over economic processes regime maintained and democratic political concessions are not allowed. As before, the opposition political activity is not permitted, dissidents and opponents in the leadership of the country persecuted.

At the turn of the century was not clear how long the regime can survive without external support. However, fate was favorable to him in Latin America in Castro appeared devoted follower - populist Venezuelan leader Hugo Chavez that 1998 has frequently been the president. He dreamed of "socialism of the XXI century" and Castro regime considered a role model. It was at this time began to rapidly increase world prices for oil deposits in Venezuela, which are among the largest in the world. In 2000 the two countries signed a number of agreements and Cuba at low prices (40% international) went Venezuelan oil at levels 50 first, and then - 100 thousand. Barrels per day. It was more than 5 mln. tons per year, while the USSR in the late 1980s, supplied 14 million tons annually. In both cases, much of the oil was export, giving Cuba the additional income. Cuba and Venezuela was of direct financial support. In the 2000s annual aid Cuba was an estimated 5 to 10 billion dollars. In turn, Venezuela worked tens of thousands of Cuban professionals - doctors, teachers, employees of power structures and so on.

Having a new "sponsor", Castro stopped further economic liberalization. Dissidents continued to arrest and/or evicted from the country in 2003 wife and mother of political prisoners formed a protest movement "Ladies in White", but the mass political opposition was not appeared.

In 2006 the health of 80-year-old Castro has deteriorated significantly and he gave the state and party power to his brother Raul. The essence of the regime has not changed, and F. Castro continued to affect the decision-making process. The economic crisis of 2008-2009., Accompanied by falling oil prices, clearly reminded of the vulnerability of the extremely inefficient economy of Cuba. Low salaries (1/4 of 1989) and pay equalization deprived of motivation in productive work, and Cubans card system providing basic food products (70% of them imported) for ridiculous prices became excessive burden for the state economy.

So R.Castro started a new round of economic reforms. Hundreds of thousands of Cubans were licensed to engage in business, farming encouraged. Reduce the number of employees in the public sector. Attempts were made to overcome the leveling of pay. It was possible to buy Electro household goods, electronics and more. Promoting the development of additional private sector in the economy mode was essentially new institutional guideline.

However, there have been significant changes in its international position. Cuba actually lost a source of generous foreign aid as Venezuela began to deteriorate political and socio-economic situation after the death of Chavez in 2013, and most of all - because of the sharp drop in world oil prices in 2014. Not too improved state of its economy and announced in the summer of 2014 "cancellation" of the Soviet-era debt of 32 bln. Dollars.

The most far-reaching change in Cuba is able to cause institutional breakdown, occurred in relations with the US: December 17, 2014 President Barack Obama and Raul Castro Cuban helmsman after a 45-minute telephone conversation simultaneously reported the restoration of diplomatic relations between the two countries. Reached agreement included the opening of embassies, the question of withdrawal from Cuba accused of supporting terrorism, a significant liberalization of conditions of visiting US citizens, including Cuban, promoting trade exchanges at the level of individuals and companies authorized to remittances from the United States to up to $ 2 thousand dollars. Cuba opening branches of US banks. Havana pledged to release from prison 53's dissidents, allowing them to stay on the island and even participate in peaceful political activity. Thus, the United States essentially recognized the fallacy of long policy of confrontation with Cuba and confirmed the legitimacy of the government.

Negotiations on rapprochement began in the summer of 2013 with the mediation of Pope Francis I and held informally in Canada a half years. The interest in their success was mutual and eventually only grew. For Cuba rapprochement with the United States promised modernization involving American economic, technological and financial capacity. For the United States normalization of relations with Cuba led to the weakening of anti-American criticism in Latin America and simultaneously create barriers restoration in Cuba's military and economic presence and enhance the economic impact of it in China. Finally, in the summer of 2015 opened embassies of the two countries. The ceremonial raising of flags on them took place in Washington on July 20 and August 14 in Havana.

The completing of normalization of relations between the two countries is still far. Claims for 50 years has accumulated a lot. On the American side (from the government, US companies and Cuban exiles in the US) they include, among other things, restitution of confiscated his time property, the restoration of economic and political freedom, end to political persecution and compensation for victims of repression, rejection of any support certain rebel ("terrorism") organizations. Cubans call first (and stressed R. Castro, speaking 28 September 2015 at the UN General Assembly) abolition of economic, trade and financial blockade it with compensation for 1960 damage (often called the figure of $ 1.1 trillion.) return Guantanamo base in Cuba territory in the east, the suspension of transfers broadcasts anti orientation.

For mutual desire to improve relations these and other problems can be resolved, such as by a kind of netting, especially in the economic sphere. Havana rebel movements active support is not provided, and in 2015 became a mediator in talks between the Government of Colombia and ultra-rebels from the Revolutionary Armed Forces of Colombia, which approached the completion of 50 years of war. You can also start and gradual process of political liberalization in Cuba. The main question: to what extent is ready to withdraw the current regime in Cuba?

It is possible that he will not give principles and agree only to cosmetic changes in domestic politics in exchange for easing the economic embargo. But then he cannot count on a quick techno-economic modernization and a noticeable increase in the standard of living of Cubans, provoking widespread discontent past, especially given the departure from power of the brothers Castro (24 February 2018), and running the risk of becoming dependent on pragmatic China and Russia.

However, the election of the course of rapprochement with the United States that can promise a breakthrough in technological, socio-economic, political, legal, cultural and educational fields will inevitably result in radical institutional changes. After all, in order to have appeared encouraging results in these areas and social changes to take dynamics, it is necessary accordance of functional systems of politics, law, economy, industry, science, art, education, health, etc. along Western lines, including the approval in each of these respective social systems of formal institutions. Some of them are in a different form in Cuba now (in education, medicine, science), and others should be created. It is important that each system has begun to function independently, reacting sensitively to changes in the world around her.

Actually, Cuba society must endure systemic transformation, which failed neither it nor other Latin American societies in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries, to become dynamic. Then outweighed the tendency to preserve a multifunctional center and periphery of the same, which manifested institutionally distributing kaudylyizmu, and in the twentieth century populism. However, it may happen that the Cuban society will not survive the new institutional shake even initiated new steering system far-reaching changes will be diluted and assimilated by the usual populist regime. In any case, public attention around the world (including Ukraine) facing the necessity of changes in the coming years will be focused on the processes in Cuba.


1. Dabaghyan E.S. The specifics of the Cuban-Venezuelan alliance // World Economy and International Relations. - 2013. - № 5. - S. 81-90.

2. N. Leonov USSR refused to defend Cuba in 1980 // ruskline.ru/opp/2013/9/<wbr>23/sssr_otkazalsya_zawiwat_<wbr>kubu_ewe_v_1980_godu/

3. "Con todos y para el bien de todos". La idea de república en José Martí // www.temas.cult.cu/<wbr>debates/libro%201/UJ1-01_Idea_<wbr>de_republica_en_Marti.pdf

4. Gjelten T. Without Washington as its enemy, what will define Cuba? // https://www.washingtonpost.<wbr>com/opinions/without-america-<wbr>as-its-enemy-what-will-define-<wbr>cuba/2014/12/19/6bef88f8-86e8-<wbr>11e4-a702-fa31ff4ae98e_story.<wbr>html

5. Montaner C.A. Obama no entiende por qué Raúl le muerde la mano // www.elnuevoherald.com/<wbr>opinion-es/opin-col-blogs/<wbr>carlos-alberto-montaner/<wbr>article37377777.html [2015/10/03]

Ukrainian-Russian relations and specificity of post-Soviet integration processes

Sergiy Troyan


The author has analyzed and defined the main peculiarities of the development of Post Soviet integration processes. Attention is paid to the Russian vision of the integration and Ukraine's place in this process.

Keywords: Post Soviet space, CIS, European Asian integration, Russian, Ukraine.

The beginning of the XXI century marked by serious violations of international politics, a number of which the Russian Federation regarded as the West calls the security, economic and political nature. First, talking about NATO and EU enlargement to the East through Visegrad and Baltic states. In response, the Kremlin during 2005-2008 goes from "geopolitical pause" to "geo-economic and geo-political offensive." The August 2008 conflict in the Caucasus and "hybrid warfare" against Ukraine in 2014-2015 became milestones in the fight against Russia on post-Soviet space. This Moscow blatantly ignored the applicable rules of international law. In the case of Ukraine concerned non-compliance, including articles of the UN Charter on October 24, 1945, the provisions of the Budapest Memorandum 1994 safeguards nuclear powers - Russia, the USA, Great Britain - territorial integrity and sovereignty of Ukraine and the Treaty of Friendship, Cooperation and Partnership between Ukraine and the Russian Federation on 31 May 1997.

The purpose of Russia Federation using success in local conflicts confirm not only the opportunity to solve tactical problems, but also make original application for global leadership based on "special model" relations with the outside world. Official Moscow wants to ensure its long-term outlet through the creation of the "zone of privileged interests" along the perimeter of its borders and achieve recognition of their right to intervene in the internal affairs of sovereign states and the power of action in this area.

All the above circumstances, as well as conceptual and theoretical and applied approaches to the evolution of the Kremlin's Eurasian policy of Russia and it reflected on the specifics there and caused a number of features of integration processes in terms of geopolitical changes and large-scale transformational changes late XX - early XXI centuries. In this context, we point out the most important, in our view, characteristic of the integration component of the former Soviet Union.

First. Integration based disintegration, those centrifugal processes after the collapse of the Soviet Union. Russia's desire to play a role as integrating core and a single "center of power" in the former Soviet Union imposed its post-Soviet integration project encountered a different perception and even resistance from the NIS. This was the beginning of different vector integration orientations of the post-Soviet state actors, some of them - such as the Baltic States - were focused on European and Euro-Atlantic integration vectors, and others - including Belarus and Kazakhstan - have chosen pro Eurasian integration course. As for Ukraine, its politics a long time, "danced" between European and Eurasian integration areas. Evidence of this was the signing of Ukraine in 1994 Cooperation Agreement with the EU, and in 2003 - the CEA agreement with Russia, Belarus and Kazakhstan. Our state even tried to oppose their Russian integration projects. First of all, dealt with the created in 1992 BSEC (Black Sea Economic Cooperation - Azerbaijan, Albania, Bulgaria, Armenia, Greece, Georgia, Moldova, Russia, Romania, Serbia, Turkey, Ukraine) and in 1997 GUAM (Organization for Democracy and Economic Development - Georgia, Ukraine, Azerbaijan, Moldova), in which Ukraine was assigned the role of regional leader. However, they have failed to implement its economic and political potential and not become new successful integration associations, including the CIS.

Only in 2014 there was a final choice in favor of our country's European integration, which resulted in the signing (March 21 political and 27 June of the economic part) and ratification (September 16) of the Association Agreement between Ukraine and the EU [1]. Joint Advisory Group study German and Ukrainian Institute for Economic Research and Policy Consulting shows that a comprehensive free trade zone with the EU Ukraine will increase the welfare of the Ukrainian state by 4.3% in the medium and 11.8% in the long term. Ukraine's accession to the Customs Union will reduce the figures 0.5 and 3.7% respectively.

Fully Association Agreement will enter into force after ratification by all Parties on the first day of the second month following the date of the deposit with the General Secretariat of the Council of the European Union last instrument of ratification or last instrument of approval. In mid-June 2015, Ukraine ratified the Agreement and the European Parliament, as well as two dozen EU members.

Second. Extremely strong dependence integration projects and their implementation on Russian energy factor. This is directly related to the Russian-Ukrainian cooperation. Thus, in January - April 2014 the share of energy in the structure of total imports from Russia in Ukraine amounted to 56.8% [2]. That is of extremely great importance acquires the struggle for energy resources and, therefore, energy transport corridor, which allocated Ukraine serious bid for regional dimensions of global issues. Aspiration of is not only to supply their energy mostly to Europe and ways to control the supply (and thus profit from transit), but also to assume the role of single agent in the supply of gas and oil from the Caspian Sea and Central Asia [3]. This explains the excessive politicization of Kremlin power factor above all in relations with Kyiv, and attempts to use it as a means of pressure on the EU.

However, Russia as a "gas empire" can be pronounced because of imperial policy, carried out based on including "energy blackmail" to drive himself to a standstill. Thus, in response to the Kremlin unleashed war against Ukraine in early April 2014 US Secretary of State John Kerry said his country is ready to start gas supplies to Europe already in 2015, and President Barack Obama confirmed that the US government is ready give all necessary permits to export gas to the amount needed for daily needs Europe. However, during 2014 there was a rapid fall in oil prices on the world market - below $ 60. Bbl [4], which already has substantial losses of the budget, which is based on the respective prices of $ 100. US per barrel in 2014 and 96 dollars. US per barrel in 2015 to the Russian budget loses 80 billion. Rubles (about $ 2 billion. Dollars. US) each falling oil prices to $ 1. One can also see in the long-term negative impact on the Russian economy results "shale revolution" [5].

Third. With the establishment of the status of Russia as a superpower, an independent "center of power" is also linked to Asian integration vector (in this particular focuses N. Arbatova [6]. This means that in the context of rapprochement of Russia and China (Shanghai Cooperation Organization - SCO - 2001, the Russian-Chinese gas agreements in 2014) becomes real signs of bipolar model of East - West. In this regard, revealing was the summit Russia - EU in May 2009 in Khabarovsk. Kremlin deliberately chose the venue of the summit, signaling "European partners" that Russia is another vector of development. The beginning of the pipeline Skovorodino-Mohai, map of Russia, President Dmitry Medvedev presented European Commissioner X. Solana, and most importantly - "a real breath of China " more than obvious in Khabarovsk - that sign RF signals to guide EU leaders. [7] The signals acquired new special urgency after the annexation of the Crimea by Russia, the outbreak of war with Ukraine and the introduction of sanctions against Moscow by the EU, US, Japan, Australia, Canada and Switzerland.

Fourth. Failure CIS (like any other post-Soviet integration project) play a consolidating role in bringing the former Soviet republics.

Since the creation of the CIS, to pay attention to Ukrainian analysts, were discovered two diametrically opposed ideologies and perspectives on the meaning of that organization. For Ukraine, the CIS attitude was similar to the attitude of the organization, where she will stay only until the time of further integration of Europe. That Ukraine regards the CIS as a mechanism of "civilized divorce" of the former USSR. Russian Federation, by contrast, sees the CIS as an intermediate form of restoration of the old imperial state, but in its present form - as a sphere of dominance of his interests [8, p. 60]. This dichotomy, which is also associated with several other features of post-Soviet integration factor, the following main reasons for hidden non-viability and instability CIS:

a) unequal relations between the CIS countries and claims of a political, economic, informational and socio-cultural domination;

b) consider Moscow's attempts entire post-Soviet space as a zone of "legitimate" their vital interests;

c) incompatibility requirements of the Russian Federation on co-ordination of foreign and economic policy of the CIS countries with complete disregard for its interests and priorities of partner countries;

d) the constant attempts of the Kremlin to form within the CIS a new military-political bloc or collective security system under its auspices, which included would be much more space (including Ukrainian) than established in 1992 Tashkent Pact - Collective Security Treaty Organization with the participation of Russia, Belarus, Armenia, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan and Tajikistan;

d) strategic direction on the development of supranational bodies of the CIS under its strict control and progressive integration of the NIS into a powerful pro-Russian geopolitical power [8, p. 57-58].

Fifth. The priority, especially for Russia as a geopolitical component determining factor stimulation, acceleration and guidance in the appropriate line of integration processes of the vast former Soviet Union. This led the Kremlin's willingness to force steps to implement their geopolitical schemes and integration in the Eurasian former Soviet Union. In our opinion, about the middle of the first decade of the XXI century. Russia has completed a kind of "geopolitical pause" and proceeded to restore international super position. Evidence of this was the least speech Putin at a security conference in Munich (2007) and the pressure on NATO to prevent the adoption at the Bucharest Summit (2008) Action Plan for Ukraine and Georgia to NATO membership. During the NATO summit in Bucharest, Russian Federation essentially negated the principles of the Founding Act "Russia - NATO", signed in 1997, under which it recognized the right of any country in Europe to independently ensure its security, that join or not to join one or other defense alliances and NATO in return guaranteed that in the new members will not be placed its nuclear weapons. A striking example of the power of geopolitical activity Kremlin was August (2008) the Russian-Georgian war, occupation and annexation by Russia Crimea in March 2014, so-called hybrid war against Ukraine, which found expression in particular in full support of the military and separatist actions at eastern Ukraine.

Sixth. The presence of excessive conflict potential in the CIS in connection with the above-described hegemonic thrust of policy and corresponding integration aspirations. An important factor that led to aggressive expansionist behavior of Russia towards Georgia first, and Ukraine - historical conditionality of conflicts in the disintegration and after the collapse of empires. The process of post-imperial syndrome attempted to explain the causes of conflict after the collapse of the USSR Ukrainian political scientist V. Karasev: "Relations with Russia have shown that the latter never agree to the fact that the former Soviet Union, the former imperial space formed other states with other political models and other geopolitical orientations. Russia ... understand that the formation of new, strong, serious nations in the post-imperial space blurs it creates a new regional configuration and, most importantly, that Russia risks losing states (gray zones, buffer zones), which is always considered as safety belt "[ 9, pp. 9-10].

Predictability of conflicts in the post imperial space also emphasized political analyst Vladimir Gorbach: "When the Soviet empire departed from the former republics, she did" bookmarks "- such conflicts to geopolitical influence them to be able to keep the troops in these areas a peacekeeping force to be "hot spots" in the emerging countries, which can push, and they are so reflexively respond as necessary to the person who presses "[9, p. 31].

In our view, and we stand in solidarity with the view of Vladimir Bala [10], another event in August 2008 showed that Russia has failed to rid "complex empire." Something as we experienced when the Kremlin announced its exclusive claim to a particular impact on the country is "near abroad", which included all the former Soviet Union, including Ukraine. Not surprisingly, this "imperial complex" came to prominence in 2014 as a kind of aggressive reflection on the events in and around Ukraine - European revolution, the revolution of dignity, the collapse of the ruling pro-Moscow regime of Yanukovych, Ukraine signed an Association Agreement with the EU - that threatened Kyiv finally wrest from the influence of Moscow.

In fact these features, and we are aware of it, are not listed exhausted. It is on one side. On the other, they need to analyze objectively define "Ukrainian Prospects" in the integration component of the former Soviet Union. In terms of the historical experience of entering Ukrainian lands in the different states usually gave them a strong development momentum. So it was with Poland in the XIV - middle XVII, Russia mid XVII - early XX century. But - on the contrary - the isolation of Ukrainian segment led to a significant destabilization of the political system of the metropolis, and even before its final decline. Examples are Poland second half XVII - XVIII century and the Soviet Union 1990-1991 years. However, the characteristic of each of the integration options - Ukraine was subject to them, and the object of international relations. From the standpoint of "Ukrainian factor" in post-Soviet integration it appears extremely important feature: the Ukraine for the first time not just declared itself as a subject of international relations, but also a real player who has his own views on the post-Soviet integration considerations, and international actors, which although in the complex domestic and foreign conflicts, but still opted for the European, not pro-Russian or Eurasian integration vector.

Events in Ukraine in late 2013 - early 2014 - the course our country to sign the Association with the EU and sudden for society and partners of Ukraine rejection of it, the European revolution, the new Ukrainian Independence and Revolution Advantages that launched the mechanism of restarting power - had great importance. The prospect of a real withdrawal of our country from orbit integration has caused a strong reaction of the Kremlin complex, including in the form of actual Russian intervention and annexation of the Crimea, creating a real threat to the territorial integrity and sovereignty of Ukraine.

The aggressive policy and annexation of Russia on Ukraine 2014-2015 biennium clearly showed that Russia recently experiencing growth of its capacity, primarily energy and the military wants to significantly strengthen their positions in the coordinates of the dynamic system of international relations XXI century. This led to the intensification of its foreign policy in all areas and especially in restoring its influence in the post-Soviet space. Ways and methods of implementation of such policies, including by force of arms and conducting "hybrid war" annexation and incorporation of the Crimea to Russia, support the illegal separatist groups in the east of Ukraine - in fact, based on the strategy of "creeping legitimization of terrorism" could make Moscow a standstill, is already causing unprecedented effort across the spectrum of Russian-Ukrainian relations both at the international and public sections. At the same time openly expansionist policy of Russia towards Ukraine should be a serious lesson for our state and society.

Only active work in the international arena based on consideration of national priorities and the real possibilities of the Ukrainian state in conjunction with the consolidated weighted and effective policies and projected pragmatic pro-European foreign policy course can provide a positive image of Ukraine and its rightful place in the international arena. We must put an end to the situation of "internal imbalances" that our state is particularly dangerous in terms of the space programs of the world as a single organism, based on the recognition of global leadership as a top value in world politics. According to the just judgment of Russian scientist I. Kefeli "hard core of the program is the statement, according to which in the universe there are key areas, and control over them, providing global leadership" [11]. Russia wanted to continue to seek to retain control of a key area of ​​the Eurasian geopolitical space. Hence, the special vulnerability of Ukraine was not so much on any of the international actors (Russia, the EU and the US) is staked, and primarily in tactical and strategic ambiguity of our official positions and policies in controversial conflict situations in key geopolitical areas. European choice because of the revolutionary upheavals of 2013-2014 not only has all the features eliminate the menacing problem of "internal imbalances", but also dramatically strengthen the international position of Ukraine.

We agree with the known Ukrainian political scientist M. Mihalchenko [12] that the radical foreign policy choices in the new post-Soviet world changing situation closely associated with ideological reorientation of the majority of Ukrainian society for a new type of thinking - civilization (rather than ideological, which dominated during the "Cold War"). When guided by positions ideological approach, the situation has changed radically: East, i.e. Russia, wants to conquer Ukraine.

Civilization thinking "works" no plane "class enemy - World War", and competition in the plane of ideas, technologies, ways of life, mutual aid, i.e. the civilizational values ​​of life: country, uniting countries provide a higher standard of living and social protection. Then have to break old patterns of thinking: who is the enemy and who is civilized partner; which rules the relationship of nations in a globalized society; or need a new "cold war" and the revival of empires, a new type and style of relationships of large, medium and small countries like. In the future, it is important for Ukraine not only make a real choice based on the Association Agreement with the European Union, but also to defend it by successful integration into the European system of economic, political and civic values.

It should also pay particular attention to the fact that the nature of Russian-Ukrainian relations in the 2013-2014 biennium and unwarranted military intervention in the internal affairs of Ukraine indicates entry into the final phase of great geopolitical battle for Ukrainian integration geoeconomic and geopolitical space. An important strategic goal Ukraine - to go with the least loss of highly complex and threatening situation in which it was due to the withdrawal from the Eurasian integration vector, resulting in a Russian occupation of Crimea, the destabilization of the situation in the east of Ukraine and Russian-Kremlin unleashed Ukrainian war. This puts on the agenda the urgent problem of serious rethink not only the general conceptual foundations of the foreign policy of the Ukrainian state, but also its relations with the Russian Federation.


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2. Trade and economic cooperation between Ukraine and Russia [electronic resource]. - Access: russia.mfa.gov.ua/ua/<wbr>ukraine-ru/trade (Access - 05/28/2015).

3. Martynyuk V. Russo-Georgian conflict: changing trends of energy supplies from the Caspian / V.Martynyuk // Ukrainian Pravda [electronic resource]. - Access: www.pravda.com.ua/<wbr>articles/2008/09/19/3562853/ (Access - 05/23/2015).

4. Prices for Brent crude on the IPE on 31.12.2014 (02:00) [electronic resource]. - Access: www.rbc.ua/ukr/oil (Access - 01/03/2015).

5. Russian energy empire, which stumbles [electronic resource]. - Access: ipress.ua/.../rosiyska_<wbr>energetychna_imperiya_shcho_<wbr>spotykaietsya_3075 (Access - 05/23/2015).

6. Arbatova N. Problem - 2007: what's next? / N.Arbatova [Electron resource] // Russia in Global Affairs. - 2006. - № 1. - Mode of access: www.globalaffairs.ru/<wbr>number/n_6315 (access - 29.5.2015).

7. Maslov O. The new Russian energy doctrine: from the enclave-archaic "energy superpower" to the Global Energy Charter / O. Maslov [Electron resource]. - Access mode: www.polit.nnov.ru/2009/<wbr>05/24/energoconcept8/ (access - 23.5.2015).

8. Ukraine 2000 and what is the next: Geopolitical Priorities and Scenarios development. - K .: NISS, 1999. - C. 60.

9. The Russian-Georgian conflict: causes and consequences for European security materials expert discussions on Aug. 14, 2008 / by Society. Ed. JG Ruban. - K .: NISS, 2008. - P. 9 - 10 [electronic resource]. - Access:

old.niss.gov.ua/book/<wbr>vidannya/Gruziya.pdf (Access - 05/23/2015).

10. Bala V. What is actually happening in Georgia / V. Bala [electronic resource]. - Access: blog.liga.net/user/<wbr>bala/article/1912.aspx (Access - 05/25/2015).

11. I.F. Kefeli The philosophy of geopolitics / I.F. Kefeli. - SPb .: Petropolis, 2007. - S. 34.

12. M. Mihalchenko Ukraine took the first step, what next? / M. Mihalchenko // Scientific Proceedings of the Institute of Political and Ethnic Studies. I.F. Kuras National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine. - 2013. - 6 (68) (November-December). - P. 299-300.

Informational and analytical support as one of the priorities of reform the model of diplomacy of Ukraine: political and institutional dimension

Vyacheslav Tsivatyy


The essence of information and analytical support and its impact on management activities, particularly in management decisions in foreign relations and in the system of national security policy of Ukraine is analized. Characterized international experience on information and analytical support public administration in foreign relations, and also the possibility of its usage in Ukraine in the context of changes in the geopolitical realities of today. The attention is focused on the main priorities in reforming the information-analytical component model of diplomacy Ukraine XXI century.

Keywords: foreign policy, diplomacy, diplomacy model, institutionalization, deliberative process, "thought factory" / "think tank", Ukraine.

The modern model of diplomacy is impossible without a developed system of public administration, which is a phenomenon that is developing rapidly, institutionalized, characterized by a powerful flow of innovation, whose consequences are not always positive. So acute need for a reliable system of information and analytical support public administration in general, and the system of diplomatic service in particular. Effective management in diplomacy largely determine the adoption and implementation of administrative decisions based on the impact of modern information and communication technologies. Accordingly receipt, analysis, delivery and effective use of information - an essential condition to ensure effective foreign policy of Ukraine and introduction of effective model of diplomacy.

The events of recent years in our country convincingly demonstrated that the lack of a reliable system of information and analytical support foreign policy and diplomatic activities of national scale sometimes is a source of random, unreasonable, wrong decisions and actions (even fraud) that are not only inconsistent with the objectives and tasks of the public administration, but also may affect the political-diplomatic, political, institutional and political-economic situation in the country.

There is a need to ensure the functional certainty political and diplomatic systems and analytical systems, their compatibility with each other and with the activities of the state administrative apparatus in foreign relations. Each type of information and analytical system must meet strict maximum range of functions of management personnel. Information-analytical activities (IAA) to ensure governance as a specific type of public-management practices has definitely scientific in nature, determined by a set of principles of research methodology, a set of tools that have a scientific interdisciplinary, scientific type of argument knowledge way to organize this knowledge (information) and more. That analytical work serves generally as a set of applied interdisciplinary areas of research type, focused on obtaining objective-real knowledge about these or other specific objects, events and processes of material and spiritual world to use this knowledge in decision-making in foreign political and diplomatic spheres.

In terms of major economic and social changes of the external relations of the required precise response to these changes in order to achieve the goals that put the state in foreign relations. In this regard, managerial staff in their daily activities have to take into account the needs of creating an effective information-analytical system management. Today, managers often lack information due to the fact that it is not always useful, is not always presented in the correct form and not always consistent with the goals of management.

Analyzing the features of the information needs of executives of foreign relations, it should be emphasized that they have less time to study the information than ordinary employees. Therefore, the development of social engineering and information needs should be provided by a relatively small increase in the dataset, and by substantially increasing the complexity of processing and use of data by the institutions of the MFA of Ukraine, organizations, ministries and departments of the regional administration and creation efficient storage, retrieval and processing on the basis of modern information technologies, the need to create modern and improvement of existing information-analytical systems management with a view to making effective decisions at the state level in the field of foreign relations. [1]

The question is legitimate for the development in Ukraine informational and analytical structures in government agencies as an important component of information, analysis of the prospects of this process in the context of foreign policy and diplomatic practice. It should be noted that Ukraine, like many other new states in Eastern Europe, the involvement of informatization related (compared with developed western countries) with additional difficulties. Among them - not only technical, technological backwardness. Creating a new information society structures in Ukraine are the first steps had to be based on practical considerations associated with the acute need for instant results.

Of particular importance for the information and analytical activity becomes systematic scoping of the issues arising in the course of basic consumer information, analysis and forecasting trends. That focus on prediction, identify trends preferential situation makes use of different analytical methods of information processing, information analysis, Source study, situational, content analysis, event analysis, modeling and so on. Prediction ways to develop political and diplomatic situation requires summarizing data and their evaluation, that the use of methods of generalization, abstraction, modeling. To create information documents such direction is sometimes necessary to conduct independent sociological, statistical and market research. The result will be analytical activities such secondary documents that are not primary information model document and model problems. These information documents contain so-called knowledge-outs in the form of conclusions, recommendations, forecasts. First of all, annual reports, position materials, surveys, annual reports, analytical information. The varieties Review the information should also include information releases, preparation of which requires analysis of primary data, its distribution to primary and excess, open and confidential, the main and peripheral. Therefore, in the information-analytical activity in foreign relations widely used methods of critical evaluation of information. Information documents containing a forecast of a problematic situation is a means of information management.

Experts of information-analytical studies in foreign relations emphasize that the information and analytical technologies provide information pieces in the system form and this, in turn, makes it possible to create a complete picture of what is happening and predict the future activities of the various institutional structures forces, stakeholders, groups of states, international organizations, and international actors more. The use of different analytical methods of information processing output due to the need to anticipate, identify trends and forecasting the overall situation in the world or a particular region or a particular country. Finding out possible ways of development of the situation requires not only revealed generalization of information and its evaluation.

Accumulation of information about political processes and forecasting, their main areas of development, planning political activities, calculating the consequences of political choices in decision-political and political-diplomatic solutions, monitoring their implementation in the field of foreign relations are able by using computer tools that allows you to automate the study, computerized analytical work in the process of advice, developing policy options, modeling the likely consequences, the selection of a final decision. Using programs and analytical technologies should ensure the effective functioning of all components of the political and diplomatic system of society and the effectiveness of appropriate model of diplomacy.

If we analyze the experience of information analysis technologies, we can conclude that the main potential for raising their efficiency should be improved when used together involved factors: human, scientific, methodical, organizational, industrial, technical, and technological. An important component of this process is the level of competence, skill and professionalism of the organizers and performers. The level of efficiency of the information-analytical technologies depends on the completeness involvement of scientific and methodological factor and efficiency of the technology. So important today takes preparation and training of specialists in the field of industry analysts specialized educational institutions, such as - Diplomatic Academy of Ukraine under the MFA of Ukraine; IIR Kyiv National Taras Shevchenko University.

To improve and optimize the information and analytical work in the field of external relations used technologies such as multimedia. General analytical work requires first permanent systematization of data coming. Analyst examines and evaluates weighs fragmented information based on which creates a perspective, grounded forecasts. In addition, the analyst responsibilities include: analysis of existing views on the issue under study, test assumptions made previously, evaluation of alternative scenarios, continuous coverage of waste data.

Depending on the specific object, forecasting and management problems in the political and diplomatic monitoring can dominate certain methods of gathering and processing information applied achievements of history, sociology, psychology, statistics, political science, diplomacy and so on. Therefore, political and diplomatic monitoring specific conditions of its organization can take the signs of various social studies, and at certain stages completely transformed them. In essence political and diplomatic monitoring is a complex method of research of political and diplomatic, political and diplomatic processes using quality-monitoring indicators.

Monitoring is the most effective tool for predicting the state of the social system, including its important indicators as political preferences and electoral behavior. Thus, political and diplomatic monitoring is a continuous process not only fixation of an object within a defined period of time, but the analysis of trends and directions of socio-political processes, forecast future state of political and diplomatic systems and algorithms (algorithm) adopted in future political and diplomatic solutions and related actions (diplomatic tools).

Analytical and advisory centers (in English "think tanks" - think tanks, factories opinions, literally "repository of ideas") is an integral part of the current political-diplomatic process both within national democracies and globally. In the leading countries of the world, think tanks and political experts considered as full participants in public policy. Political and diplomatic system, and the so-called traditional think tanks - as part of foreign policy and diplomatic elite. By the study, among the largest centers, which provides information public, governmental, legislative branches of government and regional leaders should note the analytical service of the Presidential Administration of Ukraine, the Cabinet of Ministers of Ukraine, Verkhovna Rada of Ukraine, Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Ukraine, Ministry of Defense of Ukraine, Security Service of Ukraine, Main Intelligence Directorate of the Ministry of Defense of Ukraine and others.

Among the powerful institutions that prepare analytical information, you can also celebrate the National Institute for Strategic Studies, Ukrainian Centre for Economic and Political Studies Razumkov and of information and analytical support of state authorities. Today special status and highly effective activities in the field of external relations exercise governmental think tanks. Overall, non-governmental think tanks to some extent influenced by the peculiarities of the legal regulation of NGOs because the Ukrainian legislation the notion of "think tanks" is not legally defined, since the purpose of the perception of the essential characteristics should refer to the definitions of "factory of ideas" or "think tank" that often use representatives of foreign analytical institutions of similar orientation.

"Factory of thought" or "think tank" (think tank) - is an independent, not profit-oriented research organization established to discuss and, if possible, push important for the public (public) of the decisions, the promotion of a practical policy varying the field, the field of social life, for example - in the field of external relations. Under the "factories of opinion" is understood as a critical mass of expertise, interdisciplinary thinking, focus on developing specific technologies solving social problems and orientation for the future. Carry the specific type of construction of scientific activity - formation of expert staff, who are involved on a contract basis; relationships with major educational and research institutions; the presence of large government and corporate customers; to market research, commissioned; periodic comprehensive reports with specific issues concerned organizations for distribution free of charge [2].

Information-analytical studies in many countries a basis for making strategic decisions - decisions of senior management, defining the main directions of development of the country, including - In foreign policy and diplomatic spheres. Most of the problems relating to analysts is extremely complex and require for their solution previous research, information and special long time, which they are not always released. In addition, even the most skilled analyst cannot be expert in all range of issues. Therefore, to carry out their daily business analysts need regular strategic directions of information and analytical support. It covers the timely delivery of current information, background information from the relevant departments and analytical research on issues relevant institutional, academic and independent scientific organizations or individual scientists.

For example, we consider the USA experience. Researchers from the history, analysts agree that its elevation to that status largely occurred through public and private think tanks (in the US runs about 1,200 think tanks - think tanks of the US government. At the university has nearly 600 Think Tanks, another 600 independent NGOs). The results of their research are widely used by all state authorities and had a high level of efficiency thanks to the strategic level proposed decisions vision of the country for several years ahead. An example of proper organization of work analytic institutions develop strategic solutions, analytical support higher state authorities may approach that has been used successfully in the US. It provides for coordinated combination of powerful intellectual effort "think tanks", as established in the most state-management structures and among civil society.

The founders and guardians think tanks are well-known politicians and diplomats, for example, the Institute for Democracy (National Endowment for Democracy), founded in 1983, - Z. Brzezinski, Madeleine Albright. The most influential think tanks USA are: The Heritage Foundation, Center for International Private Enterprises (Center for International Private Enterprise), Brookings Institution: National Institute of Advanced Studies, Institute of International Economics (Institute for International Economics), Sato-Institute, the Urban Institute (The Urban Institute) Center for International Private Enterprise (Center for International Private Enterprise (CIPE), Center Foundation (The Foundation Center), the Council on Foundations (Council of Foundations).

In terms of new challenges and threats of the modern polycentric world a new quality and a new mission think tanks in foreign relations is a combination of technologies of mass communication technology rational and scientific discussion of public policy. This so-called deliberative process (from Eng. Deliberate - consult, discuss) - massive consultation process within the country of socially important problems by involving the largest possible number of citizens. This approach does not replace traditional methods of experts, such as custom research, conferences, issue, etc. However, good political and politico-diplomatic analysis is the result of a joint decision of the intellectual and social interaction [3].

"Think tanks" directly related to the public interest (public opinion), expressed this opinion and those interests in intellectual form, both as a state apparatus and interests formed political parties, movements and corporations (linked to the policy of non-public) think tanks connected only through public policy and public diplomacy. Thus, public policy and public diplomacy today is both a tool of analytical centers of the state, political parties and corporations, communication and space where the public interest can be expressed in conventional politically influential (and attractive) form. A characteristic feature of information-analytical work of the US national security is hierarchical analysis. The specific analytical pyramid based on 40 specialized committees that provide primary information departments group. They, in turn, selected important information to be passed to a group of senior analysts. In addition, processed those Filtered data fall into the group of strategists. Only their recommendations fall on the table of the President of the United States. This approach makes it possible; covering the widest possible range of related information, highlight the most important stages necessary for the adoption of certain decisions. None of the important factors in foreign relations is not ignored. [4]

Thus, in the XXI century when modern information technology intensively introduced in all spheres of life and society, national security begins to depend on the availability of necessary and sufficient for its security information. The rapid development of information technology quickly brings us all to the time when much of the country information resource will be available in electronic form. This situation requires the search for effective and rational ways of receiving, processing and use of information, to ensure its safety.

That there is an objective need for the state in the media, a safe, effective and timely implementation of information and analytical support in the area of ​​external relations. Arguably, the information and analytical support is not only an integral part of national security, but also essential for its functioning. Informational and analytical support of foreign policy and diplomatic activities of the state - a targeted, specific and continuous process of collecting, analyzing, storing and presenting subjects of national security information that affects its security, carried out by specially created institutions, institutions, agencies, services, society and the state

In general, Think tanks of United States, France, Great Britain should be regarded as the benchmark for other democracies. Not dropping from the weight national characteristics that are present in any society, we note that the structure, algorithms fundraising, political, economic, anti-corruption, advocacy role, lobbying, analytical, research, information and others. Think tanks function of these states, their place and role they play in society is a political and diplomatic guideline for relatively young "think tanks" that are just starting their way in the field of foreign policy, in foreign relations, including - in Ukraine.


1. Gorbatenko V.P. Petrenko I.I. "Factory thoughts" and the development of social engineering / V.P. Gorbatenko, I.I. Petrenko // Strategic Priorities. - 2009. - №4 (13). - P. 5-13.

2. Klimenko O. "Factory thoughts": the impact of NGOs on policy democracies / O. Klimenko // Political management. - 2007. - №2. - P. 92-93.

3. Kurnosov Yu. Analytics as an intellectual weapon / Yuri Kurnosov. - M .: Rhythm, 2015. - 616 p.

4. James G. Think tanks and civil societies / G. James, Mc. Gann, R. Kent. - New Brunswick (U.S.A.) and London (UK). - 2000. - 617 p.

Features of the formation of the American and European models of environmental policies and their impact on the transformation of international political priorities

Oksana Gyrych


The article analyzes the U.S. and the EU environmental policy strategy models in the background of new global challenges. Considerable attention is paid to the mechanisms for environmental policies implementation, its goals and performance effectiveness indicators. The conclusion concerning the possibility of Ukrainian environmental legislation system advancement via the experience of Western countries inherit is being presented.

Keywords: United States, European Union, Ukraine, environmental policy, model transformation, international relations

In the modern conditions to ensure a balance between economic development and environmental preservation is possible only in the so-called environmentally sustainable development. Therefore, environmental issues and the formation of national and international environmental policies are particularly acute scientific importance and urgency. Interest in the topic is increasing due to the role of environmental challenges in the life of national communities and global society. You can talk about some positive experience partial resolution of environmental issues. Successful international actors who have reached the highest in environmental protection through environmental policies is primarily industrialized countries of Western Europe and the United States. Within these global centers in recent years carried out an active search for the exit of the environmental crisis, adopted appropriate legislative solutions created committee, subsidiary bodies and structures that control the implementation of the objectives of environment issues. It is the European and American experience solving environmental problems is the most effective implementation in Ukraine as a country that essentially the path towards European integration and harmonization of national legislation with the standards of leading Western countries mature democracy.

Analysis of recent research and publications. Research on the role of environmental factors in shaping international relations, problems of greening different spheres of public life devoted to works of Ukrainian and foreign scientists, including Vladimir Gryshchenko and L. Hryniv, B. Danylyshyn, K. Dergachov, V. Kravtsiva, L. Melnyk, V. Sabadash , I. Synyakevycha, T. Tunytsya, E. Yerasov, M. Lebedeva, V. Morozova, John. McNeill, M. Pyetrasya, K. Ksyenzhopolskoho and others. Consideration on features of formation and implementation of state environmental policy and provision out of its problematic aspects in different countries devoted their publication A. Lazor, N. Selivanov, T. Trifonova, A. Tarasov, A. Shevchuk and others.

Environmental policy as a response to global challenges. The specificity of environmental problems is that they usually cannot be solved naturally by the market and therefore objectively necessary active state intervention, implemented environmental policies. Environmental problems are transformed into political factor and that environmental policy is becoming a full component of political life. Environmental policy can be defined as an economic entity carried higher levels (state, international association) general line of measures or actions, which determine the direction of natural resources and the environment.

There are different approaches to understanding the nature of environmental policy. Thus, some researchers identify environmental policy system with specific measures taken power structures to protect the environment. Other scientists in environmental policy means a series of steps that are used to provide long-term environmental safety with economic opportunities and social needs. Some scientists underlines the mandatory presence of the public as a basic element of environmental policy at the level of the state apparatus. Thus, according to M. Musiyenko, environmental policy - a system of measures related to the influence of society in the country, whose main task is to meet the growing needs of the population in the environment, the quality of which meet those needs [3, p. 117].

The international dimension of geopolitics. Under the influence of integrative tendencies more and more countries in the world to voluntarily agree to limit their sovereignty, transferring sovereign rights to supranational entities the competence of an international character. In today's world cannot exist in isolation from global problems, because the world is interdependent and complex vulnerable. Given this developed and implemented, a new, innovative environmental policy focused on the involvement of all assets in the global scope of environmental activities is particularly important in international life.

Global environmental policy can be described relationships are based on regulations interstate level, while the state ecological policy is based on the national legal system of a particular country. Under international environmental policy is only one kind of relationship, whereas the sum of national measures implementing environmental policy in all countries is the basis of evolution and implementation of international environmental legislation that governs relations worldwide and is implemented by sovereign states. As the country with the most successful experience in the implementation of environmental policy across its territory, playing a leading role in international institutions in the development of international environmental norms regulating relations, it is reasonable to review this experience. He has gradually implemented objectively and countries with less success in the implementation of environmental measures through policy, in particular - Ukraine.

The European model of environmental policy. Environmental policy is one of the most important areas of EU activity. That is for 30 years the European Community has its own policy on the environment. Today the EU is one of the leaders in environmental cooperation in Europe and justifiably claim to world leadership in this area. The EU plays an important role in addressing global and regional environmental problems as the only international association serving such agreements protagonist. He actually initiated the signing of the Montreal Protocol on the protection of the ozone layer and the Kyoto Protocol, and initiated the emergence of new international standards in the field of environmental policy and environmental protection.

For the European model of environmental policy are generally less acceptable American formal institutional approach. Considering the environmental legislation in Europe, it is worth noting least environmental laws and representative institutions with greater daily work with the business sector and the public and support the latest open state.

Environmental programs in the EU used a methodical approach, the general principles of formation and planning, as well as a specific form of universal method of environmentally oriented management. Its modern environmental policy based on the following principles:

- Sustainable development, providing equal attention to economic, social and environmental components;

- Priority for society saving the biosphere functions instead of direct use of its resources;

- Preventing negative environmental consequences caused by economic activities, account future environmental consequences;

- The refusal of economic and other projects related to the influence on natural systems if the consequences are unpredictable for the environment;

- Nature for a fee and reimbursement environment and population losses due to violation of legislation on environmental protection.

At the international level, States members of the community can independently of EU activities to negotiate and sign agreements in the field of environmental protection. Measures to protect the environment, taken at Community level do not prevent Member States have or introduce more stringent national environmental measures [4, p. 30].

Today in the EU are actively improving the legal regulation of environmental protection. In particular, the updated acts laid the legal framework of the collection and processing of environmental information, environmental monitoring, environmental certification, evaluation of environmental impact, the mechanism of financing environmental measures [2, p. 95]. Ongoing attempts to codify numerous environmental regulations in the field of standardization and certification. According to Ukrainian scientist A. Kolyenova, a feature of the current stage of the process of improving environmental legislation in the EU is [6, p. 156]:

- Focus on sustainable development, depending on system solutions and measures should use the public authorities in the implementation of environmental action plans;

- Use a holistic approach, which requires a close connection between normative legal acts in the field of environmental protection, which means that the decision-making of some law to take into account the wide range of interests and views, including the public.

In the process of improving environmental legislation by European countries and the European Union used medium program, enshrined in the memorandum states. These programs are implemented to achieve progress in environmental policy by establishing planning of every 3-10 years. Sixth current action program in the field of environmental protection was approved by the European Parliament and of the Council of the European Union № 1600/2002 / EC 22 July 2002. This application is typical gradual transition from the administrative arrangements to regulate environmental policy tools based on the elements of a market economy. Today the EU institutions (Parliament, Council, and Commission) considered a draft program of action of the Seventh EU Environment until 2020, under which coordinated action will not only EU member states and candidate countries and the EU. Among the goals is to protect the climate: ensuring the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions by 20% from 1990; increase in final energy consumption share of renewable energy to 20%; increasing energy efficiency by 20%. In 2010, these objectives were formally enshrined in the European Economic Development Strategy "Europe 2020 Strategy smart, sustainable and comprehensive growth."

Environmental policy launched by the US in the 60's - early 70 XX century. When the focus of the American establishment and the public focused on the rapid reduction of air pollution, water and so on. The American model of environmental policy is implemented through the establishment of institutional framework for combating major interest groups - business representatives, technical experts and state bureaucracies, ecologists, acting on behalf of and in the interests of local people. Unlike Europe, a special role in this belongs to experts, their estimates, as they set the framework, which is considered a particular issue. Model US environmental policy - a close institutionalized cooperation of state and civil society. The state supports market "rules of the game", not taking the side of either environmental organizations or industrial sector. It is worth noting the proximity of the American model of pluralist idea of ​​environmental policy in general: it is made by creating the institutional framework for combating major interest groups - business representatives, technical experts and state bureaucracy; ecologists, acting on behalf of and in the interests of the population. Meanwhile, in the US came of so-called federalist approach to management activities, according to which this process occurs at a lower level of the hierarchy, capable of taking concrete action and achieve the goal [7, p. 7].

Besides, US environmental policy based on the following principles:

- "Balance costs and profits in the mechanism of environmental regulation", i.e. the cost of any measures should not exceed the advantages and benefits derived;

- "Activation key market mechanisms", that healthy competition intensification of environmental business;

- "Decentralization of government regulation", i.e. the translation of basic environmental responsibility to state governments, local and municipal authorities.

The latest US geopolitics in some aspects significantly different from the European approach. Thus, a wide resonance acquired US refusal to ratify the Kyoto Protocol became a cause of wave of accusations of the American model environmental policy as ineffective. The refusal was due to the reluctance of the US to reduce greenhouse gas emissions by US companies. Instead, the government decided to inhibition of the production process of such a rule, it is premature given the rapid development of high technologies in the near future will inevitably reduce the level of harmful emissions. Upon cancellation of the Kyoto Protocol, the US government in municipalities and companies creates its programs and initiatives to support and development of energy conservation and renewable energy. This brings about the American analysts forecast rapid onset phase of clean production [9, p. 83].

After coming to power of Barack Obama's ecological policy the United States has undergone qualitative changes. Thus, the principles of climate policy up from the regional to the federal level, and according to the plan Obama-Biden 'New Energy for America "the United States set a goal to reach 10% of renewable electricity from produced in the country by 2012 and 25% by 2025 [1 ].

Common principles of models geopolitics EU and US. Today we can state some similarities models of environmental policies in Western Europe and the United States. In particular, and there, and there impact assessment procedure has various activities on the habitat as one of the main instruments of environmental policy implementation. One of the most effective and legally grounded mechanisms is to ensure the public's right of access to environmental information and participation in environmentally significant decision-making. In the EU and US approaches to the assessment of the environmental impact inherent extremely important principle in foreign countries, EIA procedure has independent significance, since not carried out state ecological expertise.

Effective means of global environmental policy both centers have an environmental audit. EU sees it as a means of control, which is a systematic, periodic, objective and documented assessment of management systems and processes implemented to protect the environment and control the negative impact and to assess the consistency of the company with environmental policy. In the US, environmental audits has become not only a tool for monitoring compliance with the law, but also on the economic and legal instrument to stimulate environmental activities of the company, as is the basis for development of measures of a preventive nature. Environmental audit outstripping aims to identify environmental offenses, which allows management companies to respond appropriately.

Experience for Ukraine. Ukrainian model of environmental policy has its specific features associated with the history of our country and its position on the one hand as the largest European state; the other - the country with the former colonial past, the lack of a strong civil society and the remnants of administrative-command management, consumer perception of the environment, the residual approach to ecology.

In a broad sense, environmental legislation Ukraine corresponds mainly recognized in the EU and international relations, legal approaches and solutions. Among the international agreements to which Ukraine and that significantly affect the national legislation should include: the Convention on access to information; public participation in decision-making; access to justice in environmental matters (Aarhus Convention); Convention on the assessment of the environmental impact in a trans boundary context; Protocol on Strategic Environmental Assessment. The main components of the mechanism for implementing the main directions of the state environmental policy of Ukraine in the field of environment, natural resources and environmental safety are: state institutional infrastructure conducting environmental policy, legislative and legal framework regulating the production of legal entities and individuals for the protection, use of natural resources and their outlets; economic mechanism of nature management and environmental performance; mechanisms for implementing international, national, regional, sectoral and local conservation programs [5, p. 41].

At the same time, environmental legislation is not coherent and balanced.

Ukrainian model of environmental policy exists mainly in the state based on the principles of administrative coercion in regulating environmental relations: checks, fines, permits, suspend activities, predominantly has negative effect on the termination of processes on the environment after the fact to their occurrence. According to the Law of Ukraine "On Ecological Expertise" (Art. 13), the state environmental impact assessment is mandatory for activities and objects of high environmental hazard [8], while in the West is much more important provided mechanisms of economic incentives in the field of the environment - environmental insurance, environmental auditing, environmental certification, green standards. Moreover, these mechanisms are stimulated by States is voluntary for the use of these tools.

Today the EU and Ukraine is the total number of global, regional and trans boundary environmental problems: climate change, water pollution and air, the depletion of natural resources and reduction of biodiversity, pollution. The European Union is interested in solving the environmental problems of our country and is actively engaged in this area. Cooperation is carried out through planning of disaster and other emergencies; exchange of information and experts; conduct joint research activities; improvement of legislation on standards of the Community; cooperation at regional and international levels; development strategy, including on global climate issues to achieve sustainable development; studies of environmental impact [3, p. 226].

Creation an effective national model of environmental policy, especially in an unstable external and internal factors - an extremely complicated process for Ukraine on its path to European integration. It is therefore necessary to improve the system of environmental legislation, to take appropriate regulations: the waste; on the use of agrochemicals; on hazardous substances, environmental information, environmental insurance; increase the number of experts in control agencies. According to A. Kolyenova to use international experience in Ukraine needs to develop and implement national standards that are the authentic texts of the international standards ISO 14000, among which should be applied with environmental management standards (environmental management) - ecological audit standards and environmental security; environmental standard for signs, etc. [6].

Conclusions. Environmental policy is a system of measures related to the deliberate action of the nature of society to prevent, minimize or eliminate negative for the human and environmental consequences of such exposure. Environmental policy aims to not only environmental protection, natural resource management and environmental safety, but also the preservation and development sociosphere guaranteeing normal human activity. Current national environmental policy aimed at preventing potential crises, and to overcome the existing ones.

Despite some progress achieved several leading countries, primarily the United States and Western Europe, the environmental policy of modern states still has conceptual and theoretical framework and leverage third-world countries who evade ratification of environmental treaties. Thus, models of EU environmental policy and the US remain within those territorial supranational entities and do not acquire a wide resonance abroad, including Ukraine. Despite the fact that over the last ten years there is a reform of the political system of Ukraine, development and improvement of the legal framework for the protection of nature and as a result, awareness of the need to address environmental problems it gradually gets to the state level, remains declarative in assessing the importance of an approach to efficiency implementation of environmental policy.


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2. Gusev A.A. Ecological Policy of the European Union in the context of sustainable development / Alexei Gusev // Browser-Observer. - 2012. - № 4. - pp 88-100

3. Environment: Glossary. - K .: Lybid, 2004. - 376 p.

4. EU Environmental Law: Training guidance. / M. Mykievych, N.I. Andrusevych, T. Budyakova; Lviv. nat. University of them. Franko. - Lviv, 2004. - 256 p.

5. Zarzhytskyy O.S. Actual problems of legal support environmental policy Ukraine (theoretical aspects): monograph / O.S. Zarzhytskyy; MONMS Ukraine, SHEI "Nat. Hearne. Univ. " - D., 2012. - 199 c.

6. Kolyenov O. Features of formation and implementation of state environmental policy / O. Kolyenov // Public Administration and Local Self-Government. - 2014 - Vol. 1. - P. 155-164.

7. Morozova E. Trends in environmental policy in the modern world / Scientific Journal KubGAU. - 2014. - № 101 (07).

8. On ecological expertise: Law of Ukraine from 02.09.95 g. N 46 / 95- [electronic resource]. - Access: zakon4.rada.gov.ua/<wbr>laws/show/45/95-%D0%B2%D1%80

9. O. Fedun Greening international relations in the context of sustainable development / O. Fedun // Bulletin of the Lviv National University. Series: International relations. - 2012. - Vol. 30. - P. 78-86.

The European Union and the "great migration of peoples"

Igor Gorobets, Andrii Martynov


The article presents a specifically trend of strategic European Union in the process adaptation of migrants.

Keywords: European Union, civil society, migration, extremism, civilization conflict, Islam, fundamentalism.

After the French Revolution, the concept of "civil society" gradually implemented in the social and political practice in Europe. Since in civil society refers to the set of relations that exist in society and are outside the direct influence of state institutions. At the heart of civil society in the modern European states remain private lives of citizens, the system of free unions and associations of citizens, which guarantee the realization of these interests. This civil society is the realm of political freedom. Therefore, totalitarian and authoritarian societies civil society is weaker compared with the state.

Free envisages development of civil society institutes functioning legal democratic state, market economy and pluralism of different political forces, the presence of a free person. At least since the Second World War in a form civil society to specific national characteristics of democratic confirmed in most European countries. This process coincided with the intensification of the collapse of the colonial empires and inheritance problems adapting them to economic and political exiles to the cultural realities of the country of arrival. Such a task complicated by prominent civilizational differences between members of civil society and European values ​​and normative stereotypes behavior of many immigrants.

The development of the European integration process has put on the agenda of the origin and development of European supranational civil society. A powerful impetus for this was the creation of common European institutions designed to protect the interests of Europeans. Along with this trend in most Western countries, there is a problem of not adaptability immigrant communities in the living conditions of European civil society structures. Intense emigration flows exacerbated the issue of European citizens adapt to new conditions traditional functioning civil society in Europe. The reaction to it was the recognition of the ruling elites of European feasibility of conservation primarily national civil societies, even by partial abandonment of the project of deepening European integration and the strengthening of supranational authorities. However, around this trend continuing bitter political debate. German sociologist U. Beck lot of attention to the establishment of "cosmopolitan Europe" as an important result of European integration [1]. He advocated the concept of "multiculturalism" as the main strategy for adapting to the conditions of immigrants functioning of the European Union. However, the said strategy has been questioned by historical events.

The shock of the attacks of 11 September 2001 prompted former Secretary of State Madeleine Albright to investigate the relationship between religion and world politics [2]. The main problem of the coexistence of Islam and other world religions it considers incomplete process of modernization of traditional Muslim societies and Islam in general. Even recognizing the significant socio-cultural specificity "European Islam" as a phenomenon of life emigrant communities primarily in the "old" EU member states, one can hardly talk about it irreversible modernization.

Relations between Europeans and Muslims interpreted differently. The famous Italian expert on the history of Islam F. Cardini believes that the source of intercultural strife between Christians and Muslims is mutual misunderstanding because of competition of interests and ways of life. [3] Quite controversial is the assessment and prospects of Muslim civil societies in European countries. In particular, controversial are the characteristics of the impact of supporters of Islamic fundamentalism among European Muslims and their links with the Arab community.

The rapid development of globalization, at least before the global economic crisis in autumn 2008, has made a very popular thesis of the dominance of multiculturalism. This trend was seen as an essential element of the new identity politics associated with guaranteeing broad civil rights to various minorities. Implementation of the relevant policy is in a very acute social and political discussions on the major theses of a "clash of cultures", which advocated S. Huntington [4]. These ideas were transferred to plane problems of the multicultural democratic societies. Optimists believe that the new historical conditions possible to ensure peaceful coexistence and cooperation of civil societies because of the historical development of national democracies and multicultural organizations. More informed optimists or realists, by contrast, argue convincingly that such tolerance is a tribute to political correctness, but actually more like a utopia. In particular, A. Sen writes about the risks of conflict of cultures within multicultural civil societies [5].

The famous Bulgarian scholar of identity problems Yu. Kristeva focuses on the dilemma: whether we live passionately and intimately with others, to live differently, either without resorting to ostracized or to leveling. [6]. The author notes that "stranger - a man in armor during which the activist or worker immigrant peeled off the skin, because he" constantly have to endure the hatred of others "[6]. Immigrant doomed to speak their native language. Meanwhile stranger - a man who works. While the natives civilized world, developed countries find hard work and vulgar thing shall aristocratic capricious and casual appearance, you recognize the stranger by the fact that he still considers labor value. Because of this outsider status rhetorical question becomes, what is more important "human rights or the rights of a citizen?" [6]. This is particularly acute when new visitors do not give up their identity, Europeans have the opportunity to watch now.

In 2010, the German Social Democrat Thilo Sarrazin published a book "Germany Does Away with Itself" [7]. According to him, the policy of multiculturalism rejects modern German identity. These facts bundeskantsler Merkel acknowledged that implements priority adaptation course for immigrants to German cultural values. However, this complex process is extremely controversial and cannot be considered irreversible.

European Conservatives recognize that the enlarged EU has become a conglomeration of peoples, cultures and values. It involves the disintegration of Christian European identity, which does not, actually recorded even in normative documents. Because of the loss of faith crumbling foundations of civil society. However, while it remains an important part of the foundation of European nation states. On the other hand, using the structures of civil society as an instrument of adaptation emigrants stumbles upon cultural barriers.

Postmodern social technologies denies revival of Christian morals and values. Unresolved question remains whether capable of "an open European society" to compete with social values ​​emigrant communities with different culture, mentality, values ​​and faith? After all, intolerance of fundamentalist Muslim communities seems stronger than tolerance secularized Europeans. Muslims in European countries issued by stronger spirit not really Christian Europe. After all, European churches transformed into museums and monasteries in the hotel. Instead actively built mosque. Even in conservative Switzerland failed to definitively ban the building of new mosques.

German citizens often capture hostage in Muslim countries. Right-wing populists in many Western European countries insist on quoting migration. Despite the Schengen rules and regulations, migration legislation remained within the purview of national states. However, the situation is hardly normal. European law radicals identify themselves as fighters for freedom of the peoples "European empire" in the form of the European Union.

In response to these trends, July 22, 2011 Norwegian Anders Breivik carried out the attack in Oslo, whose victims were mostly immigrants. A thorough investigation and found no evidence that could prove the existence of the version of the terrorist organization, which helped to commit the crime. Of course, right extremists circles in many European countries lack those sympathetic to Breivik views, but these people still do not follow his fanaticism. The latter was the reason for the defendant's psychiatric examinations. In the end, carried the end of August 2012 sentence - life imprisonment actually made by Breivik on the most expensive maintenance costs of the Norwegian prisoner [8]. Significantly, the defendant insisted that he was tried as mentally healthy. In the case it is at least theoretically have a chance "for good behavior" under the amnesty out of jail until his death. In the event of conviction as mentally ill Breivik threatened life imprisonment in a closed mental hospital. The death penalty in Norway is not, although after the crime resumed discussions on the feasibility of its implementation. The authorities tried to minimize the effect of propaganda for ideas Breivik, as the economic crisis in many European countries aggravated the relations between Christians and Muslims.

The most common anti-Islamic sentiments in France, home to the vast majority of Muslims in Europe. His intense concern about the spread of radical Islamist ideas and demonstrate the intelligence services of Germany. In April 2012, they forced the Hamburg edition abandon the publishing contract for the printing of the Koran. After a radical Muslim sect, Salafists had planned to give away free copies of it to promote their ideas. Federal Interior Minister of Lower Saxony Christian Democrat Uwe Shyunemann condemned the Salafists try giving away its Islamist version of the Quran [9]. However, Arabist Free University of Berlin Angelika Neuwirt finds that the Koran is part of contemporary European identity. The above thesis annoying as supporters of the conservative Christian version of European identity, and adherents of total secularization. Against this backdrop exacerbated information war between European civil societies and Islamic radicals. The famous German expert on public safety Bernd Georg states that "sacred" texts Islamists aim to create by 2020 the Caliphate, part of which must be Europe.

The alternative project caliphate, albeit with certain objections and assumptions, is Turkey. Even there is a gradual and cautious departure from the model of democracy under the protection of military returned to power of moderate Islamists. After the parliamentary elections of 7 June 2015 President Recep Erdogan instructed the formation of the government leaders of the ruling "Justice and Development Party" Ahmet Davutoglu. However, none of the parliamentary political forces agreed to enter into a new governing coalition on the rights of "junior" coalition partner. Turkey is forced to react to the activity of militants "Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant."

In response to protests by Kurdish, Turkish authorities actually opened a two-year ceasefire with the Kurds. Thus, the "Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant" could seriously criticize their opponents - Turks and Kurds. The actual recovery of the Turkish-Kurdish confrontation grist to the mill of the terrorists. After reaction of the authorities so far have not only strategic-political, military-technical as tactical direction. In particular, after the attack the Turkish authorities decided to build a mobile modular wall length of 150 km, which if necessary can be placed on critical areas of the Turkish-Syrian border. In most dangerous places also want to strengthen border fortifications. Certainly, quickly cut almost 900-kilometer Turkish-Syrian border is impossible, because the Turkish government has decided to immediately repair the frontier ways to quickly implement if necessary evacuate the local population and the movement of troops. Turkey has agreed NATO collaborates - the United States in extra fighters involved in the bombing militant "Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant." This is a policy decision, because military bases from which such flights are carried out will certainly become the next target for terrorists.

IS tactics aimed at maximizing the front counter their enemies. This enables the "Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant" to remain in top news, ensuring the recruitment of new supporters of terror, the continuous financing of terrorist activities and sow fear among the "infidels." Therefore, the Turkish government finds itself in a very awkward position. Turkish ideologically moderate Islamists is not easy to explain the war against Islamic radicals. It is not "historical enemy" - the Kurds, who are trying to create their own national state on part of Turkish territory and the same Sunni like most Turks. At least until 2015 the authorities have actively supported the armed groups of the Syrian opposition in their struggle against the regime of Bashar Assad. Indirectly, it would also support IS militants who in the Syrian war has always played a leading role.

In addition, the increased terrorist activity in Turkey casts doubt on previous foreign policy Rejep Erdogan, who tried to distance the country from the most prolonged and not very successful Turkish experience of European integration. After the terrorist attacks Turkey must not only confirm its Euro-Atlantic, but also the European integration course. Cleaner pro-European course of the country can help the formation of a new coalition government, but at the same time - against IS.

However, the "Turkish way" for Muslim countries is not universal. He tried to adapt their way of Pakistan, where the army is still a stronghold may not entirely democratic, but secular country. However, a permanent confrontation with the Pakistani military was one of the reasons that Pakistani Islamists are the most ardent supporters of a global Islamic community, who live in a Muslim empire - the Caliphate, and under the protection of Pakistan's nuclear weapons.

While not the biggest obstacle to implementation of the strategy is the creation of an Islamic caliphate inter-confessional conflict in the Muslim world. "Arab Spring" has stimulated most of the 22 Arab countries internal civil war between Sunnis and Shiites. Each denomination has its radicals that can bury the project revival of the Caliphate. So, all these strategies simultaneously interact in the Middle East and bound into a tight Gordian knot of conflicts and contradictions that go beyond the region and acquired global significance. Even the theoretical victory of one of these strategies may significantly change the global balance of power. In the next decade, these strategies continue to compete with each other.

European far-right strategy can be regarded as attempts to strengthen counter these trends. Undeniable is the growing influence of right-wing populist parties at the national level in EU countries, especially strongly affected by the economic crisis. In the countries of "old" Europe problem of adaptation to Muslim communities, secular civil society is particularly acute. For example, Austria is the "Austrian Freedom Party." In Belgium, it comes to party "Flemish interest" and "List Dedekera." At the level of local government after the May 2012 elections, important force was "British National Party." Regular member of the coalition of political processes in the Netherlands is the populist right "Freedom Party" Hertha Wenders. In France, the leader of the "National Front" Marine Le Pen in the presidential election in April 2012 gained 18% of votes under the slogan evictions not adapted immigrants from France. In Italy, a similar position advocated "Lega Nord" and "Social Alternative list Mussolini." In of Denmark on the same ideological position is "Danish People's Party", which initiated the emergence in 2005 of cartoons of the Prophet Mohammed in the Danish press.

In the countries of "new" Europe, right now populism is more a form of protest against the consequences of European integration of these countries. However, xenophobic attitudes, given the small number of Muslims in these countries, more related to "hostile neighbors", anti-Semitism and Roma. However, the corresponding ideological party reinforce its position in the domestic politics in these countries. For example, in Bulgaria this coalition "Attack", in Latvia - the party "Homeland and Freedom" in Lithuania - Party "Order and Justice", in Poland - "League of Polish Families" in Greece - the party "People's Orthodox call" and "Golden Dawn" in Romania - the party of "Greater Romania", and in Hungary - "Movement for a better Hungary". Increased popularity of these parties also driven by demographic factors associated with aging European societies.

All the right-wing populists join the European idea of ​​citizenship based on blood and land, not the formation of political multicultural nation. Their ideological foundation of racism, militarism, homophobia, criticism of globalization and European integration, the rejection of immigrants. In terms of political turbulence caused by the economic crisis, the structure of European civil society at national and supranational levels show little effectiveness in the performance of an instrument of adaptation of immigrant communities into European norms and values. Blurred ideological right-wing populist parties allows them to use the electoral potential of traditionalists and conservatives. As a result, the challenge is folding structures "free societies" in Europe. At least there is no universal strategy that can effectively resolve the issue of adaptation of immigrants to European identity. On the contrary, domination strategy displacement of Islamic fundamentalists in the ghetto European cities is the way ostrich behavior before calling danger. Further strengthen European right-wing radicals could also open the way to a direct clash of Islamic fundamentalists and right-wing extremists in Europe.

Summer 2015 was a record number of illegal immigrants arriving in the Mediterranean countries of the European Union. Only in July of this year came to Greece 55 000 illegal migrants, mostly from Syria. In contrast to Italy and Spain mainly illegal immigrants coming from African countries. The consequences of these processes is a serious destabilization not only in countries that are forced to take illegal immigrants, but also in the EU as a whole.

Even before the summer holidays The European Commission has decided to refugee resettlement quotas to all 28 EU member states according to the criteria of the existing number of refugees in these countries, their relation to the number of indigenous inhabitants of these countries, the number of unemployed and so on. However, this decision, which was to become a symbol of European solidarity in solving acute problems, has become another cause of disagreement. The most critical of the European Commission against the decision made by Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania. Not thrilled by it and Poland and other Visegrad countries - the Czech Republic, Hungary, Slovakia, which EU officials point out that they have received a considerable number of refugees from Ukraine. If the EU is built "paper-visa" Schengen wall moving towards Schengen zone citizens of Ukraine, to build a solid wall on their maritime border, which would stop illegal immigrants is impossible.

Far-right political parties in many EU countries malevolently notice that the wave of illegal migration has increased because of destabilization of political situation in much of North Africa and the Middle East during the "Arab spring". Number of illegal immigrants after the removal from power of the Tunisian president Ben Ali, Libyan leader Muammar Gaddafi has reached millions.

In response, the ruling elites of the European Union as far as possible trying to modernize its immigration policy. The European Commission has decided to allocate in 2021 of 2.4 billion euros to help countries that are most affected by the influx of refugees. Money should be allocated between the Fund asylum, migration and integration and the Internal Security Fund. The greatest care should get Italy and Greece. However, it is possible that these funds will be too late and they will not be enough to solve the problem. After all prerequisites for the stabilization of crisis areas around the European Union no. On the contrary the situation escalates, which will inevitably make the measures effective. From EU diplomacy will take a lot more effort to contribute to stability in hot spots along the borders of the European Union, or the "great migration of peoples" cannot be stopped.

In 2014, all 28 EU member states formally accepted 626 thousand. Workers. Instead, this year only forced Germany to accept 800 thousand. Legal migrants, spending on them from all levels of the state budget 10 billion euros. This development provokes aggravation of political situation in Germany itself. Attempts federal governments open new hostels for migrants encounter regular protests by far-right political forces. Do not lose the chance of resuscitation political activists "European patriots against the Islamization of Europe." On activation competitors in the conservative wing of German politics have to respond to the Bavarian party "Christian Social Union" which sharply criticized Chancellor course "grand coalition" Merkel at the reception as many illegal immigrants. Do not be surprised that the issue of migrants became maximum internal debate in most European Union countries.

Countries of "Visegrad bloc" as testified their summit in Prague, do not want to take "extra" illegal in itself. "Visegrad Four" are not ready to increase the quota for illegal immigrants. Britain and Spain also take a negative position on the decision of the European Commission. In France, despite the "schism in the family Le Pen," the theme of illegal immigration will be leading in the presidential race of 2017. Most likely a similar situation and be in the September 2017 elections to the German Bundestag.

Supporters of the idea of ​​loyalty to the workers reminiscent of the demographic crisis in Europe, which needed cheap labor. However, this problem has a downside. Indeed, in many EU countries formed marginalized ethnic groups with their own model of behavior, consumption-oriented European resources. Medieval ideology leads to the medieval way of life, even if we remain chronologically in the XXI century.

The concept of openness does not work when tolerance disappears. It is hardly an optimal solution to the problem can be considered the idea of ​​European Commission head Jean-Claude Juncker on the establishment of filtration camps for illegal migrants in third countries. While such fate befell Serbia. In addition, the joint military command with the EU is discussing the possibility of expanding the NATO operation in the Mediterranean aimed at tighter control over the flow of illegal immigrants who break in Europe. However, without stabilization of the situation in crisis areas in North Africa, the Middle East to stop the "great migration of peoples" is almost impossible. Unfortunately, currently there is no hope for the quick stabilization in these regions.


1. U. Beck Cosmopolitan Europe: Reality and Utopia // Free Thought. - 2007. - №3. - S. 33.

2. M. Albright Religion and World Politics / Trans. from English. - M., 2007. - S. 10.

3. F. Cardini Europe and Islam. The history of misunderstanding. - SPb., 2007. - S. 35.

4. S. Huntington Clash of civilizations and changing world order. - Lviv, 2006. - S. 37.

5 Sen Amartya. Die Identitätsfalle. Warum es keinen Krieg der Kultur gibt. - München, 2006. - S.37.

6 J. Kristeva They are all strangers / Per. with fr. - K., 2004. - S. 44.

7. The Man Who Divided Germany // www.spiegel.de/<wbr>international/topic/thilo_<wbr>sarrazin/

8. Frankfurter Allgemeine Zeitung - 2012. - 27 August. - S.8.

9. Schünemann Uwe. Die salafistische Herausforderung // Frankfurter Allgemeine Zeitung. - 2012. - 7. April. - S.10.

New media: risks and opportunities for the Armed Forces French Republic

(political and diplomatic context)

Iolanta-Anna de Vris


Now professional activities in all spheres realize the importance of the new media. Social networks are having a growing impact within the armed forces. It provokes the discussions as to its negative and positive components. The new media changed the informational space and that in turn changed the communicational strategy of the armed forces. At present, it has to balance the risks and at the same time use the social networks capacity.

Keywords: new media, diplomacy, social networks, French armed forces, French Ministry of defense, communicational strategy.

Now every professional sphere has significant influence of new media. Information about social networks are beginning to exert stronger influence in the internal environment of the armed forces is discussion about their positive and negative components.

For the armed forces and military diplomacy social networks have become controversial phenomenon - on the one hand, they contain great potential to improve communication on the axis army - nation, on the other - is an extremely dangerous source of leaks that has a strategic character.

A wave of new media users is growing rapidly and according to a study Médiamétrie [1], the French leader of the research areas of the media in 1985, 70% of those with accounts in social networks, visiting them daily. Every citizen of France represented an average of three social networks, 40% of respondents are willing to open an account in the future in the same network. The first item is the number of users belonging to France Facebook - 85%, ranks second with 33% of Google+ signatories, in third place - Twitter (30%), which is positioned as a recognized source of information.

It should be noted that the emergence of the term "social networking" became a subject of study in Sociology, from 50-ies. Social network defined as combining social identities - individuals and organizations, which unite joint action. The social network is a structure that has a dynamic character and formed under the influence of certain individuals and organizations, which recognizes leadership. In the twentieth century. social networks have gained virtual representation only and widespread thanks to the Internet, they cover a variety of areas of activity to collect social interactions of individuals or groups of individuals.

Thus, the social network can be defined as a website that allows users to sign up there and create a virtual ID card. Is a social network if makes it possible to share with other members.

Avoiding web 1.0 helped implement faster interaction with pages made possible the emergence of the Internet and social networks. Internet users is not isolated by a static web page and now is an active participant in the creation of Internet space. The emergence of large commercial platforms contributed to changes in the use of the Internet. Easy access and technical feasibility for most created conditions for simplified content production and joining in virtual groups in an instant. Some platforms have become true "ecosystem" which joins the growing number actors and companies that are due to them.

The boundaries between web-technologies are becoming more transparent because of extremely rapid evolution of digital and web 2.0 is rapidly losing ground web 3.0, mobile technologies that unstable systems. Web 4.0 will synchronize all web-related services and technologies.

Thus, social media enable to communicate easier and diverse way and therefore further increase their popularity is beyond doubt. As for social networks, which is an additional resource for traditional media, they also made substantial and irreversible changes in the format of communication between producers and consumers of information, giving each of them the two roles.

In what way new media changed the information space? The most significant impact factors include the time compression, because the information is disseminated in real time (platform Twitter). Messages can be received in the same moment from direct witness. In second place - compression space. Internet users feel no geographical boundaries and physical barriers. There remain only linguistic borders, but they really overcome through a variety of interactive services. In the third format change should be put communication, becomes a horizontal nature. Traditional communication from the center to the peripheral channel is outdated. Information exchange is carried out directly among network users without hierarchical barriers. In fourth place - a decentralized organization of exchange of information as it becomes available to any user, and among Internet activist organization minimized. In fifth place is the interactivity, because thanks to the digital revolution of communication has become a multilateral dialogue in real time. In sixth place - permanent communication, since non-fixed communication system made it possible to communicate anywhere and at any moment. On the seventh advisable, to put the unity of the cycle of production and consumption of information made possible by new media.

According to data published in the study "Social Networks: origin and consequences for the armed forces", edited by Colonel of the Air Force army of France Laurent aubignas, information space is currently feeling the effects of these phenomena - the change in the forms of circulation of information, an influential government Internet activists permeability between traditional media and social media, the culture of transparency [2].

From now on a post created to be effectively reproduced by others, which gives it a special value. In addition, the speed of information dissemination, not concealing it also makes it more significant. Information should draw attention to themselves, risking instantly disappear, at least be reproduced later. Videodata enjoys more influence than a text message because the video format is the most appropriate, since the impact of technology based on the change in emotional state.

Social network users being recognized if it posts a lot of people played online community. Each user gets the role of News-maker. Internet activists are increasingly unable to control attention, and this ability leads to another - the ability to mobilize like-minded people through social networks. Although it should be noted that such activity is often reduced to virtual actions, such as sign an online complaint. Of course, modern Internet tools lets you quickly create a group, a movement to be recognized in the media, political and politico-diplomatic circles, but excessive amounts of information online can leave the user totally ignored.

The boundaries between traditional media and new media is gradually disappearing. Comments or critical speech in traditional media playable on social networks, but sometimes they are the only source of information for journalists, politicians and diplomats through censorship or impossibility of direct participation in the events. Some news reports on social networks affect its emotional component, instant and privacy of content that are designed for manipulation technology.

Easy access to digital information, its autonomous and decentralized nature contribute to frequent appeal to the Internet to obtain or verify the information. Internet activists or ordinary users of new media enter into debate with the media, politicians and diplomats. However, a large array of unverified information makes a contribution to the destruction of institutions. However, state control over information flows would cause public opposition. The digital revolution has deprived governments monopoly on communication, which in turn hinders the formation of basic communication message for society, and - behavior.

By the way, the Army center between concepts, doctrines and testing of the Military School French Ministry of Defence, in which conducted the above study also did not escape the impact of the digital revolution. Its officials say that fundamentally Center has no physical library and not distribute any instrument in printed form. In contrast to the attention of citizens proposed e-library, which is updated constantly.

Why do new media have become a challenge for the armed forces and military diplomacy? First, users of social networking age coincides with the age of the largest personnel (18-34 years) in countries with conscript army figures deviate from the larger label. Second, the rapid exchange of information, which knows no boundaries, contrary to mandatory secret military operations. Thirdly, the armed forces of any country is centralized and hierarchical apparatus, the operation does not meet the dynamic and decentralized structure of the new media.

A number of soldiers, especially the older generation and under - officers, with the caveat relates to the use of new media their subordinates, but their fear is usually based on foreign experience. As the Doctor of Political Sciences, researcher of the French Institute of International Relations and deputy editor of "Politique étrangère" Marc Hecker, there are three main risks of social networks in the army. The first should include "involuntary" information leakage when soldiers can post messages without noting its impact on the security measures. In 2010 military operation, the Israeli army was withdrawn through a post on Facebook soldier who wrote: "On Wednesday we clean Katana and on Thursday, if the will of God, back home." Issued by other military, he appeared before the tribunal and was punished. But this is not the only case of spontaneous fusion of strategic information in the ranks of the Israeli army. After these events in the Israeli armed forces had established a special unit to monitor the leak and held strategic information campaign to explain what kind of information should not be placed on social networks.

The French Defence Ministry said that the origins of such strategic information among the country's military was not observed. Management Office stresses that this situation is in Israel, particularly because thence is reserve forces and soldiers mobilized only during military operations. Returning to civilian life, they use social networks as normal.

The second risk is political in nature - shocking images of war may be published on the Internet and cause moral and political condemnation. For example, an Israeli soldier last Eden Aberzhyl posted photos of Palestinian prisoners in humiliating condition.

The third risk is the risk of penetration that was duly converted by Hezbollah members, creating avatars, which features resembled a young Israeli Ruth Zuckerman.

However, as stressed by Marc Hecker, all three risks should not be exaggerated when it comes to the French armed forces. The vast majority of soldiers using social networks safely and wisely. In particular, this is due to effective military campaign in France to attract attention to the risks of social networking.

It should be noted that new media also represent and benefits for law enforcement agencies. Consider the risks from the backside, the social network is also a new communication channel to establish contact with the public, especially young people. For example, French Defence Minister has an account in Facebook: "Let's talk about the defense," which is dedicated to communication with the younger generation and employs 12 thousand. Supporters.

The armed forces also use social networks to promote to contract service. In the US, each center has set its page in Facebook, in France it not been so popular, but Page "Set in the Army" has 250 thousand. Followers.

Another trend is not very common in France at present, is to use social networks within the armed forces to conduct joint projects between armies. For this purpose, you can create a protected platform. US already has a long experience in this field - and Platoonleader sites Companycommand allow young officers to share information, including the tactical details, and there are over ten years.

As part of a campaign to draw attention to the safe use of social media in the 2012 French Defence Ministry has prepared a manual on the proper use of social media, which aims to help military use of social networks, in particular the placement of certain content and insurance against potential risks. Manual contains several sections, each of which is supplemented with practical advice: respect for secrecy of operations, communication as a private person communication in a professional environment. There are specific examples where military incorrectly used its presence in social media. The most common risks include insufficient verification privacy preferences its position during military operations, posting photos and videos containing strategic information.

Protecting anonymity troops of France has become an important topic for discussion at the highest command levels. Breaking site TV5 Monde, cybercriminals put the documents presented as identification cards and data close French troops involved in operations against the Islamic State. This followed the publication in the Internet list of 100 US military with their names, addresses and photos, urging US Muslims to their murder. As a result, on the Facebook page of the Ministry of Defence of France regularly places a picture of military operations on various fronts, only soldiers face during operation "Shammal" in Iraq given blurred. At the headquarters of the French army noted that despite the absence of a direct threat to the names of drivers that cause air strikes on IDIL never be disclosed. Even crew aircraft carrier "Charles de Gaulle", which joined the operation "Shammal" kept secret.

However, such security measures are not always enough, because from time to time soldiers themselves disclose information about themselves on social networks. So Islamic terrorist Mohammed Merah found his first victim - French army officer Imada Ibn Ziatena Online Bon coin, where the last placed classified ads scooter. The military said that many travel to hot spots prevented him use the scooter.

Since then, the French military personnel and diplomats is strongly recommended to place their photos in uniform in Facebook, disclose his name and position, and use geolocation service, but in informal conversations, they reported that the sanctions for failure to recommendations provided. Currently, they are allowed to use social networks for personal reasons, when computers are disconnected from the internal work network.

Department of Defense, having sufficient experience in information warfare, back in 2010 decided to regulate the use of social media. The website of the State Department was placed ad, which stated that the US military is officially allowed to use social networks, but the devices are not connected to the information system of the army. This authorization were even soldiers who were on the battlefield. By the time, the use of social networks is not regulated in official documents. The Department of Defense said that the commanders of various military units should abort any connection under certain circumstances.

"The new policy allows the Department of Defense access to these [Facebook, Twitter, Youtube] or other Web 2.0 platforms from unclassified government computers, as long as it does not contradict the security of military operations and not relevant to the banned sites" [3]. The report also noted that most of the employees had the opportunity to use social media platforms from their government computers, but the department did not have a consistent policy on this. Around 2007 Marine Corps implemented a policy ban access to social networking sites from work computers, but military personnel were allowed to communicate in social networks with personal devices.

Returning to the possibilities presented by social media forces to note their use as a springboard monitor the activities of terrorist organizations and instrument effects.

"The actions of the enemy on the modern battle can also be through means that are not necessarily associated with the use of force" [4] - said a spokesman for the British Army, commented that the initiative to establish 77 Brigade, a special unit to monitor and exercise through social media influence as "mainly to meet the challenges of conflict and the wars of our time." Got its name from the name of a team unit led by Major General Vinheyta Horde, who during World War II involved the unusual and controversial tactics on Japanese troops, which provided the British success even in the inequality of forces. He sent a small group inside the territory controlled by Japan, which sowed uncertainty among command and forced the enemy to change strategic plans.

The need for such a unit in the Armed Forces of the United Kingdom explain the distress actions of Russia in Ukraine IDIL and Syria. However, the experience gained during the action against disobedience movement in Afghanistan has prompted this British command reflect on the influence of social networks. Today the US military and Israel have acquired considerable experience in the conduct of the media wars. The army of Israel is very active in social media with 2008 and is currently represented in 30 media platforms six languages.

Although the French Armed Forces have not yet made the decision to go to war with the jihadists in social media, they are closely monitoring the activity on their platforms known.

"Indeed, social networks have an additional impact through greater openness. However, for us it is the direction to which we devote the same attention as other forms of communication and, "- said in 2012 the then Defence Minister Gerard Longuet of France. At a time when the French government nevertheless started a campaign stop-djihadisme, General Staff officially denied a military unit to counter-propaganda on the Internet. Commenting on the situation, a spokesman for the French general staff, Colonel Gilles Zharon, said: "This is not part of our scope of activities" [5]. However, the influential French media began to appear about the creation of such a unit to conduct psychological operations, thereby using the armed forces to strengthen internal security and external military and diplomatic support. Discussions concerning the feasibility of conducting psychological operations have a long history among the high command of the Armed Forces of France. With the war in Algeria, the French armed forces show great caution in relation to such activities.

However, in January 2015 in the center of long-distance actions on environmental conditions in Lyon, which is analyzing the environment of military operations, was set up a small group, which included military and military diplomats, whose functions belong watch jihadist activity in social networks. Branch is currently only observe and not interfere in online activity of terrorist organizations. Results of this work are reported cybersecurity operational command under the leadership of Admiral Arnaud Kustiyyera and then in the center of planning and operational command. The establishment of such a unit in the French army was due to the fact that in winter 2015 jihadist activity level has increased significantly and now their propaganda activities carried out in French. Because the target is not only France, but French-speaking Africa, where military operations involving French armed forces.

Army center of action for the external environment was created through the merger of two structures - Groups of military operations and the impact Army of civil-military operations. Its task is to examine the situation on the ground, where the French army. To reduce the resistance of the local population should justify the presence of foreign forces, and this can be done, in particular by providing medical care and humanitarian action, distributing school supplies and more. For the first time this practice was applied in Bosnia-Herzegovina. Also, the tasks of this unit is monitoring the situation with the opposition forces as it did in Afghanistan. Army center of action for the external environment is not a major division, he has 150 people, a third of which is constantly abroad.

However, there is the question why the Army center between the action on the external environment was entrusted to monitor social networks and not, for example, the Office of Military Intelligence official military or diplomatic representatives of the army of the state in the host country - the military attache. The answer can be found in the struggle for influence within the army, which has always been very active. The new operational command cybersecurity intends to go further and create a "fourth cyber army." Currently, its functions include protection of information and communication systems of defense from information attacks, but the leadership of this structure shows considerable interest in monitoring new media.

In this connection the question arises legitimize actions of the French army on the national territory, as law and order in the country is in the jurisdiction of the police and gendarmerie, and monitor Internet presence of French citizens and people who are on its territory is not within the competence of the armed forces . However, the appeal of jihadist French via the Internet may affect the radicalization of sentiment within the army, so observe the "internal enemy" is entirely appropriate. It should be noted that the functions of internal monitoring in the military owns the Office for the Protection of defense and security.

So, it should be emphasized that the armed forces of France, in terms of new challenges and threats of the XXI century. Demonstrated understanding of the phenomenon of new media that provide actionable benefits, and worked out a strategy of balancing risks. The French army successfully adapting to the new media environment, creating the new tool of military diplomacy skillfully withstand global effort to limit the use of social media.

Under the present conditions, the armed forces need a balanced communications strategy in new media, providing an analysis of the political-diplomatic and external circumstances, working out a plan of communication with the different sequences and, depending on the actual capacity. Particular attention should be paid to elaboration of conceptual elements that should operate in a communique and reasoning during an interview officials, politicians and diplomats. They shall be mentioned in the unified communication policy, as due to changes in the information space caused by new media, the attention of the world will be instantly directed to the message of unreasoned and neutralize its effect will be very difficult. Communication strategy needs to identify target media platforms and communications mechanisms to establish relations with the Internet community to assess the results of the submitted information. A separate line communication strategy is to provide important events. In this regard, each component is significant, as the choice of place of communication, coordination units Office, staging events coverage and more. The extreme importance of crisis communication in the political and diplomatic environment that requires specific policy actions that involve analysis of circumstances clock monitoring of new media, the formulation of special items reasoning and observing the results of communication with the expectation of positive results and the predicted consequences.


1.​ www.mediametrie.fr/<wbr>internet/communiques/l-<wbr>audience-de-l-internet-global-<wbr>en-france-en-janvier-2015.php

2.​ htpp://www.cicde.defense.gouv.<wbr>fr

3. www.defense.gov/news/<wbr>newsarticle.aspx

4. www.theguardian.com/uk-<wbr>news/2015/jan/31/british-army-<wbr>facebook-warriors-77th-brigade

5. Jean-Dominique Merchet, Propagande sur le web: l`armée tâtonne, l`Opinion, 5 février 2015, p.

Geocultura of Italy in the political scientist triangle

"Globalization - democracy - political culture"

Inna Kostyrya


Now Italy's foreign policy continues to be in the center calls from the international and European crisis. The internal structure of the EU is in a state of uncertainty, which provides the basis for the formation of centrifugal tendencies in the region as well and Italy itself. There is activation and anti-European populist forces. In addition, the increasing risks due to events in Ukraine and Syria. Difficult is the global context of world politics. With some difficulty coming reform of global governance. The main tool to implement its national interests in Italy has become a cultural diplomacy.

Keywords: geocultura, political culture, democracy, globalization.

The image of culture used in the widest possible context; This means engaging in the analysis of political scientists and concepts as a global development and specific local. This article examines the geo-cultural strategy of Italy in terms of interaction between global processes and local civilizations of the political process, as much of the latter is a particular invariant geocultura. Analysis of the Italian experience in building adequate brand positioning positive image of the state and simultaneously prevents aggravation of conflict-minded regional movements and minorities.

During the celebration of the 150th anniversary of the Italian state, President Giorgio Napolitano said that the unity of the nation, overcoming separatism, irresponsibility in the political process on the prospects of development of the country allows Italy to move toward greater justice in a better world. Indeed, Italy has made some progress in the international arena. She is an active member of the G7, the UN, NATO and exporter of engineering equipment. Italian culture, design, fashion, cuisine internationally recognized. Elite Italy, given the influence of the Catholic Church on the mood in the country, established based on a number of legal acts harmonious relations with the Vatican in terms of the asymmetric nature of the processes of cultural globalization [1].

This pattern of globalization accelerates differentiation, conflicts and distorts integration. The irony of the situation is that many concepts of ethical products, mass culture and hypotheses globalist philosophy, heavily promoted on the world market as a universal cultural heritage, are products of the evolution of Western civilization. And one of the advantages of a well-known article by S. Huntington was that he was one of the first Western analysts not only publicly outlined this fact, but also pointed to its isolation from the classic values, the ability of these "cultural streams" crowd out national and ethnic culture. The term "geocultura" entered the theoretical discourse through the works of I. Wallerstein [2], in which it is embedded in world-systems theory in the context of global geopolitical and geo-economic problems. Researcher D. Zamyatin [3] examined the geo-cultural image as a geospatial system signs (characters) and characteristics describing the features of the development and operation of various cultures and civilizations in global terms.

These concepts have been particularly useful in our analysis of political discourse in Italy triangles political scientists "globalization - democracy - political culture"; "Nation - state - culture". The specificity associated with the conceptualization of this fact rather difficult process of national unification of Italy. On the one hand, common Italy national idea as the driving force behind building a single state is quite "fresh" and therefore more effective. On the other - because of historical "youth" of Italian unity could be argued that the concept of the nation-state in a number of aspects not sufficiently established in public opinion and not included organically in the political system of the country. At this historic fragility of the existence of nation-states in Italy and now pay attention to modern Italian politicians and experts. Researcher O.N. Barabanov said that the influence on Italian politics and imperial idea of ​​the reign of Benito Mussolini. Because of its universality, this idea contrary to the idea of ​​the nation-state. This led to the fact that the theme of the preservation of national unity and strengthen foreign policy independence of internal regions of Italy was in 1990-2000's. Sufficient urgency. On the one hand, the modern Italy was able to avoid conflict active-minded movements of minorities. Recently, the most widespread expression of such sentiments became . separatist movement in the region of Alto Adige Trentino (South Tyrol) in the 1950s - early 1960s. Then the German nationalists in Italy was a series of terrorist attacks, and the goal of terrorists was the separation of South Tyrol in Italy. [4]

In the 60 years Norberto Bobbio, professor of philosophy, politics and philosophy of law from Turin University, began a dialogue with Togliatti and G. Della Volpe understanding of freedom and the related problem of understanding the withering away of the state (estinzione dello stato). To convert theoretical problems into practical policy was reasonably N. Bobbio number of ideas on the development of the theory of democracy. The scientist takes formal institutional definition of democracy as a set of "rules" that was positively evaluated by Habermas. Thus, N. Bobbio considers the concept of "democracy paradox" in the context of a number of contradictions: the trends of democratization and bureaucratization of the state; democracy and development technocracy. In 1984 the researcher published the book "The Future of Democracy" with the subtitle "Democracy and the international system." Despotism, according to scientists, is static, democracy is - dynamic, adaptive and pluralistic. During pluralism Bobbio understands not only the presence of different parties and ideologies, but also the activities of competing elites. This scientist opposes oligarchic neokorporatyvizmu. He expects that democracy will take place in Italy in accordance with liberal principles of tolerance, pluralism and minimal government interference in the free economic initiative and without abuse "rules" of democracy. Positioning States so characterizes N. Bobbio, in terms of D. Zola as a supporter of the theory of democratic elitism.

From another perspective, during the "Cold War" in Italy and obsolescence ideas erosion of national sovereignty defended and argued Club of Rome founder Aurelio Peccei. In his view, the world order based on the principle of State sovereignty, "does not meet the time" and an obstacle to future world of global integration. National sovereignty for A. Peccei in century global empire is considered the main obstacle to the salvation of man. On the need to rethink and overcome national sovereignty in favor of European integration Altyero wrote Spinelli, who was a supporter of the ideas of pan-European federalism. His concepts have made their impact on the development of the Italian political thought in 1990-2000 years. In the spotlight of Italian researchers in this period was and impact that have on the nation-state processes of globalization, the erosion of the Westphalian system of the world as a whole. So, Luigi Vittorio Ferraris, on the one hand, considered the possibility of active creation of supranational governance structures and overcoming state sovereignty (the scheme, which he calls "internationalization system"). On the other hand, it examines the possibility of creating within the globalized world "international bodies" within the "system of coexistence" nation-states, without transferring their sovereign powers to another level.

In studies Rocchi F. Bruni stressed that the nation-state cannot exercise its sovereignty over currency and financial flows. Therefore, it is forced to seek compromise mechanisms of influence on cross-border financial flows that differ from direct directives. It is much more efficient for the state to learn how to use the free cross-border financial resources for their own benefit and not to the detriment of their own security. Thus, the nation-state is more profitable to give up a significant and symbolically important element in favor of sovereignty to become more competitive and attractive, more efficient. Unsubscribe from direct government law (jus imperii) for control law (jus gestionis).

In addition, the Italian experts including Mario Deglio, developed the concept of the uneven effects of globalization on some parts of the world. The scientist said that it started with globalization processes strengthen supranational integration in several regions of the world, including within the EU. To describe this he used the metaphor of "globalization-Archipelago" and some "islands" in it (Europe, North America, Asia, etc.). According to M. Deglio, strengthening the external impact on the economy and public finance encourages consolidation in the supranational integration structures - "islands" in the "archipelago" of globalization. According to this logic, the further development of the world mainly determined nature of the interaction between such overstate "islands" and the role of nation-states will increasingly marginalize. A number of Italian experts who study the political, institutional and legal aspects of globalization, concludes inevitable tendency to form a single "universal rights" in the form of global constitution. This writes, in particular, Pier Giuseppe Monateri.

In 1990-2000 Italy was faced with a fundamentally different challenge to the unity and territorial integrity. He was connected with the internal heterogeneity of the Italian nation and sub-national serious contradictions are not resolved despite government policy and ideology of solidarity of the Italian nation. In today's Italy is evident in the work of "Northern League", led by Umberto Bossi.

In general, ideology and political action "Northern League" did not lead to the formation of sufficiently serious threat to state unity and territorial integrity Italy. However, they made quite a significant contribution to the promotion launched during the EU process of a transformation of the political system, its "devolution", ie the transfer of broader administrative and financial powers from central government to the regions. All this, in turn, has brought in political and expert discourse in Italy about the role of government in the modern world, another dimension - namely, the process of "devolution".

The political outcome of these processes has become quite extensive constitutional reform of 18 October 2001. It is within the central government to the regions were granted much greater authority and autonomy. As a result of the political structure of Italy almost got many federal Fig. Among them was first prescribed in the Constitution (new version of Article 117) separation of powers of the state and the regions. It touched and international aspects. Thus, the regions have the right to conduct its own international relations under the control of the state. By the joint jurisdiction of the state and the regions was attributed, among other things, international relations regions, regions ties with the EU and foreign trade.

Further, according to the new wording of Art. 117 of the Italian Constitution, regions have the right to participate in the preparation of EU regulations. Based on this provision, Emilia-Romagna region in 2002 initiated the signing of the so-called "Universal Declaration on European governance", approved by a number of different regions of the EU. They advocated the expansion of direct involvement in formulating regional regulations of the EU. Now the problem is the focus of Italian and EU policy in connection with the development of the European Union Constitutional Charter.

Innovation constitutional reform in Italy is providing the regions the right to enter into agreements with foreign states and regions of other countries. Thus, the Italian regions were fairly broad authority on international issues and began to implement them. As a result, voiced the opinion that such regional autonomy is a danger to the unity of the Italian nation-state and can have a major impact on erosion territorial integrity. The ethnic "explosion" exposed the internal contradictions of the classical liberal model for Western nation-state. Individual civil union philosophy while ignoring ethnicity, despite successes in achieving national solidarity, was once a myth. After all Western nations have their cultural identity is usually based on the culture of the dominant ethnic group. Private equity turned cultural assimilation and denial of collective rights of minorities, who had to fight for recognition of the fact of its existence. The identification of the nation with a set of citizens, strict link between nationhood and statehood, denial multinational state all these characteristic theses western doctrine created there especially intractable dilemmas. Even giving real political, economic and cultural authorities are not satisfied in full, such as the Basques or Catalans seeking recognition as nations, not necessarily linking it with the office. However, satisfy that requirement involves a fundamental break with the western concept of nation. In turn, such a view is hampered not only by force of ideological tradition, but also because of increasing immigration policy multiculturalism Western society.

The prospect of victory "one global cultural order market" causes and theoretical objections. Symbolizes this "unity" unified stream of "cultural products", which has fundamental flaws that undermine its ability to create alternative identity in new international circumstances.

One of the main historical constants that determine the foreign policy of Italy, in these circumstances, was the sense of vulnerability in terms of international and regional security, due to features like geo-political situation of the country and its place in international relations. With the end of "Cold War" and to remove the threat of global conflict is the sense of danger is not gone, but acquired a new dimension because of the proximity of Italy to conflict regions - the Balkans, the Southern Mediterranean. Almost all the major conflicts of the 1990s. Broke here. As for the broader international context, the situation for Italy and the EU is extremely unfavorable because of challenges to European security, especially in connection with the conflict over Ukraine and Syria. [6] For Italy the situation is doubly difficult: first, the need to continue more strongly and consistently rate internal reforms and restore international position of the country; secondly, to bring the country's foreign policy strategy in line with changes in the European and international climate. The second projection is constant and determined by the position of the first in Italy in a system of world politics and expressed in the formula "the last of the great powers and the first among the small." This formula requires permanent confirmation of Italian diplomacy internationally recognized leaders - G7, G20. Third constant of Italian foreign policy - the development of bilateral ties or alliances that can provide it to external and internal security as well as presence "at the table of great powers." This desire can be confirmed success in economic, military state. It defines and fourth constant expressed in short supply capabilities. That is why the Italian diplomacy strengthens its activity in Europe: in 2014, significant event was the appointment of Foreign Minister of Italy Federica Mogherini EU High Representative for Foreign Affairs and Security Policy.

Italy developing its branding. Today it is among the most successful national brands, according to the ratings of S. Anholt 2012-2014, The country is on the 7th place with 50. In 2014, Italy ranked 11th in the world ranking of national brands with a value of A + (strong brand).

In the strategy document Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Italy "La nuova Farnesina per il Sistema Paese" (2011) had developed the concept of "system - Country" (Sistema Paese). In general, it means a comprehensive approach to promoting the economy, culture and science of Italy abroad, including coordination of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of regional and local initiatives in this area.

The main instrument for implementing "soft power" in Italian politics is cultural diplomacy, which aims to spread Italian culture abroad, promotion of the Italian language and lifestyle. Cultural diplomacy exercise of Foreign Affairs, Ministry of Heritage and cultural activities, the Ministry of Economic Development, the National Institute of Foreign Trade (LICE), non-profit organizations (including Dante Alighieri Society).

In the field of cultural diplomacy in Italy is also important Central Directorate to promote Italian culture and Italian language department in the structure of the Foreign Ministry of Italy. In the sphere of competence of this department are: distribution of Italian language, culture and work abroad; Network Management Institute of Culture and language schools; planning and organization of cultural events; Italian internationalization of higher education; grants, scholarships and youth exchanges; Italy participated in the work of international organizations in the sphere of culture.

One of the successful initiatives of the Italian cultural diplomacy has become a large-scale image program "Exhibitaly - Italian excellence today. Tradition and innovation. " The project was implemented in 2012 with the assistance of the Foreign Ministry and Ministry of Economic Development of Italy, his goal was to promote products "Made in Italy" and the Italian lifestyle in Russia. The tenor of the program - the theme of science, innovation and tradition. The organizers set themselves the task to present Italy as a country whose excellence is based on a millennial culture and that at each new stage of development knowledge is able to accept the challenge of the present and the future. The program introduced Italian culture and identity of the country's most characteristic areas of art, architecture and natural landscape, science, design, fashion and culture of food. The project provided an opportunity to enhance the image of Italy in Russia, demonstrating along with the culture and even the industrial and economic potential.

In order to increase the competitiveness of the industry ministry in 2013 developed a Strategic Plan for Tourism Development "Italy 2020". It identified seven areas of development: improve management; increasing industry support from the state; "Restart" of the National Tourism Agency in an altered form; creation of modern tourist offer; the development of the hospitality industry, infrastructure and transport; formation training system; increase the flow of international investment (by removing bureaucratic obstacles). In case of successful implementation of the strategy the Ministry of Tourism promises to the country in 2020 to 500 thousand. New jobs and an additional contribution to GDP of 30 billion euros.

The leading role in promoting the tourist image of Italy plays Enit National Agency for Tourism (ENIT - l'Agenzia Nazionale del Turismo). Enit is administered by the Ministry of Tourism of Italy. Today it is open about 25 offices in 20 countries.

The most important event in the context of promoting the image of Italy was the World Universal Exhibition EXPO 2015, held in Milan under the motto "Feed the planet. Energy for life" (Nutrire il Pianeta. Energia per la Vita). The main objective of the exhibition and find solutions to the food problem in the world, providing all people on the planet healthy and safe food while preserving natural and ecological balance. The theme is relevant because in the world, according to WHO, hungry and malnourished around 850 million people. EXPO 2015 in Milan aims to demonstrate the world's best achievements in food, to discover the traditions and innovative technologies in this field.

The main components of the brand "Made in Italy" traditionally considered three sectors: gastronomy, fashion and furniture. The Italian researchers also include his engineering sector, design and manufacture of products for home, leisure and recreation sector.

The development of the brand "Made in Italy" started in 1950-60 years (during the Italian economic boom) with the heyday of Italian fashion. At the same time there was a dynamic development of design and furniture manufacturing. Pretty soon the Italian fashion industry intercepted palm in the French, who were recognized for over a century legislators trends in this field. By the end of XX century Italian designer managed to oust the French fashion, ahead of her on several parameters: 1) democracy and accessibility; 2) the number of designers; 3) diversity offers.

Thus, the above facts indicate that the specificity of the Italian political process, political culture and culture combined with the openness of discourse made it possible to avoid threats to the territorial integrity and security, which do national separatist forces in several other countries. It is noted that in the construction of geo-cultural image of the country used a structured, long-term geographic images. Italy has the most powerful positions in the following parameters: tourist attraction, culture and heritage, exporting and human capital. Public administration remains the Achilles heel of the country, which pursue political scandals and the mess with prime ministers.

So, among the main components of "soft power" geocultura Italy are the following: culture and art; tourist attraction; brand "Made in Italy"; lifestyle (kitchen, fashion and design concept dolce vita).


1. Zonova T.V. Modern Italy - key issues of domestic and foreign policy / T.V. Zonova // Russia and states of the peninsula at the present stage = Russia and the Apennines states in the contemporary world / [ed. Al.A. Gromyko]. - Moscow: Institute of Europe, Russian Academy of Sciences: Eng. Souvenir, 2012. - P. 43-49.

2. Monateri P.G. "Giustizia" globale o diritto internazionale / Deaglio M., Frankel G.S., Monateri P.G., Caffarena A. Dopo l'Iraq. Ottavo rapporto sull'economia globale e l'Italia. Centro di ricerca e documentazione "Luigi Einaudi". Milano, Guerini e Associati, 2003. P. 93-94.

3. Wallerstein I. Geopolitics and Geoculture: Essays on the Changing World-System / I. Wallerstein. Cambridge, Cambridge University Press, 1991. 252 p.

4. D. Zamyatin Geographic images of world development / Dmitry Zamyatin // Social studies and the present. 2001. № 1. pp 123-138.

5. Barabanov O.N. The erosion of the Westphalian system in the Italian political thought / O. Barabanov / Russia and the state of the peninsula at the present stage = Russia and the Apennines states in the contemporary world / [ed. Al.A. Gromyko]. - Moscow: Institute of Europe, Russian Academy of Sciences: Eng. Souvenir, 2012. - P. 16-29.

6. The Italian Republic in a changing world = The Italian Republic in a Changing World / [ed. A.A. Yazkova]. - Moscow: Institute of Europe, Russian Academy of Sciences, 2014. - 142 p.

The social modernization and regional security: East Asian version

Sergiy Shergin


The article is devoted to analysis of the social modernization processes in East Asian countries in the context of regional security issues. The main attention is paid to the factors and peculiarities of the modernization process in some regional countries and models of Asia Pacific security.

Key words: modernization, East Asia, regional integration, Trans-Pacific security, new industrial countries, post industrialism.

First, we note that the political establishment and business circles of Ukraine would be useful to apply the successful experience of social modernization in East Asia over the past decades show a sustainable socio-economic development. Due to the phenomenal economic growth of Japan first, then neoindustrial Asian countries (NICs) and China, the region began to play the role of locomotive of the world economy. Currently, the combined GDP of the region is 30% more than the same index in the world. The dynamic development of these countries is grounds for declaring the idea of ​​establishing East Asian Community (EAC), with which in 1990 made by former Prime Minister Mahathir bin Mohamad of Malaysia. In 2005 g. In the Malaysian capital Kuala Lumpur at the East Asian Summit, which took place in the "10 + 6" (ten countries of the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) plus China, Japan, South Korea, Australia, India, New Zealand ), an important decision was taken. The summit agreed to establish to the 2020 East Asian Economic Community - (EAEC). In 2009 while at the 64th session of the UN General Assembly on Japanese Prime Minister Hatoyama again voiced the idea of ​​establishing EAC - a kind of analogue of the European Union, but the "purely Asian community" [1].

Collision of two projects - EAC, purely Asian and EAEC, part of which can go in not Asian countries, including the US and Russia (ASEAN + 8), puts the future of integration in East Asia. From the solution of this question will largely depend on the process of social modernization, particularly in the ASEAN countries, which have become the driving force of integration in the Asia-Pacific Region (APR).

Specificity of East Asian modernization

Through the process of modernization, which began falls on 60-70-ies last century, the so-called Asian tigers and dragons Pacific posts industrial reached the level of development and have built quite efficient economy, oriented mainly on exporting raw materials and industrial products. Economic growth and prosperity in these countries was the impetus for the process of reforming their social systems. As a result, it affected the development of democratic trends in political life of traditional Asian societies. Even in China, which is difficult to be classified as democratic countries, Western in origin the idea of ​​social modernization; economic decentralization and consumer culture are becoming more attractive and popular among intellectuals and ordinary citizens.

For the first time the general theory of modernization as a managed process of reform of social systems and universal experiences were observed D. Apterom, T. Parsons, M. Levy, A. Inkelom, D. Lerner and other American political scientists and sociologists, whose work was published in 1960-1970 respectively. The content and structure of the concepts of "modern" and "modernity" in their social dimension M. Levy were presented as inherent characteristics of any modern society that has the following features:

 specialization social elements;

 a certain level of self-sufficiency of these elements;

 increase standards of universal morality;

 combination of centralization and democratization [2].

More details and reveals the full meaning of these concepts D. Lerner, who interpreted modernism as a set of features:

 availability of independent development of the economy, particularly in the production and consumption;

 the required level of activity in public policy, particularly in the area of democratic representation and choice of policy options;

 individually rational distribution rules in the field of culture;

 increase mobility in society and understanding of personal freedom;

 on individual transformation model [3].

Compared with European social systems similar indicator of modernism and modernization in East Asian society were much lower, due to their historical past and the colonial policy of Western powers. Only after the victory of the national liberation movements in most countries in Asia 50-60 last century were created the necessary conditions for the development of social modernization, which resulted in the economic and socio-political basis for the post-industrial development and regional integration.

Notably, modernization and derivative Post-industrialism is not a purely European model of social and economic development. The logic of post-industrialism leads to the creation of a social order in which the economy is such when fully updated consumption structure is diversified and value orientations in society. Central to the post-industrial development is the emergence of innovative technology and advanced intellectual elite, which has a high level of system science education. In this regard, it is interesting example of Japan, whose modernization was aimed at the creation of a first stage (60 years.) Powerful industrial potential, and the second (70-ies.) - Post-industrial model of development. Based on Confucian-Shinto idea of ​​"serving society through manufacturing" and working for a nominal fee, postwar generation in Japan within a decade the country has brought in some of the most advanced industrial countries.

At the beginning of 80th years intellectual development of Japanese society led him to the conclusion that the period of industrialization is changing the culture of the era, whose main imperative - the restoration of humanism and the establishment of high moral qualities. Liberal democratic governments of Japan, headed by Prime Minister M. Ohiry and D.Suzuki worked special doctrine designed to encourage the trend towards further convergence group Confucian morals and western individualism. In official documents is a combination of traditional social relations with Western ethical standards called "soft individualism".

In South Korea, which entered the path of modernization in Japan a decade later, this process unfolded under central public administration. An important feature of South Korean modernization was to preserve the main traditions of orthodox Confucianism - priority family relationship in the structure of social relations and rules of succession. In 60-70th years. There were a unified administrative system, the cornerstone of which was the relationship between the state bureaucracy and businessmen - the so-called dictatorship of development. So, centralization, which is an important feature of a market economy as the West and East-to-East Asian countries has become more typical, as was the essence of Confucian administrative system.

In 80-ies South Korea was reorganized management system, by which conservative officials from privileged circles have been replaced by young technocrats and economists mainly with western education. Therefore, the impact of centuries of Confucian ideology was "dissolved" substratum of western work ethics and social management. As a result, South Korea has developed a national framework, similar in general terms to Japanese late 60's. Similar to Japan, South Korean society became known as "joint-stock company of Korea." However, the transformation of South Korea in urbanized and educated society with a rapidly growing middle class led to his participation in a broad movement for the democratization of the political system. In the late 80s - early 90s. Military regime, which served as a "dictatorship development" in the final phase of economic transformation relatively easily transformed to specific South Korean version of authoritarian democracy with elements of Western liberalism - malty party system, rule of law and law rights.

Other East Asian NIEs - Taiwan, Singapore, Thailand, Malaysia also achieved impressive results on the way to becoming a developed social system. The increase in national income per capita four times in twenty years - a record in the history of the world economy. East Asian Monopoly "accelerates" played a major role in the competition with the United States and Europe for markets in developing countries. Vietnam, among other countries of Indochina only in the second half of the 80th's. Began to implement a set of reforms, known as the policy of "renewal" - "My doy." By its concept and ideology of this policy resembled a program of modernization in China and was aimed at improving the Vietnamese socialist model. An example of successful modernization of Vietnam became rapid economic growth based on the development of market relations. Overall, despite some differences in the socio-political system and level of economic development, these countries have become a model of successful modernization in the region, recently fully consistent with the principles of Asian vehicle production and socio-cultural traditions of Asian society. According to the World Economic Forum (WEF), Vietnam in the global competitiveness ranking for 2015 ranked 68th among 144 countries (Singapore - the second, Japan - 6th, Malaysia - 20th, South Korea - the 26th, China - 28th). Ukraine on the list took the 79th place [4].

Summarizing the experience of post-industrial East Asia should be noted that there has been economic successes achieved by the skilful combination of four factors: 1) government regulation; 2) export-oriented industrial production; 3) attracting foreign investment; 4) establishment of national monopolies. Great importance was also an active social policy, which became the basis for the various versions of the concept "society - the corporation". In a broader format of reasons for the dynamic growth of the so-called Pacific ring of Japanese experts named the following:

 complete opening of US markets and the establishment of Japan as an industrial and commercial state, the close relationship of the two countries, which became the core of the Asia-Pacific region;

 quality workforce neoindustrial in Asia and the success of management;

 gradual establishment of political stability after the wars in Korea and Indochina;

 accelerating scientific and technological progress, the rapid development of transport and information and communication systems;

 upgraded to export and import structure of foreign trade in the region [5].

A special place in the processes of social modernization of East Asian countries holds Republic of China, which at the turn of the 70-80-m years. Began construction of "socialism with Chinese characteristics." The "four modernizations" sought to overcome social and economic backwardness and bring the country to the path of modern market economy. Developed in the mid 70's. This program included a comprehensive reform of China in four areas: agriculture, industry, national defense, science and technology. Modernization strategy, the theoretical basis of which was the idea of ​​Deng Xiaoping on building a "socialist market economy", adopted at the XII Congress of the CPC in 1982 and was carried out in three stages:

1) up to 2000 to achieve four-fold increase in industrial production and agriculture, to ensure the average wealth of the people;

2) to the 2021 China raise the level of moderately country;

3) and 2049 to turn China into a modern highly developed state [6].

In concrete terms, modernization policy aims to increase the share of private ownership, trade liberalization, improved conditions for foreign investment and gradual integration of the economy of China into the world economic processes and the international community. Politics and modernization aimed at reforming the state apparatus and local authorities, whose numbers are gradually decreasing. The crucial prerequisite course for implementation of the "socialist modernization" remains the preservation of the political system of China, which declares the leading role of the state and the Communist Party in all spheres of Chinese society. Complete system transformation China plans to the middle of this century. In 2012 at the XVIII Congress of the CPC's modernization program has been adjusted in the direction of the transition from model "factors of economic development" model to an "effective development". It was noted that by 2020 China should become a "powerful, harmonious, modernized socialist state" and to double the GDP [7].

Despite the fact that modernization is not without growing pains, China shows high macroeconomic indicators and active foreign policy, including the development of regional integration. Indeed, China is interested in the maintenance of its geopolitical environment, trade and economic cooperation, which gives it a clear advantage. The main vector in this direction policy of China in Southeast Asia is ASEAN's cooperation with this influential international regional organization officially marketed as "priority foreign policy priority" [8].

Modernization in the security context

In the current international environment accelerate social modernization and economic integration particularly important to build sustainable security models. In terms of structural and functional model of security in East Asia in a context appropriate to consider three options: collective security, cooperative security and general (common) safety. It should be noted that the functional and structural specificity East Asian system of international relations is that none of the scientific-theoretical paradigms does not explain the sources and causes of regional stability or the nature of destabilizing factors. But representatives of neorealism (R. Solomon, S. Simon) evaluate the region as being quite ripe for interstate rivalry after the "cold war". Assessment neoliberals (J. Ikenberry, M. Mastanduno) is somewhat different from the assessment of "neo" - they believe that Asian countries demonstrate the ability to further integration and institutional development in principle willing to create a mechanism for the prevention of regional conflicts. [9]

Ukrainian and Russian researchers in their assessments of the prospects for regional security prefer collective and cooperative models. Thus, the Ukrainian scientist-sinologist A. Shevchuk considers the possibility of establishing a regional security structure "in the form of two trends that have already formed - making two- and multilateral international agreements and the creation of international organizations and forums on security along with the development of existing structures" [ 10].

In the same wrong time, Russian scholars V. Amirov and B. Svidko believe that "any attempt to build a comprehensive system of security and stability in the region on the basis of common institutions for all states governed in decision-making consensus, as was made in Western Europe, will obviously doomed to failure. " From the standpoint of strategic analysis to consider options they offer and the possibility of a new regional security architecture - Trans-Pacific Security and Cooperation (TTBS), the creation of which, in their opinion, "objectively meet the interests of all the major players in this space" [11].

Taking into consideration the growing trend of globalization and economization of international relations, it would be advisable to distribute the security sector in economic, energy, environmental, technological, information and communication, military-political and humanitarian components. This approach made it possible to create network security in accordance with the directions of collective action that are interested in comprehensive support. In our opinion, the system of relations within TTBS may be formed so that the interests of social modernization, economic integration and regional security relations were "positive correlation". We believe that by working out a concept TTSB must take into account different combination of pace and content of the integration process in East Asia and disintegration processes that are more active in recent years in other parts of the world, particularly in South Asia and the Middle East.

The problem of security in East Asia has traditionally been understood as a clash of strategic interests of the US and China in the context of the efforts of each of the great powers in the region to establish unilateral hegemony. Following this logic in terms of implementation strategies hegemonic US and China in the region may be a new system of bipolarity with corresponding poles and potentials of mutual deterrence. The question remains possible to control such a system through the mechanisms of hegemony of one of the two centers of power. Entitlement to such a role could hypothetically as US economic and military-strategic potential, which today is unsurpassed, and China, integral potential is growing rapidly, approaching the US [12].

Analyzing the nature of conflict in Asia, should bear in mind its structural heterogeneity, the nature of systemic contradictions between so-called axial states of the region and historical heritage of colonialism and the period of "cold war". Under the influence of these factors in the post-bipolar period in the region was established system of "axial" relations and "security clusters" within which the key Pacific powers and their associations (US - Japan - South Korea) seeking to exercise their interests. Since the Asian continental massif is mainly controlled by China, the US and Japan are betting on the strengthening of military and marine potential to counter Chinese influence in the region.

Analysis of the relationship between the main actors of international relations in East Asia and Asia Pacific shows that the increase in regional tension is the natural result of their economic development and integration interaction - mostly asymmetric. Tested means and methods of correcting asymmetry in international relations can hardly be applied in the region, where there are huge economic power and which is full of geopolitical and socio-cultural contradictions.

Radical changes in the balance of power in world politics and economics, associated primarily with economic growth in Japan, China, South Korea and most of the ASEAN countries, created the necessary conditions for the accelerated development of integration processes in the Asia Pacific region. However, this led to an increase in the asymmetry between the major regional players, and to increase the level of geopolitical rivalry and conflict. Mostly it affected regional security, decide who cannot afford the existing regional structures - the ASEAN Regional Forum (ARF), the East Asian Summit and the band members' six-party dialogue "with the Korean problem. Therefore, solving the problems of a fair economic order, political stability and prosperity in the "region of the XXI century" is still far from the goals.

Note that sustainable economic development and political instability in East Asia will be possible through the establishment of systems Trans-Pacific security and cooperation, in which participants must first become a state "Pacific Triangle" - America will, Japan, China and regional integration structures and international organizations. This configuration of power relations prevailing in the region, eventually enabling not only create optimum security for the region, but further modernization of social systems East Asian countries, without which they cannot support the development of integration and economic relations with global structures. This approach to solving problems of social modernization is acceptable for Ukraine, which is in a state of "hybrid war" with former strategic partner, is trying to diversify its foreign policy interests, including through the development of relations with major countries and economies of East Asia.


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