Головні статті

№10 / 2016
25.01.2017, 12:50

Country without science is a country without a future(For example, Russia and China)

Oleksandr Vasylyev


The development of sciences and high technologies is the most real way for Russia to occupy a worthy place among developed countries. The level of national sciences to a great extent determines the fundamental basics of economical and military security of a state. The modern state and transformation of Russian scientific and technological complex tendencies show that the country will not be able to become a leader of global and regional integrations.Key words: science, economics, economy, modernization, innovation, technology. Current trends of globalization and integration of world economy characterized by extensive use of information technology, the formation of an innovative economy, the internationalization of research, development and knowledge-based production, aggravation of global competition in world markets investment, high technology products and services. Changing traditional forms and mechanisms of international cooperation in science and technology, and the role of government in the regulation of these processes. Outlines the close relationship of science and technology, foreign trade and economic policy in the field of science and technology to overcome the economic crisis [1, 2]. Modernization, as the global socio-political thought is a prerequisite for the establishment of a new world along civilizational change. It is based on a definition of what modernization is the main law of social development constant change, complexity of political, economic, government agencies and other features according to the needs effective functioning of society. The theory of modernization has gone through several stages of development, acquiring new characteristics and trends that have made social, political, scientific, technical and managerial achievement. The current phase of modernization of civilization called postindustrial or postmodern. Its basis is the primary role of theoretical knowledge as the core around which to create new technology, there are economic and social progress of society. Its main features are changing the system values ​​(the desire to discover their talents and abilities), increasing the role and value of "human capital" understanding high price intelligence, the formation of high management culture, the growing importance of information changes the human being towards culture, of education you have, spirituality and more. The current state of the Russian economy and prospects for its modernization are closely linked with the state of the world economy, which is in the process of transition to a new technological and economic structure. Recovery of the world economy linked to the wave of innovations that pave the way for the emergence of new technologies. The current systemic crisis should end in a few years with flow available for capital while producing the new technological way. It is in such times of global technological shifts occurring opportunities for lagging countries making a leap forward and show the world "economic miracle". Conditions necessary for successful implementation of development strategy is the development of basic industries advance of a new technological structure and output of the economy in the associated new long wave of growth. This requires concentration of resources to create the nucleus of a new technological structure and achieve synergy, forming clusters of new industries, providing consistency of macroeconomic policies with the priorities of long-term technical and economic development. To implement such a policy must create a strategic management system that could provide promising areas of economic growth and direct the activities of state institutions and instruments of economic regulation for their implementation [3]. This requires forecasting science and technology, strategic planning, choice of priorities of their scientific and technical potential, their implementation through the adoption and budgeting programs and indicative plans, methods and implementation of effective control mechanisms. A key role in the modernization and development of the economy based on a new technological structure plays a sharp increase in innovative activity. In today's economy, the share of STP accounts for 90% of total deposit growth of all factors. Given the critical and high uncertainty of research results state should take over the functions of intellectual and information center management and strategic planning for economic development, support for relevant scientific and technological environment, which includes the advanced base of fundamental knowledge and exploratory research institutes of applied research and experimental development, system development and stimulate the diffusion of new technologies. Throughout the world, consistently increasing R & D funding, whose share in GDP is 4%, which is three times more science in Russian economy [4]. Today in Russia there is a critical situation with the development of research and implementation of technological modernization of production associated with the transition to a new technological way. The reasons for the unfavorable situation is chronic underfunding of science, the destruction of the cooperation of science and industry, scientific personnel aging, "brain drain". Mostly they were the result of privatization, which led to the destruction of the industry sector of applied science. As a result of the disintegration of scientific production association KB, research institutes and design institutes, which were part of their lost funding sources and virtually ceased to exist. The new owners of privatized engineering companies failed to ensure the production of technologically sophisticated products and change the profile most of them. In August 2013 adopted the federal law "On the Russian Academy of Sciences, reorganization of state academies of sciences and amendments to some legislative acts of the Russian Federation." RAS ceased to exist in the previous historical form, losing the bulk of its features and benefits. In addition, in March 2016 the Government's decision to Russian Foundation for Basic Research (RFBR) was joined Russian Humanitarian Science Foundation (RGNF). RFFR was founded in 1992, two years in connection with the specifics of humanitarian research RGNF was separated from RFFR. According to said law was created federal agency research organizations (Faro), the jurisdiction of which received all the scientific institutions of RAS and with all their possessions [5]. It was expected that the agency will provide all the financial and economic activities of the institutions, and directly Sciences - scientific management institutions. In fact, Faro manages not only the property of the institutions, but also by academic institutions. Faro commends the work of institutions can combine and distribute them into different categories, which determines funding. Scientific Coordination Council of the Faro has developed various means of digital evaluation of institutions, including the Hirsch index, which shows the frequency of citations of publications employees of institutions. But this figure can not be the main criterion for overall assessment of research institutions. In practice, Faro, without experts of high scientific level, is one of the main subjects of the formation of the state science and technology policy and considers it possible to manage the fate of Russian academic science, expressing a consolidated opinion of the scientific community. University science, which bet the last decade, is aimed at improving the Hirsch index as a key indicator reporting to the Ministry of Education and Science. Because of this, in terms of funding a researcher in high school science sector are 2.7 times higher than the funding of Faro. By 2013, only RAS has strategic subject of science and technology policy. In early 1999, RAS was concentrated in 57% of all doctors and candidates of sciences 40.7% [6]. Ongoing reform today RAS passes basic problems of management of STP, does not provide for the improvement of institutional forms and methods of applied research is not focused on the development and implementation of highly efficient high technologies. Now the most important goal of scientific, technical and structural and investment policy of Russia was to be the creation of powerful and innovative mobile capabilities that should cover and mutually bind large level of R&D, higher education and investment sector, especially engineering. The challenge is to generate and implement engineering and technology innovation to ensure their implementation accelerated in the economy. As a result of the normalization of economic production, the emergence of sustainable demand for innovation and applied science to strengthen national scientific and technical policy should concentrate primarily on ensuring a broad front support basic research and long-term, resource-intensive and risky areas of improving technology. The report RAS leadership of the Russian Federation "On the level of basic science in Russia. Moscow 2016 "states that for the period 2000-2014. Number of researchers who perform basic research in the natural sciences, decreased approximately 10.5 thousand. People, and in technical sciences - 20 thousand. People [6]. Lack of funds for the state program "Development of science and technology" can lead to significant layoffs scientists. According to the MES of Russia, the share of the state program research budget in total expenditures will be reduced in 2019 from 0.98% in 2015 to 0.87%. The reduction will apply, above all, academic institutions Faro, Russian Academy of Sciences and the National Research Centre "Kurchatov Institute". Thus, the exemption can get about 10 thousand scientists. In foreign policy, Russian Federation follows the concept of a multipolar world where trying to play the role of one of the poles of attraction. Russia is in integration projects BRICS [7] and SCO [8] with China, which demonstrates the great achievements in science and technology. Chinese science emerged and developed as an applied field of defense industry. All outstanding scientists in China and graduated from American universities have provided a strong impetus to national science. Today China, where 40 of the last century, in fact, not a single university, holds leading positions in science and technology field. In early 2016 Harvard Institute of World Economy said that China has moved from the country to copy the innovation state. Beijing reoriented internal parks of foreign investment on development, training and promotion of invention. At the beginning of 2015, China had 1,600 science and technology enterprise incubators, investment of more than 1 000 public institutions from the fund over 350 billion yuan, which specialize in investing in the invention. In 2016 China's State Council unveiled a program to promote the conversion of science and technology for wealth production, reflecting the crucial role of science market [9,10]. Since 2010 China ranks first in the world in the number of patents. Office of China on intellectual property showed that in 2014 from 928 thousand. 663 thousand inventions. Have a market value and 485 thousand. Performed by specialized research centers. In 2000-2007. The number of engineers and technical workers in China doubled. It is predicted that in 2024 scientists and researchers in China is higher than in the US, EU and Japan combined. Already in 2013 China came in first place in the world in terms of scientific and technical workers. Number of scientists from the total number of people employed in manufacturing in the EU is 22%, in China - 19% in the US - 17%, in Russia - 6%. According to UNESCO, the Russian Federation is the only country where the number of scientists is declining, particularly in the period 2007-2013. From 7.3% to 5.7% [9, 10]. A quarter of high-tech exports in 2014, which amounted to $ 2.5 trillion belongs to China. In 2014 China reached parity with the US in respect of value added in high-tech industries, where the US - 29%, in China - 27%, with ten years its share has grown 10 times. Russia's share in the global market high-tech products is only 0.3% [9, 10]. According to forecasts, in 2018 China surpass the US in the amount of investment in research and development, accumulated a lot of knowledge and analytical results of scientific experiments that will contribute to the scientific breakthrough. Today China demonstrates the high efficiency of investment in education, particularly occupies one of the first places in terms of education (for example, the United States - just the eighth-tenth). It is believed that the level of education for the future of China is the most important factor for competitiveness. [10] The current and future state of Russian science - one of the key factors of national security, including many defense companies no scientific developments to create a new generation of weapons. Analysis of the strategy of scientific and technological development of Russia for the long term indicating that the destruction of the Russian Education and Science of the decline will continue. To science played an important role in the defense of the country and its economy, there must be a vicious circle of reproduction of innovation, problem analysis, trends and space capabilities - aim and planning - basic research and training specialist - application development - development work, creating technology - output products on the market and sales - investments derived from those activities funds in all of the elements of the cycle. An important role in this must play a major high-tech companies that create robust efficient technologies, perform experimental development, manufacture products and display it on the world market. The main consumer of technology is industry. Large technology companies in the reforms in Russia did not appear. In addition, after the collapse of the manufacturing industry of Russia became attached to western parts. All competition in the sector of high technology products in the world based on the fact that some companies are trained to do what others can not do, earn it and are not going to share secrets. In Russia, in terms of sanctions is an issue import substitution, especially in the interests of defense. Experts estimate the number of positions that need to be replaced, tens of thousands, while the current capacity of the country allow you to replace only a few hundred a year, as technological and scientific superpower actually became a raw material appendage of the developed countries. Russia's defense budget in 2014 amounted to 84 billion USD, In China - 216 billion in the US - 610 billion, and NATO as a whole - 950 billion dollars. [10]. To have a solid defense in conditions far less funding necessary scientific and technological breakthroughs in the field of defense, since nuclear weapons in the twentieth century. not a panacea. To ensure the necessary import of new industrialization. Build new plants, reviving whole industries need on a new technological basis. This is due to planning, strategic outlook, what role science immense. The leading countries provide scientific and technological development (Israel, USA, Japan, China, Finland, Republic of Korea) have scientific strategy put massive challenges for scientists and investing heavily in science. Officially, Russia is a widespread belief that the country is in transition to innovative development, which is characterized by the introduction of tools to support innovation. Created Institutes of innovative development of international, state-owned companies in knowledge-intensive sectors are supported by research and development of world-class in the university sector, formed federal tools and digital infrastructure that implements common approaches to the management of public research organizations, including universities and institutes of the Russian Academy of Sciences. It is believed that in Russia the most important trends affecting national science policy are: exhaustion of conventional resources, socio-economic growth of industrialized countries; slowing down the playback of the environment due to increased anthropogenic load, the Industrial Revolution and the isolation of a limited group of countries that have new technological package; reduce complexity and increase manageability of socio-technical systems; demographic transition and change the way of life. For the transformation sector research and development has changed the key tasks of state institutions, control functions and network administration scientific organizations minimize the efforts aimed at the development of the regulatory system to ensure that the knowledge, stimulate their development, access to national and global technology market and high technology products. Along government activities focused on creating high-quality and affordable services necessary for the implementation of creative and intellectual potential teams of researchers and developers [3]. Russian Joint Stock Company "Rosnano" was launched in 2007 for the development of nanotechnology. [11] The main form of business is to invest in private projects on creation of new nanotechnology industries. In 2010-2012. The participation of "Rosnano" in Russia was established 30 such plants using nanotechnology. The volume of output in 2012 amounted to 25 billion rubles. But the Russian Chamber found that during the period 2010-2015. Half of the investment corporation was ineffective: the cost of state-exit them brought a loss of 13.1 billion rubles. In projects where costs exceeded revenues consisted of share of state guarantees in the amount of 7.7 billion rubles, that goal was not met, and implementation proved ineffective. For two years, "Rosnano" spent on the payment of "success fees" management company projects a loss of 25.4 million rubles. Innovation Center "Skolkovo" is a modern scientific and technological complex of development and commercialization of new technologies, which is based in Moscow. [12] Federal Law № 244-FZ "On the innovation center "Skolkovo" was signed by the President on September 28, 2010 One of the most important elements of Skolkovo is international cooperation. Among the partners of the project - research centers, universities and large international corporations. This is the first in the post-Soviet era "scientifical towns" which is built from "scratch". In the complex will be provided with special economic conditions for companies operating in priority sectors of economy modernization of telecommunications and space, biomedical technology, energy, information and nuclear technologies. State funding Skolkovo to 2020 should reach 152.2 billion rubles., with approximately 50% of the cost of establishing this center planned to raise from private sources. In an area of ​​about 400 hectares will live about 15 thousand people, 7 thousand of them would daily come to the Innovation Center to work. The result of Skolkovo should become an ecosystem that developing and is able to develop business and research, creating favorable to companies successful in the global market. The most serious drawback of the project - the lack of strategic vision, which is the basic cause of major risks and existing problems, including corruption, financial irregularities, too much overhead and more. A complete innovation center with laboratory facilities, experimental production (parks), social infrastructure has virtually no opportunities available to accommodate Skolkovo territory. Economic sanctions, which entered the US and EU after the annexation of the Crimea and Donbas aggression led to significant isolation of Russia from access to new technologies. If it finds a way out of this situation a few years, the Russian economy will be in a state of irreversible lag and development of new technological way. Russia today needs to create a modern system of scientific and technological development of the country, given that the main structural components of applied science were destroyed during the mass privatization. Total annihilation design institutes and design bureaus led industry trend of transition for foreign technological basis. Extension of sanctions could lead to the destruction of many production cycles in different sectors of the economy, layoffs and bankruptcies of a number of enterprises, a significant drop in living standards. Without long-term commitment, no common system of state enterprises and citizens to implement rate on sovereign development based on advanced technology to ensure the stability of the domestic social and economic order is not possible. Saving a situation of dependence of the economy on the western core of the global financial system leads to the extension and deepening of the crisis. Improvements impossible without changing the current model of raw embed countries into the world economy. Conclusions- Only relying on a strong scientific and technical complex may be most real way for any country to take its rightful place among the developed countries economically, promote social approval-oriented, structure-innovative development model. In the present state and trends of the transformation of scientific and technological complex of Russia the country will not reach the level of developed countries to lead global and regional integration, particularly in the integrated economic and political associations SCO, BRICS. Russia can actually serve only a minor partner of China.- In the Russian Federation reforms of science and technology ongoing. Today, there still remained powerful enough scientific community. The number of scientists Russia ranked fifth in the world after the US, EU, Japan and China. But in fact Russia is the only country in the world where the number of scientists is constantly decreasing. Compared with Soviet scientists reduced the number of two and a half times in almost reducing funding for research and development. In terms of the share of R & D expenditure in GDP Russia found itself at the Third World (of the OECD - 2.3% in the EU-28 - 1.94%, Russia - 1.12%.).- The share of the world market of high-tech products at the level of 0.3%. The main problem of scientific and technological complex of Russia is unable to basic science, which is still at the global level and in almost complete elimination of plant sciences sector and in the privatization of industrial enterprises in the 90's of last century. As a result, demand has fallen sharply on innovation on the part of industry and demand from applied science.- Attempts to create new centers of innovation to "scratch" tend to fail, that failure proved beneficial projects "Rosnano" and "Skolkovo". At best, they realize the ideas imported from the academic environment, but usually they provided resources are not spent for its intended purpose, including innovation centers are a form of transformation of budgetary allocations to private development projects. International experience of successful innovation shows that it can develop only in favorable collective scientific and technical work environment that supports academic research institutions.


1. Innovative direction of contemporary international relations / A.V. Biryukov, E.S. Zinoviev, A.V. Krutskikh etc. -. M .: Aspekt Press, 2010.- 295 p.2. Ignatiev P.M. The geopolitical and geoeconomic interests in world politics: a textbook. - Chernivtsi - Kyiv: -HHI Books, 2014. 364 pp., 2003. - 948s.3. O.A. Vasiliev The development of productive forces, science and technology as the main factor determining the socio-political transformation of modern states / O.Vasylyev // Foreign Affairs. 2014.- №9.- P. 44 - 47.4. S.Yu Glazyev On urgent measures to strengthen the economic security of Russia and the withdrawal of the Russian economy on the path of advancing development. Report / S.Yu. Glazev.M .: Institute for Economic Strategies, Russian Biographical Institute, 2015. - 60 s.5. The federal agency research organizations (Faro Russia) [Electron resource] .- Access Mode: fano.gov.ru. 6. Information about the scientific and technological activities of the Russian Academy of Sciences [Electron resource] .- Access Mode: www.ras.ru. 7. Details of the BRICS [Electron resource] .- Access Mode: https://ru.wikipedia.org/wiki/<wbr>БРИКС. 8. The Shanghai Cooperation Organization [Electron resource]. - Access mode: https://ru.wikipedia.org/ШОС. 9. Information about the scientific and technological sector in China [electronic resource] .- Access: https: /en.wikipedia.org/wiki/China.10. UNESCO [Electron resource] .- Access Mode: www. unesco.org/ new / ru11. The Russian joint-stock company "Rosnano" [Electron resource] .- Access mode: http: // www.rusnano.com.12. Innovation Center "Skolkovo" [Electron resource]. - Access mode: sk.ru.


Confessional politics and the Roman Catholic Church in the USSR

Oleksandr Onyschenko


This publication aims to raise some interesting aspects of the history associated with the activities of the Roman Catholic Church in the Soviet Union. After the Bolshevik revolution, many Catholics who have relatives abroad, have fled. The remaining shared the sad fate of "German spies and saboteurs" and were executed by the NKVD punitive. The article focuses on the attempts of the Catholic clergy, who were taken to preserve the Catholic Church in the Soviet Union.Keywords: The Catholic Church, Leopold Maria Brown, Metropolitan Andriy (Sheptytsky). The activities of any religious denomination in the Soviet Union suffered strict control and resistance from the communist government. Not spared it is the most powerful and popular in the world Christian religious organization - the Roman Catholic Church (hereinafter - the RCC, the Catholic Church). In Ukraine, the history and the relationship of the Soviet government and the Catholic Church, in our opinion, is going through a phase of active interest to historians and church Sovietologists. Much of the scientific publications and monographs directly related to liquidation and activities in underground Ukrainian Greek Catholic Church. Do not forget that the Catholic Church has acted in other republics of the Soviet Union. This post author intends to contribute to the study of complex pages of the life of Catholics USSR. In the Russian Empire was banned mission for the conversion to Catholicism (prozoletizm) among the dominant Orthodox population. However, subject to the empire, faithful to the Roman Catholic Church, who wished to remain Catholics were free to receive spiritual guidance to the Catholic church, which was sufficient to meet the spiritual needs of Russian Catholics. The situation changed dramatically with the advent of the Bolsheviks, who did not recognize any religion and did not intend to make an exception for Catholics. It should admit that most of the Catholic population lived in the territory that became part of the Soviet Union only with the signing of secret protocols of the Molotov-Ribbentrop Pact of August 23, 1939. Since joining the Soviet Union took place on these lands socialist transformations (nationalization and confiscation of private and church property) and valid until such time concordat with Rome was unilaterally terminated. Many residents of these territories were deported for permanent residence in Siberia. According to the article in the newspaper "Pravda" on September 5, 1943 Prime Minister comrade Stalin with understanding the needs of the church and said that the government will not be obstacles of its activities. Soon the Russian Orthodox Church - the largest religious organization of the country - failed to convene a council of bishops to elect a patriarch, open religious educational institutions and even received permission for publishing their own magazine. Most importantly, a significant part of the clergy who suffered in prisons and camps were liberated. Improving relations of the Soviet government and the church had nothing to do with other religious denominations. The Roman Catholic Church has been limited to basic legal rights of almost the entire Soviet period. The most notable example of unlawful government interference in the affairs of the church and the faithful rights violations is the elimination of the Ukrainian Greek Catholic Church Lviv pseudo 1946. As is known, the Church considers its spiritual head of the Roman pontiff to the ground. Relations between Vatican and the USSR became more complicated after the publication of the decree of Holy See about excommunication of communists from the Church in 1949, resulting in a new oppression of the Roman Catholic Church in the Union. The new persecution against Catholics active role played by the Moscow Patriarchate, which read: "It is no coincidence in the report to the Synod of the Russian Orthodox Church on the occasion of the enthronement of the new Patriarch Alexy in February 1945 sounded the attacks of the Orthodox Church leadership of the Vatican and Pope Pius XII. In addition, the Journal of the Moscow Patriarchate has published several articles denouncing Catholicism and the Holy See. The Roman Catholic Church, as in the past, could not open into correspondence with the papal curia and had no unified leadership" [1, p. 312]. Before the open confrontation, a Soviet propaganda allows attacks on the Holy See for its aggressive support of Hitler and Mussolini. This is stated in the minutes of evidence and arrested northwest of Catholics: "On the question of the presiding court Khomich defendant replied:" I was not a supporter of the crusade, which the Pope declared against the Soviet Union. Generally, I'm on this trip, as a cross-armed intervention against the Soviet Union, did not hear anything and I cannot understand how the pope could declare a crusade against the Soviet Union without troops. In 1930, while in exile, I was in the magazine "atheist" read the bull of the Pope, who declared a crusade of prayer - an appeal to all the faithful to pray for peace, to the Soviet Union was recognized freedom of the Church. And I confess that I was behind this campaign." [2, p. 199]. Of course, the Bull Pope is not about military intervention against the Soviet Union, that is clear. Pope served as head of the Christian church, urged the faithful to pray for the Non-Proliferation of communism and Russia. Note that it is still called to pray for the latter, for example, during the famine in the Volga region. On the violation of the rights of Catholics and the clergy to pressure indicates priest asumptsionist Leopold Maria Brown, who served as abbot of the Catholic Church of St. Louis of the French in Moscow in the period from 1936 to 1945. He had diplomatic immunity, in 1934 came from the US to the USSR as chaplain of the United States Embassy. Father Brown remained in Moscow in the worst months of the war, even when the Soviet government and the diplomatic corps were evacuated in the city. Kuibyshev (Samara). Activity of father-asumptsionist and his statements about the persecution of religion in the Soviet Union as undesirable for the Soviet government and the US, France, because its point of view on politics Stalin did not coincide with the position of those countries. The political factor was the main reason for the recall Brown from Moscow in December 1945. After returning to the United States Father lectured, published pamphlets criticizing the policy of the USSR [3, p. 743]. The position of Soviet propaganda looked strange, which call themselves atheist, despised among religious denominations and elevates others (who spoke in support of the Red Army). "In contrast to the figures of the Roman Catholic and Greek-Catholic Church (Sheptytsky) senior representatives of the Orthodox churches in the occupied areas more successfully cooperating with German troops. So they were afraid that the return of Soviet power they will suffer severe punishment. These compromised Orthodox priests were the most notorious enemies of the Soviet Union and its propaganda supporting the German administration. They were the most determined opponents of Sergius because they support the Soviet power" [4, 176]. It is similar to modern Russian propaganda that tries to appear in the eyes of Ukrainian defender of "traditional" churches of the Moscow Patriarchate. In fact, the Greek Catholics were ready to cooperate with the Soviet government, however, tried to defend the rights of clergy and faithful. Indicative is the work of the Greek-Catholic nuns who worked in a Soviet hospital as a sister of mercy. Metropolitan Andrey (Sheptytsky), Head of the Ukrainian Greek Catholic Church, spoke loyal to the Soviet government authorized by the Council for worship at SNK of the USSR. Before the time of Gorbachev's perestroika anti-Catholic rhetoric changed loyal attitude towards the international activity of the Holy See. "Speech by John Paul II to the United Nations and a number of other facts suggest the desire world the Catholic Church is actively present in international relations. In addition, this presence goes far beyond mere appeals" [5, p. 46]. It is important to point out that the Roman Catholic Church operates as a full subject of international law with the signing of the Lateran Treaty in 1929. History of the Catholic Church in the Soviet Union is rather tragic.It could not avoid the terrible persecution of the early XX century. Russia, which claimed the lives of many believers, monks, priests and bishops. However, the Church has brought purpose of ashes, reborn in the post throughout the greatness inherent one of the world's religions. In particular, Catholic diocese was founded on the canonical territory of the Russian Orthodox Church, which caused some deterioration in relations between the Roman Catholic and Russian Orthodox Church.


1. Litsenberger O.A. The Roman Catholic Church in Russia: History and legal status. - Saratov Volga Region Academy of Public Service, 2001. - 384 p.2. Shkarovsky M.V. and other Roman Catholic Church in the North-West of Russia in 1917 -. 1945. - St. Petersburg .: Nestor, 1998. - 302 p.3. The Catholic Encyclopedia. Volume I. - M .: Publisher Frantsikantsev 2002.4. Edward Winter. Vatican policy toward the Soviet Union. 1917 - 1968. The third part of the trilogy, "Russia and the papacy." - M .: "Progress" Publishing House, 1977. - 203 p.5. L.F. Shevtsova Socialism and Catholicism. Relations between the State and the Catholic Church in the socialist countries. - M .: "Science" Publishing House, 1982. - 112 p.


On a way of European consolidation: achievement and loss of common identity politics

Tetyana Metelyova


The article is devoted to identifying the components of the EU cultural policy, the use of which in Ukraine may contribute to the achievement of national unity and social harmony. In this context, the author has analyzed the concept of European identity, revealed the base making it possible, systematized forms and means of forming a common identity in the framework of the cultural policy of the EU and the results of their application. It is concluded that the formation of a common identity possible on a single value-based with priority of human rights, which should be supported by public policy means.Keywords: cultural policy, European values, European identity, multiculturalism, social cohesion, national consolidation. One and perhaps the most powerful instrument for the consolidation of Europe is the formation of a common European identity of citizens of EU member states. As noted by John. McCormick, citizens united Europe should "think of themselves less as Germans or Greeks, or Finns, but more as Europeans" [1, p. 235]. The functional importance of a common identity consists of a kind of temporal trinity: in addition to the current job legitimize existing givens ("European identity designed to legitimize the existence of a supranational institution" European Union "for the citizens of the community" [2, p. 52]), it is directed in the past ("What is the real strategy of the European Union? Correct answer is protection from war and genocide" [3] "... historically the emergence of European identity as an instrument of integration - is an attempt to protect Europe from its past, in that a protective form constructed discourse around the concept of Europe" [4, p. 72]) and projective future ("... institutionalizing identity becomes a tool for the formation of a single Europe, consolidating her subjectivity" [4, p. 73]). However, the main vocation supranational identity in Europe where its formation was used in the event of such an objective factor in combating cross-cultural conflicts within the EU, the impact of which was provided to his personal subjective experience of every citizen. And this factor may well be solid ground consolidation of EU and source of inner peace and understanding. It should be noted that the policy of the European Union, in which concerns and solved the task of forming a European identity can not be considered only as a part or direction exclusively cultural policy as includes the sociopolitical and tools, for its purpose, means and mechanisms beyond cultural realm. Moreover, it can not be identified with the phenomenon that was called last decades multiculturalism policy and the implementation of which also go beyond their own cultural policies. Methodologically important distinction between the three forms of realization of complex sociopolitical and cultural problems: cultural policy (which is specific to the EU level as a whole and within the national cultural policy), policy formation of a common European unity as a leading component of the cultural policy of the EU, covering other areas and the policy of multiculturalism. All these forms often intersect and overlap each other. By definition, first given in 1967 at the roundtable UNESCO report "Policy on Culture - preliminary considerations" the "cultural politics" is "a set of operational principles, administrative and financial activities and procedures that provide the basis of the state in the field of culture." In this context, implementation of cultural policy is a "full amount of conscious and deliberate actions (or lack of actions) in society, to achieve specific cultural objectives through the optimal use of all physical and spiritual resources that has a society at a particular time" [5, p. 85]. EU policy in the field of culture aims at implementing the principle of "unity in diversity", which is identified with multiculturalism, the critical assessment "failed" is actually aimed at two different problems and therefore different objects of focus, different means of implementation and, accordingly, different results. The first block of issues was closely associated with the implementation of the course just on the formation of a common European identity by preserving and even strengthening of national, ethnic and revival of local cultures in all their diversity. The object of focus in this area is the citizens who have established their national states, although united in a supranational formation, however, seek to preserve their own cultural identity and the means to protect domestic cultural policy of their national identity, and to a large extent - and political sovereignty. Therefore, on this way the EU had to find a path between the Scylla and Charybdis of national unification and encourage separateness autochthonous European communities and their members to form a common identity for the preservation of cultural diversity in all components of the EU. The challenge raised within the framework of the cultural policy of the EU and its been a leading trend. The results achieved in this area, speak for themselves and are particularly revealing dynamics: in 1996 46% of EU citizens feel extremely attachment to national identity, and 51% - Europeans felt only to a certain extent, then the results of the Eurobarometer 2010 identified themselves as Europeans, 53% of respondents, and only 3% do not feel European. For 18% of European identity was very important, yet 40% - significant for 25% - not significant and only 15% - not important at all. [6] According to a survey in 2013, European identity shared already 66%, with the highest rate was seen in Luxembourg - 88% and Malta - 81%, the lowest - Cyprus (45%) and Greece (44%) [7]. This steady increase in identity of EU citizens with evidence of the success of the policy formation of European identity. The second task, which solving the problems now rightly attributed the failure of the European policy of multiculturalism, was caused by the intensification of migration that led the already multicultural European society into antagonistic worsening problems of coexistence of different identities for the components of value in every segment of society. The object of focus, there was no indigenous population and the immigrant community. This area was used liberal at its core the principle of preserving the diversity brought to the limits that turned into an unexpected reverse and side when corporate group rights began to dominate and press down under a human rights and to enter into conflict with political and legal devices of states and basic European values. Thus, focusing on the examination process of forming a common European identity as one of the components of the cultural policy of the EU, it should be noted that the understanding of the construct, as well as ways to create, almost from the start discussion. Extensive discussion of these issues, especially aggravated in the first half of the 90's. XX century. Unfolded primarily on the issue of the relationship between national and supranational (European) identity and took shape in the late 2000s. In a conceptual unity, which is based on expressed in early discussions stance Soledad Garcia: "European identity in any case can not be built entirely on top. Europe will exist as an undeniable political community only when European identity pervades the lives and daily life" [8, p. 95]. Thus, the formation of European identity was directed to reformat the underlying principles of daily human existence, appealing not only to rational factors, but also to sphere of value. Identity is related to deep value and moral principles of coexistence community. This conclusion is clearly stated Deborah Shyldkraut after Tsytrinom, Reinhold and Green in the analysis of innovations in the functioning of the American identity and its relation with the European. "Formal and informal rules - she concludes - dictate regulatory advice behaviors and processes that are valued and which ideally followed by group members, leaders and institutions" [9, p. 599 - 600]. "Political identity - according to F. Pilcher - better connects people living in the EU. Although European cultures diverse, their unity in the European Union determines the European cultural concept "[10]. Emphasizing the concept of political identity, M. Petithomme defines it as "a sense of belonging to a social community and relevant political structures" [11, p. 15]. From this perspective, the author suggests two approaches to identity formation, the first of which ("down") is realized through activation of political factors and possibilities of political structures of the EU, the second ("bottom-up") - is moving closer to values ​​and appealing to the strengthening of the components in including using instrumental and institutional capacity of the first approach. The level of identification not only varies from country to country but also correlates with the fact which of the groups of countries within the EU - the "old" or "new" Europe - it belongs. For listed author according to Eurobarometer in 2006 the idea of the EU as a political union support 52% of residents of "old Europe" (minimum - 36% in Finland and 31% in the UK), while the share of its support to the "new Europe" reached 64% (maximum - 77% of Slovakia and Slovenia) [11, p.17]. The same picture is observed in assessing the prospects of EU enlargement. "Since the 'old Member States are more than the new, mean attitude of European citizens in the expansion may represent mainly the attitude of Western Europeans. ... The countries that became members in 2004 and 2007, most support the expansion and construction of a political union, "- concludes M. Petithomme. In addition, the level of positive attitude towards the EU even more than between groups of countries, differentiated within the countries themselves - it is correlated with indicators of education, age and social status, most educated, younger and most socio-economically successful show high level of support for EU integration and European identification [11, p. 35]. Was the existence of certain correlations support European unity of awareness on common symbols of the EU (as of 2006 the lion's share of European citizens to know the character of the European flag (95% of the 27 EU countries) and 78% of them believed that the EU flag "means something good" [11, p. 27]). Thus, the formation of European identity association primarily with economic and political results of the EU was considered unpromising. An alternative approach is "top down", which mostly could be called "political and economic" value delivered that focused on the use of their own culture - values ​​and semantic-symbolic tool design European identity. He eventually prevailed and brought positive results. His strong point was the appeal to the emotional component of personality structure and world cultural experiences. Michael Bruter was one of the first who drew attention to the "soft" European institutes opportunities in the process, emphasizing the influence of "a supranational buildings" to develop a sense of European identity for individuals through systematic "exhibition with symbols of the EU" [12, p. 30-36]. Unexampled task of Europe to reformate identity of EU citizens from the national to the supranational determined that the formation of supranational community is for preserving the cultural sovereignty of nation states and their cultural identity. The ability of European identity was recognized as having implemented "only through reconstruction, enriching national identity by incorporating European components to it" [11, p. 35]. Building a common symbolic issued time-space continuum Europe as add-on national was recognized the most appropriate way to achieve this goal and actually turned into an effective means of creating a European identity with the use of institutional and regulatory capacity of the EU. Analyzing the experience of forming supranational European identity, N. Pelahesha proves that "supranational collective identity built using the same mechanisms used for the national identities of modern nation-states" [13, p. 59] and 16 isolates groups of factors that provide national identity within the nation state [13, p. 36-37], and which can be reduced to 4 blocks:1. Create a unique space (borders, a single citizenship and uniform legal principles of its functioning);2. Create joint time continuum, "archaization community": a common history (provided by the policy of memory), the only network of institutions preserve the past (museums, libraries), common myths and projective ideology aimed at its creation a joint project of the future;3. Create a single sacral symbolic and symbolic codes, linking time and space (flag, anthem, a common currency and its iconography), common rituals - public holidays, mass performances, dynamic actualize these codes;4. Homogenization mediators and translators common semantic-symbolic codes: joint communication (media) and the language space, standardization of education, literature and art saturation relevant semantic-symbolic number. Applying the factors that in the historical process was accompanied by the formation of national identities and directly influenced him to create a supranational identification, visualization and objectification reference to the sacred saturated layers dopredykatyvnoho experience of the individual, to experience, allowed to appeal to deep social foundations, to the sphere of values and thus direct the work "component of the national structure of experience" on a supranational goal. The effectiveness of this approach is reflected in public opinion surveys. In formulating the questions in cases where national and European identity opposed to each other (respondents had to choose only one among them) have first preference, "while the sense of national pride (Eurobarometer survey on in 2006 - approx. T.M .) ranges from 98% in Cyprus and 70% in Germany, a sense of European pride ranges from 80% in Slovakia to 33% in the UK. On average, the 27 EU countries, national pride reaches 86%, while European pride reaches only 59%" [11, p. 28]. However, when the question does not require a choice and a European identity offered in addition to the national level of positive responses on it was much higher, "the vast majority of European citizens say they feel appropriate to the national and the European community. In the specific case of Great Britain (only 32%), all other EU countries are always in response ranging from 50% to 73%. 72% of Greeks, 67% in Luxembourg and 65% in Poland feel both national and European" [11, p. 29]. The base set "the concept of" European values "defined in Article 2 of the Treaty on European Union (after amendment, provided the Lisbon Treaty). But whether there are ontological foundation of the formation of "imagined communities" - European, i.e. "community that provides the basis for its existence, European values" [4, p. 71]? Whether the European nations to the same values and ethical matrix, moral and ethical system - the so-called European (or, in terms W. Lefebvre, first moral and ethical)? Developed V. Lefebvre [14] theoretical model of reflect the subject allows to imagine two basic ethical system, based on value system opposed in their principles and applicable in different types of societies - open and closed. In a situation of choice act, moral and ethical choice inherent representative of the Open Society First sacrificial system prone to compromise, the second inherent to closed societies - to the sacrificial struggle. Model B. Lefebvre enables classification standard human characters in every ethical system (and society where this system is dominant) and shows the connection type system with the normative assessment of the combination of good and evil. In the First ethical system, a combination of good and evil is estimated as evil. Second - this combination is assessed as good. Any compromise within the first system is standard, justified and proper, and his own self-esteem improves achievement entity within the Second compromise - is unacceptable action that demeans representative of this system in the eyes, lowers his self-esteem. Effective regulatory status values ​​provided experiencing subject - the carrier of a value system of their own actions as appropriate or inappropriate. The action is aimed at supporting and strengthening of its own hierarchy of values, contributes to their own self-esteem. However, not only the type of society determines the formation and domination of a system of values, but in return a value system allows the formation and development of a type of society that was reasonably and convincingly demonstrated by Max Weber is the analysis of the impact of Protestantism on values ​​and business development capitalist (market) socio-economic structure. Two ethical, values ​​and operating system born at the beginning of the human person and as the leading factors causing formation of the person. In one of them prevails unification of the individual in favor of the joint, joint dominance? In another - another principle of legitimacy and therefore priority unit and diversity. On a personal level, feeding one of them provided a process of socialization, its occurrence in a particular cultural and historical social life and mastering its architectonics. Seated with his alternative to the vitality of the person depending on the social situation of a particular method of communication in society caused by the way his dynamic building, one of two ethical systems gets preferences and holds a dominant position both in the action sphere of individual and society in turn increasing the possibility of operation corresponding type of society. Despite the diversity of European cultures, they are all based on similar ideological principles, values ​​centered is irremovable anthropic component, and a leading position in the hierarchy of values ​​occupies a single (person), which clearly show the results of European and international research (project "World review of values" ( World values ​​Survey - WVS), lasting from 1970 to date) \, "Study of European values" (European values ​​Survey - EVS), "European barometer" (Eurobarometer - EB), its counterpart in the post - "Eurasian monitor" (EM) program for international social Survey (international social Survey Programme - ISSP) and the "European social research" (European social Survey - ESS)). And, therefore, indeed we can speak of the existence of the European single common civilization values ​​and communicative core around which grows a wide palette of symbolic and emblematic series with a common charge's value. And it is this fact was used as part of the cultural policy of the EU to form a European identity as a means of ensuring harmony and European consolidation. However, the modern European world, as, indeed, western world in general, in the cultural sense is not only a set of "compatible" with the value principles of the European system of values ​​semantic-symbolic (cultural) codes. He contains opposite phenomenon. By As increasing number of immigrants from countries that represent domination opposite value system, the prospect of solving the problems that arise in the context of relations of different civilizations and value systems are less encouraging. For those for whom the existing guideline value Second moral and ethical system, the phenomenon of otherness and caused him legitimacy diversity, including national and cultural perceived negatively and is something unacceptable, condemned. Such a value system characterized by hostility to otherness, autarchic intentions and personal negation. In addition, it is connected with this crisis of multiculturalism as a policy of "incorporating" immigrants in European social and cultural space. Today the practice proves: answer the question about the possibility of dialogue between representatives of different value systems is open, if not negative. Dialogue on an entirely different value ground - among those for whom such a dialogue is value, and those for whom it is unacceptable - is impossible, which is clearly stated in the White Paper on Intercultural Dialogue. Already in the preface to the "White Paper on Intercultural Dialogue", published by the Council of Europe in 2009, accentuated the principal priority of human rights over the human communities which based the new proposed model - not a multicultural and intercultural "our common future depends on its ability to protect and promote the human rights enshrined in the European Convention on human rights, democracy and the rule of law and promote mutual understanding. ... When it comes to implementation of a European identity, it must be based on shared fundamental values, respect for common heritage and cultural diversity, and respect for the equal dignity of every person" [15, p. 3]. Fundamental for intercultural dialogue is the "freedom to choose their own culture ... this is the main issue of human rights" [15, p. 13]. No one against the will should not be limited to the particular group, community and system of thought or ideology, but rather - be free to withdraw from his past choices and make any new choice, unless it is contrary to the universal values ​​of human rights, democracy and the rule of law (emphasis mine - Ed. T.). Mutual openness and sharing is an integral part of multiculturalism. This - the rules of coexistence of both individuals and groups can practice their own culture common conditions - respect for others [15, p. 13]. In the absence of respect and equal dignity of all human beings, human rights, rule of law and democratic principles is impossible no dialogue - says the document [15, p. 14]. The "White Paper" propose common principles for practical implementation of such a return to dialogue, including the rejection of moral relativism and the responsibility of all participants in the dialogue to acknowledge the value of the human person and his freedom to choose themselves, dialogue with those who are ready for such recognition, constructive and decisive role of civil society in it and return to a policy of integration of immigrants must study their language of the host country. Then from 2011 was began a new phase of cultural transformation of EU policies related to rethinking the negative effects of multiculturalist component and search mechanisms to implement the principles set out in the "White Paper", which laid the ground Declaration 1990 "multicultural society and European cultural identity. " Its leitmotif is the recognition that the pursuit of cultural development of the EU is possible only based on guaranteeing fundamental freedoms and human rights that underpin European historical heritage and culture. In this sense, for Europe and for Ukraine is an important and meaningful not only positive but also negative European experience certifying: no priority of European values ​​- values ​​of another and diversity - of the values ​​of any local community, without priority becomes problematic compliance human rights, cultural rights and its rights to the identification. The EU is actively working on building an alternative to multiculturalism - cultural policies, protectionist in nature to the ethnic cultures in all regional and local variations, which, however, the common is what is called "European values", which should be ensured absolute priority all national and super tools.


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"The Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant" as a problem of international relations

Igor Gorobets, Andriy Martynov


The article deals with causes of the "Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant" created through disintegration of the Arab Middle East stemming from the disappearance of autocratic regimes and the strengthening of radical political Islam. Raison d'etre of the "Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant" includes the creation of a global caliphate, asymmetrical struggle against the "new crusaders" and spreading the radical version of Islam in the world. The author analyzed problems of the fight against the "Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant" by the US and Russia-led coalitions. As regards the mid-term prospects of the "Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant", the paper provides options related to its role as a stimulus for further destabilization of the Middle East, or the "export" version of radical Islam in Europe, Central Asia and Russia.Key words: Middle East, global caliphate, Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant, radical political IslamThe terrorist attacks on the United States made Sept. 11, 2001, initiated a rapid process of profound transformation of the global system of international relations, including its regional branches. First, venue of titanic efforts of a single superpower at the time it was determined the Middle East. Strategically the US then tried to start solving interrelated problems: first, to strengthen its position in this energy-rich region of the planet; Second, "democratize" and "vesternizate" Islam that after the victory of the US in the "cold war" was considered the most unpredictable ideological system that challenges Western scenario of globalization. Initiated the transformation of the Middle East was on military operations in Afghanistan. Although realistic military strategists heeded the scale of the challenges that will face in Afghanistan, but de facto been chosen palliative strategy "win nothing and military presence in Afghanistan makes it possible to control Central Asia, to influence Russia and China and, therefore, to prevent the emergence of a Eurasian geopolitical forces or coalition that could challenge US hegemony" [1]. However, the strategic task of changing the balance of power in the Arab Middle East remained on the agenda. So in March 2003 released the genie from the bottle by launching a controversial history of "democratization" of Iraq. Clearly, a clear idea of ​​the algorithm of actions aimed at democratization of this, no one had. The most acute phase of the global economic crisis in 2008 triggered a partial replacement of the regular army in Iraq to employees of private military companies but fully deal with the security challenges they could not. Instead systemic contradictions of the Arab Muslim countries, primarily related to the population explosion, that led to the failure of local autocratic elites to adequately respond to the "revolution of expectations" to improve the lives of young people "today" bias "great powers" in the region, their desire to strengthen its influence at the expense of weakening competitors, fluctuations in prices for the main export product of oil. All these factors together have broken the traditional social consensus. Analyzing the prospects of "Arab revolutions" in the spring of 2012, the authors of this article noticed the intense competition strategies for the future of the Middle East. One plausible scenario concerned a rapid development project to create a new Caliphate. Since the 2013-2014 biennium. This project sought to implement militants "Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant." This formation has become a kind of "hybrid" "conventional" terrorist networks that were ideologically supplemented by new information and political technologies, which gave a significant effect in terms of creating reproducible networks recruitment, training and use of new terrorists on the field of battle. Moreover, under the black flag of jihad brought together people who despite declaring their loyalty to the Quran, in practice, it parted with many traditional interpretations.From this perspective, "Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant" recalls the classic version populist movement that is trying to play on the contradictions of social crises, promote religious and social slogans, including eschatological prophecies of its role as the "scourge of God" in the "last days" of humanity by that different followers can see what they want. On the other hand, the "Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant" can not be considered analogous to the Western anti-globalization movements since IDIL declared intention not to improve the current global socio-political system and destroy it in order to create "ideal Islamic state" as the prototype of the "end of the world." This partly explains the practice of mass executions of infidels and enemies of any IDIL, various "excesses artists" are often aimed at advertising themselves as the only "anti-systemic forces". Scholar of Islamic law Mary Lubska analyzing Islamic law in the context of modern civilization development, said Islamic radicals "consider peaceful relations with non-Muslim countries temporary and confrontation - inevitable. Positions ambivalent supporters of other movements do not conform to Shariah. They find that peace from Muslim nations is welcome, but their views differ as to avoid conflict" [2]. Also excellent is the interpretation of the practice of "jihad" as, on the one hand, the phenomenon of fighting his own imperfection and sin, and the other - from the infidels for the total Islamization of the world. Estimates in the literature of Western countries and Russia differ markedly. Former German Foreign Minister Joschka Fischer in his book, thinking "History is returned. The world after September 11, and the revival of the West "in 2005 recognized that" from the Middle East to the West impending growing totalitarian revolutionary threat that implicitly uses terrorist methods and does not shrink from using primitive weapons of mass destruction, because they fall into the hands terrorist organizations ". Given the number of refugees in EU member states this phrase can already be considered as prophecy that came to pass. In the German scientific literature optimistic assessment of the prospects of democratization of Arab countries quickly changed to a realistic-pessimistic. The tone of these publications define Arab experts who collaborate with the German party foundations. In the summer of 2014, when became especially prominent military and political success "Islamic state" in Iraq and in Syria, Ali Reza Sheikh Attar in the journal "Seidel Foundation" published an article entitled "Syria: the crisis within the crisis". According to this sheikh, weakening the moderate Syrian opposition to the regime of Bashar al-Assad is due not so much military success "Islamic state" as insufficient support "Syrian Free Army" Western democracies [3]. After attracting 30 September 2015 the Russian military space forces to direct military support to the army of Bashar Assad German experts have questioned the true motives of the Kremlin. According to Martin Molère, Russian military intervention in Syria aims to prevent the implementation of Qatari pipeline construction project in Syria. Emil Suleymanov pointed out the futility of the joint fight against "Islamic state" two different geopolitical interests coalitions, led by the US and Russian-Iranian coalition. Western media response to "jihad live" practicing "Islamic state" portals provide information carefully monitor the developments. For example, Stanford University delivers a detailed digital map of the changing status of "state borders" "Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant." A kind of chronicle of events connected with the activity of "Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant" gives British newspaper "Daily Mail". Competition in this segment provides other information conventionally British left liberal "The Guardian". Apparently, PR "Islamic state" put on the flow of information industry in accordance with the general principle of advertising that is the only bad information obituary. However obituary to the "Islamic state" far away. It is also interesting to observe the memoirs of leading Western politicians, which reflect changes in their attitude to the spread of radical political Islam in its most extremist forms of the Middle East. Thus, former British Prime Minister T. Blair, in his book "The Way" almost two hundred pages devoted assumptions, course and consequences of the Iraq war aimed at eliminating S. Hussein from power. The author rightly notes that "the Iraq conflict had two, relatively short to remove Saddam, and long to get rid destabilizing consequences epidemic terror" [4]. But the relationship between the two phases of the conflict T. Blair for political reasons does not want to notice. However, this does not notice and US President George. W. Bush. In his memoirs, "Key decisions", he notes that because of triumphant victory over Saddam Hussein, "the Iraqi police ... fell apart when the fallen regime. The Iraqi army disappeared. Damage caused in those early days, has created a problem that will last for years. Iraqis waited for someone to protect them. Having failed to gain establish security in Baghdad, we lost our first chance to show what it could do "[5]. In 2010 George. W. Bush exuded optimism from the fact that "most violent region in the world has lost one of its greatest sources of violence and causing injury." But this optimism was premature. In Spring 2011 "Arab revolution" changed the situation. The then US Secretary of State Hillary Clinton back in January 2011 put the Arab partners of the USA to the harsh dilemma: "... if Arab leaders failed to buy into the need to change, they would risk losing control over their increasingly younger population, and open the door unrest, conflict and terrorists ". [6] Incidentally, in the 19th chapter of his memoirs H. Clinton admits Syria "hard-core problem" for the United States. In her opinion, "the Assad regime took root much deeper than the Gaddafi regime, and had more support among key populations, more allies in the region, a real army and a much more effective defense." In the spring of 2014 according to H. Clinton, "moderate Syrian opposition members also recognize the threat that extremists are trying to lead a revolution, and some have already begun efforts to drive them out of rebel territory." But by the end of the second term of Barack Obama "to separate" moderate Syrian opposition from terrorists "ISIL" neither theoretically nor practically did not succeed. Therefore, the Russian researchers actively using the paradigm of US accusations in the case of "Islamic state", which is considered a direct consequence of US policy, which from 2003 was aimed at the democratization of Islamic countries. Russian experts in agreement that the Arabic "political spring" 2011 objectively stimulated radicalization of social and political attitudes, making political initiative intercepted representatives of radical Islam. They examined in detail the formation zone of instability that began in North Africa and in the Middle East comes to Central Asia. In these circumstances, in the Russian scientific thought dominating the view on the importance of the Russian-Iranian alliance in the Syrian civil war and to stabilize the situation in Eurasia. [7] The emergence of "Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant", in our opinion, primarily caused by the disintegration of the Arab Middle East, favorable to radical Islam (Sunni-Shiite tradition of confrontation, the idea of ​​jihad as a counter Liberal Democratic globalization). An important factor was the "war by proxy" as a kind of military outsourcing. In particular, Qatar and Saudi Arabia have been using outsourcing to eliminate a regime of Syrian President Bashar Assad, but in practice have additional problems due to the transformation of Syria into "a state that falls." There are many signs of this process: first, lost physical control over large areas, as well as the lost state monopoly on violence; Second, more and more legitimate government demonstrates failure to provide the decision-making collective compromise; Thirdly, the legal authority is untenable to provide basic public services; Fourth, the government is unable to interact with other states as a full member of the world community. The emergence of the phenomenon of "ISIL" should be considered in the context of the overall deregulation of post-bipolar system of international relations. In particular, the existing contradictions between the "big seven" (USA, Canada, Japan, UK, Italy, Germany, France) and the rest of the "Big Twenty" (Argentina, Australia, Brazil, China, India, Indonesia, Korea, Mexico, Russia Saudi Arabia, South Africa, Turkey). Intensifying the contradictions between national states and global market mechanisms that limit the ability to influence states on climate change, shortage of energy and water resources, food scarcity, asymmetrical demographic development, which is not in favor of the rich western countries. In this sense, the "Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant" can be seen as a kind of "anti-globalization response" Muslim civilization in contradiction of globalization. Objectives of the existence of "ISIL" associated with the spread of radical Islam into new geographic areas. Military tactics in this process can be considered asymmetrical struggle against the "new crusaders", as against "Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant" simultaneously, but with varying efficiency are two coalitions: the first coalition of "willing" led by the US, the second coalition de facto make Russia and Iran, which in Syria mediated sympathetic to China. Member States of the European Union in this context most concerned about refugees who continue to come primarily from the troubled Middle East and North Africa. In the Libyan towards the European Union has made the creation of another unity government, but he has not fully regained control over the entire territory of Libya. Large areas remain under the influence of supporters of the "Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant", which does not hide the intention to create another foothold in Libya to promote illegal migrants and ideas of radical Islam to the EU. In July 2016, the Warsaw Summit NATO analyzed the most serious since the time of completion of the "cold war" challenges to international security, tense is the situation on the border of Turkey and Iraq and Syria, and the Mediterranean flank of NATO, despite the instability in North Africa. The strategy involves strengthening NATO defense and deterrence of potential aggressors. No less important issue concerns ensuring stability beyond the borders of NATO. Particular attention is paid to poor countries and incompetent in these lines. There is an element of deterrence, concerning the responsibilities of each member state of NATO. This is to ensure self-defense, resistance to hybrid and cyber wars, protecting critical military and civilian infrastructure. The second component of the containment associated with the overall military capability. Completed the creation updated rapid reaction force numbering forty thousand soldiers, not only land, but also the air and naval forces. In the Eastern European side created six NATO command centers designed to coordinate the efforts of the troops of NATO. Geographically, they are scattered from Estonia to Bulgaria, and in Poland and Romania established two permanent NATO headquarters, one for the north-east and the other to the southeast flank of NATO. Some powers in case of crisis concentrated in the headquarters of the High Command in the Belgian town of Mons. Following the Warsaw Summit expressed its willingness to conduct joint exercises with the EU. Current issues for NATO are combating "Islamic state." September 30, 2016 is a year since Russia started of military operations in Syria. The strategic goal of Russia's participation in the Syrian war is not only in the preservation of Russian positions in the Middle East, but also in protecting the corporate interests of "Gazprom". The interference of external forces in the Syrian conflict began five years ago with the efforts of Qatar to change the regime in Damascus to get the opportunity to build in Syria pipeline from Qatar to the Mediterranean. This process would have a negative impact on the position of "Gazprom" in the European energy market and would put into question the appropriateness of building "Nord Stream" and "South Stream" gas pipelines that "Gazprom" to bypass Ukraine. So the Kremlin profitable to continue destabilizing Syria to Qatar gas project in general was frustrated.The ideal for this option would be the division of Syria into separate territory for a long time to cease the implementation of alternative interests of "Gazprom" gas pipeline. The key in this respect is to preserve Assad clan for control of the province of Latakia, which has a Mediterranean coastline, that theoretically could be the end point of Qatari gas pipeline. But to control Latakia important control over the city of Aleppo. This former "economic capital" Syria was destroyed five years of war. However, to maintain control of the territory is extremely important, so do not accidentally warring parties continue actually to fight for Aleppo neighborhoods ruins. Concerns about this situation continues to express the European Union. Europeans are worried about the prospect of new waves of refugees from Syria, Turkey and the further destabilization of security challenges the next EU. In early September 2016 the EU made by the US and Russia agreed on a ceasefire in Syria, but in the third decade of September ceasefire was broken. The Kremlin tried to use the intensification of the Syrian war to discredit the candidate from Democratic Party presidential election Hillary Clinton, presenting it as a follower of mistakes Obama administration in the Middle East. Russia continues to try to use the Syrian war to influence the affairs of both the US and the EU. Another question is how much to spend on Russian resources. Russian army had to intervene directly in the course of the fighting in Syria on the side of Bashar Assad. This makes the potential participation of Russia in the war on conventional analog participation of the Soviet army in Afghanistan war. As the new Syrian war turns a scenario for Russia is increasingly likely. Rather, it is understood in the Kremlin, but so far there do not see the conditions for a full and final withdrawal of Russian army from Syria. A potential victim "ISIL" could be Saudi Arabia, besides Syria. In early October 2016, both houses of the US Congress overcame the veto of President Barack Obama's bill to address the possibility of US citizens affected by the attacks of September 11, 2001, in the courts with claims to Saudi Arabia. Recall that the administration of George W. Bush, following the investigation, secretive, almost a quarter of its content. But since it took fifteen years and under American law lawyers of victims have made partial withdrawal stamp "top secret" with details of the investigation, in particular, it became clear that Saudi Arabia special services not actively interacted with American colleagues in order to prevent the possibility of such past loud terrorist act in the US. That's why congressmen who had 8 November re-election to the supreme legislative body of the US prepared a law which allowed victims of the terrorist attack 11 September 2001 of US citizens to apply for compensation claims against the Saudi government. The Obama administration was in shock from this bill, because it created a dangerous precedent for US citizens, especially soldiers who fall of 2001 participate in the global war against international terrorism. Therefore, few people are surprised Obama's veto on the law that Congress overcome. Just saw the first claims. First wife of deceased members of the World Trade Center, in which 11 September 2001 a number of Saudi citizens walked aircraft, filed a claim for compensation. Still do not have to wait long for similar action against the Pentagon and the Central Intelligence Agency, including a citizen of Pakistan turned against them with a lawsuit by his family due to the death of American unmanned attack aircraft. But the most acute was the reaction to these events from Saudi Arabia, recalled the royal family, holding in his hands a package of investments in the US economy and US government debt by 750 billion dollars. It is clear that sell these "toxic" assets, even in the medium term is impossible, but any new US president will be very frustrating to know that the United States de facto have two of the three largest creditors, who, to put it mildly, not very friendly customized. These are Saudi Arabia and China. Only Japan in terms of loyalty accounts remains the exemplary ally. But the biggest trouble has emerged on the world oil market: the day when it became aware of the US Congress to overcome a presidential veto, the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) has agreed for the first time in eight years to reduce the level of oil production. This was done on the eve of the winter season in the northern hemisphere, which stimulated the tendency to increase oil prices. Most of this can benefit the countries with which the US does not have the best relationship, that Russia and Iran, as the social rebellion may be saved Venezuela. In addition, tensions Saudi Arabia and the United States may affect the balance of power as the Saudi kingdom and the Middle East. In Saudi Arabia, there is a bitter hidden from prying eyes struggle for royal power, which can split geographically Saudi Arabia. Destabilization of this holy land of Islam can strengthen supporters of radical political Islam and threatens another wave of attacks. Another stirring passion can turn suspended "controlled" chaos on a completely uncontrollable.Specifically, October 3, 2016 Russia has put forward "plutonium ultimatum" US, linking the lifting of sanctions continuation of the implementation of the destruction of plutonium, which is the raw material for nuclear weapons. On the same day, the US ceased cooperation with Russia in the implementation of the agreement of 9 September 2016 ceasefire in Aleppo. Against the backdrop of controversy Moscow and Washington remained effective "Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant." So, there are possible transformation of the "Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant" an instrument of further destabilization of the Middle East and Central Asia, including 30 August 2016, when the death of Uzbek President Islam Karimov has hidden the official authorities in the Kyrgyz capital Bishkek terrorists car with explosives attacked the Chinese embassy. This attack can be seen as a kind of "rehearsal" for further destabilize the situation in the region. Already clear major potential "hot spots": oasis Osh, Uzbek-Kyrgyz border, southern Kazakhstan, where Nazarbayev to focus opposition political forces, the Kazakh-Chinese border problem along China's Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Province, northern Kazakhstan, where you can expect kazahsko- Russian clashes. Overall modern Central Asia is such a "tub of dust" that her hypothetical detonation will be more powerful than the explosion of the "Arab Spring" in 2011 in the Middle East. First, because the ruling regimes in the region consistently show even more autocratic political culture than Bashar Assad in Syria because Response can be unpredictable power. Secondly, ready for the fuse of the explosion, with many people from Central Asia are fighting in the ranks of "Islamic state" in Syria. As intercept military initiative supported by the Syrian army and as a result of direct intervention in the war of the Turkish army land many militants "Islamic state" can go back to Afghanistan through Central Asia. Thirdly, we must not forget that in Afghanistan from 1991 to the present day based "Islamic Front of Uzbekistan", which wanted to get rid of their blood enemy Karimov and any means to come to power in Uzbekistan. Fourth, the United States can use idea of ​​instability in Central Asia to undermine Russian-Chinese alliance, which may not be enough capacity for unity and reconciliation of the situation in the region, so the likelihood of a serious destabilization of the situation in his country is much greater than the probability of relative stability. Given the open borders with the countries of Central Asia can expect an influx of refugees from the conflict and likely another humanitarian crisis of enormous proportions. Second front of "Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant" refers to the transfer activity in Europe. It is possible that to advance in Europe is used not only Syria but also Libyan bridgeheads. Probable activation "ISIL" in these areas, making it a business in Asian countries "peripheral" although we can not exclude activity "ISIL" in Pakistan and in the area of Pakistani-Indian conflict in Kashmir. Thus, the "Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant" has become a "catalyst" that best accelerates the crisis of the post-bipolar system of international relations and rapidly changing configurations established military-political alliances, including Russia and China are interested most involve the counter "ISIL" Shiite Iran, which is granted hypothetical enemy number one Sunni caliphate. In the same role Iran might use the US, but they make it more difficult, given the strategic alliance with Israel. By the way, survival and security of Israel is also largely dependent on the course of the struggle against "ISIL." Plans latter still so "global" that does not include the priorities traditional agenda day "cold war" with its permanent Arab-Israeli conflict because Israel is still, watching closely the actions of both coalitions against "ISIL" remains in the shadows but because of the military-political potential, he is always ready to intervene at the critical moment. Especially if the totalitarian project "ISIL" further develop, which can not be ruled out, because the whole modern history "ISIL" is an example of how a small fragment of links global terrorist network, under favorable circumstances, can grow big problem. References1. Tanner S. Afghanistan. The history of the wars from Alexander Makedonskyy to the "Taliban" fall. - M., 2004. - S.398.2. M. Lubska Islamic law. The essence of the source structure. - K., 2009. - S.208.3. W.E. Ali Reza Sheikh Attar. Syrien: Krise Innerhalb einer Krise // Politische Studien. - 2014. - №456. - S.46-50.4. Tony Blair. Way. - K., 2011. - S.414.5. George W. Bush. Key decisions. - K., 2012. - S.282.6. Hillary Clinton. Difficult decision. - K., 2016. - S.363.7. V. Kurshakov Shiite factor in Iran's foreign policy // World Economy and International Relations. - 2012. Beginning of activity of Belarusian SSR and Ukrainian SSR in UNESCOSvitlana Svilas SummaryOn the basis of the archival documents, memoirs, Soviet and modern historiography there was regarded the accession and the first experience of the participation of the Byelorussian SSR and the Ukrainian SSR in the activity of UNESCO. There were revealed the causes, conditions and circumstances of the accession of the republics into the Organization, the position of their representatives on the Conference on elaboration of the International Convention for the Protection of Cultural Property in the Event of the Armed Conflict, and also at the 8th session of the General Conference of UNESCO (1954), there were given the evaluations of this event by the Soviet participants, and also by modern historiography.Key words: Belarus, Ukraine, UNESCO, Khrushchev's Thaw, international cooperation in education, science and culture. The study of Soviet experience cooperation with UNESCO is one of the possibilities not yet realized Effectiveness cultural policy of sovereign Belarus and Ukraine, their public diplomacy. Participation Soviet republics in the organization during the Khrushchev "thaw" until recently been studied in fragments, based on a narrow base of sources and methodological monism [1, p. 5-10]. Declassification of the archive materials of the MFA of Belarus and Ukraine, to achieve "historiographical revolution" created favorable conditions for the study of foreign policy of the Ukrainian and Byelorussian SSR. The United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) was established to achieve understanding and intellectual solidarity of humanity through assistance to peoples and countries in literacy, universal and equal access to education, the expansion of scientific and cultural cooperation, dissemination of information on world achievements in the spiritual sphere of social life, health and protection of cultural heritage. UNESCO initiated a conference of education ministers allied (CAME), which periodically convened from November 1942 to December 1945, and where the leading position belonged to the United States and the Soviet Union from 1943 had observer status. UNESCO proposed to establish USSR only after the creation of a UN bodies - the Economic and Social Council (ECOSOC), which was previously considered the matter and take the lead in organizing the Constituent Conference (according to Art. 59 of the UN Charter). The UK government, the initiator of convening the forum, ignored the proposal to extend its influence in the organization posed. According to Russian scientist, lawyer and diplomat M. Fedotov (2002), the real reason for the refusal of the USSR to join the UNESCO in 1946 became the ideological "zashorenist" Stalinist leadership, which did not take those universal values ​​for which the organization was created - intellectual and moral solidarity, respect for human dignity, the search of objective truth. Molotov credited with the words: "We can not allow the Anglo-American spies roamed freely in our country." Known researcher of international relations and diplomat V. Israelian (2003, 2005) noted skepticism Stalin in regard to multilateral diplomacy, which thought that created in 1945 the UN should be used solely for propaganda purposes. Russian historian I. Hayduk (2007) the reason for non-participation of the Soviet Union in UNESCO in its early years saw in the Kremlin priority tasks of strengthening security and conservation gains in Eastern Europe [1, p. 35-36]. In November 1945, representatives of 37 countries signed the Charter of UNESCO in London, which came into force on 4 November 1946 after ratification by twenty countries. This date is the day of creation. The agreement, signed with UNESCO, ECOSOC status of UN specialized agencies, the GA approved the company in December 1946. Minister of Foreign Byelorussian SSR K. Kiselev influenced by conversations with representatives of US diplomacy and England during the I-th session of the UN (January 1947) has written to the management of the Federal Foreign Ministry proposal on the accession of the Soviet Union, the USSR and BSSR UNESCO for use organizations in the fight against the threat of a new war, countering ideological influence on it by other governments, especially the US and Britain, use as a tool of Soviet influence. However, according to Deputy Foreign Minister A. Wyszynski joining UNESCO have not played the role at which the K. Kiselev - rather the opposite: the Soviet Union had to be partly responsible for the organization, will increase the penetration of the USSR hostile bourgeois ideology, active espionage activities, "Anglo-Americans" will not allow the spread of Soviet ideas because there occupy the dominant position. Admission to UNESCO USSR, BSSR and the USSR could be interpreted as a sign of weakness, retreat from the principle of not cooperate with the organization established by the British [2, p. 168]. After Stalin's death the goals of Soviet foreign policy continued to be based on the revolutionary-imperial paradigm approach but, as the researcher V. Zubok (2011), were much less confrontational. Khrushchev sincerely believed in the peaceful realization of communist ideas and not afraid of competition with the West in education, science and culture, understood the importance of drawing his achievements. In addition to UNESCO, there were changes that impressed the new leadership of the Soviet Union: The Director General L. Evans opposed the dispersion of forces and called for focus on a few projects, with particular emphasis on the participation of a wide program of technical assistance of the United Nations, was a supporter of UNESCO transformation "of individuals" in "the organization states"(which were interested in the US and the Soviet Union). June 25, 1953 board the Soviet Foreign Ministry in favor of accession to UNESCO and the Central Committee supported this initiative [1, p. 39]. In November 1953, the BSSR Foreign Ministry informed Foreign Ministry UK about the government's decision to accept the Republic Constitution of UNESCO. The Government of the Byelorussian SSR sign the document instructed Minister of Foreign Affairs K. Kiselev. By letter of 26 March 1954, Minister of Foreign Affairs reported the same Director General L. Evans. The inscription on the document shows that it was sent to the Federal Ministry of Foreign Affairs, but then replaced with a letter, dated April 10, 1954. It K. Kiselev asked the Director General of UNESCO to inform you that the Government of the Byelorussian SSR decided to adopt bylaws and authorized the Soviet Ambassador to the UK Alexander J. Malik sign it. April 23, 1954 French Embassy informed the Soviet Foreign Ministry, informed that the deposit of Soviet ambassador in London ratification of accession of the USSR to UNESCO and would be grateful for the information ministry, or intend to Ukraine and Belarus to act the same way. Charge d'Affaires of the USSR in France V. Yerofeyev April 30, 1954 presented to the Director Department of Cultural Relations in. at. UNESCO Director-General Tom letter from the Minister of Foreign Affairs BSSR acceptance by the Government of the Republic received the UNESCO Constitution and promise to immediately inform the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Britain, which agree with the Soviet ambassador in London about the time of signing the document. May 7, immediately after his return to Paris L. Evans, V. Yerofeyev met with the director to discuss organizational issues related to the accession of the Republic to the Organization. Alexander J. Malik signed the Charter on behalf of UNESCO BSSR and the USSR May 12, 1954 (on behalf of the Soviet Union signed the document April 21, 1954). Since the signing of the charter of the Byelorussian SSR and the USSR are members of [1, p. 39 - 40]. The first forum of UNESCO, which BSSR and USSR participated as members of the Organization, was an intergovernmental conference to develop the International Convention on the Protection of Cultural Property in the Event of Armed Conflict (April-May 1954, The Hague). During signing in May 14th 1954 Final Act of the Conference and the Convention for the Protection of Cultural Property in the Event of Armed Conflict representatives of the Soviet republics and the Union delegations in written statements expressed dissatisfaction that the Conference had not discussed the proposed Soviet Union resolution to appeal to the governments of all member states of UNESCO assume unconditional commitment not to use nuclear, hydrogen and other weapons of mass destruction, as well as the rejection of the proposal to exclude the Soviet Union from the text of the Convention refers to the fact that respect for cultural values ​​do not apply to cases caused by military necessity. The Soviet delegation adhered to the position that the provision of the warring States law to justify the destruction and the destruction of cultural property by military necessity contrary to fundamental purposes and principles of the Convention. The third conference document, Protocol for the Protection of Cultural Property in the Event of Armed Conflict, signed USSR, BSSR and the USSR later because of his "poor content". In December 1954, on behalf of the Byelorussian SSR and the Ukrainian SSR, the document signed by Soviet Ambassador to France S. Vinogradov. The Verkhovna Rada ratified the Byelorussian SSR and the Protocol in March 1957, they entered into force in the same year [3, d. 266, l. 1-7; 1 l. 41-42].The next forum of the Organization, which was attended by Ukrainian SSR and Byelorussian SSR, was the 8th session of the General Conference (12 November - 10 December 1954, Montevideo). BSSR deployed there six people, of whom three were employees of foreign minister, four professional language skills, delegates were education organizer and scientist-economist. The delegation had the task of detailed study of UNESCO, establishing contacts with other countries and the presentation of the position of the main issues on the agenda [3, d. 304, l. 11-12]. The plane, which flew representatives of the Republic and of the Union and Ukrainian delegations crossed the Atlantic Ocean at night from 6 to 7 November, and Soviet passengers "had to regret not at home, and over the equator in the distant ocean they found another anniversary of the Great October socialist revolution." Mentality Soviet people and reflect the following lines: "gave pride of consciousness that we fly thousands of kilometers of tourist entertainment not walk, and the International Conference on behalf of the people of that building communism and wishes of peace and friendship with the peoples of all countries." Permanent Representative of UNESCO for 12 years (1967-1971, 1984-1992), And then the young fellow Foreign Ministry, MGIMO graduate 1953, V. Kolbasin thought: "The future will show whether the so-called able UNESCO international actors understand the reality of the facts of international life and listen to the voice of the representatives of the socialist countries ..." [4, p. 8-9, 29-30]. Delegates Ukrainian SSR came out of that organization, which included 71 state then was, in practice, far from exercising declared in the Charter of the noble goals; different decisions, resolutions and programs adopted by UNESCO differed and uncertainty were abstract and practical results of a number of measures "meager" [5 d. 443, l. 26]. Conference, meeting of which took place in the building of the Parliament of Uruguay, opened the representative of India Radhakryshnan, which noted that "the USSR did not come alone: ​​we also meet Belarus and Ukraine, and Hungary, Czechoslovakia and Poland," and expressed the hope that their presence will contribute to mutual understanding [4, p. 9]. Belarusian delegates complementary materials luggage union delegation, in particular by the Deputy Minister of Culture and famous biologists V. Stoletov. His speech in the general debate November 15, 1954 the head of the Belarusian delegation, Deputy Education Minister S. Umreyko began with the words: "BSSR joined to the UNESCO intentions encourage the implementation of the noble goals of the organization, set out in Article 1 of the Charter: to promote peace and security through the development of cooperation between countries through education, science and culture", "promote universal respect for justice, rule of law, human rights and fundamental freedoms, which are supported by the nations of the world, regardless of race, sex, language or religion, by the Charter of the United nations." He called for the admission to Organization of China, Romania and Bulgaria, strengthening ties with other international organizations, assistance to underdeveloped countries, the maximum reduction in administrative costs. By 'needs paramount importance "the head of the Belarusian took the elimination of illiteracy through training in their native language, the development of national culture and the exchange of best practices. The speaker stressed that the socialist revolution Belarusian people had its statehood, the tsarist government does not recognize its first language, 80% of the population was illiterate. The total number of students in 1954 reached 1.3 million, while for 1917 it was only 35,000. About 85% of young people who graduated from the seven-year school, continued teaching in secondary schools and secondary vocational schools, where studied works of classics of Western literature. In the Republic, there were 27 universities, nine research institutes, more than 7500 library with more than 12 million volumes, nearly 4,500 cultural and educational institutions. Only in 1953 was issued 17 million copies of books - 80 times more than in 1913, in 1954 was published fundamental work "History of the BSSR" [6, d. 157, l. 2-14]. Speaking in the general debate on program and budget, S. Umreyko supported the resolution of Uruguayan government on free education at all levels. He expressed willingness to send experts and Republic designs equipment to underdeveloped countries, to prepare them for higher education professionals. Support was expressed for the Indian government resolution on the use of nuclear energy for peaceful purposes. S. Umreyko drew attention to the importance of other resolutions made by the Indian government (the development of scientific cooperation, the relationship between the races, the popularization in the West cultures of Asia and Africa). Head of the Belarusian delegation supported the proposal of a number of pro-Soviet subsidies international NGOs, "really interested in the dissemination of science, culture and education among the masses." Byelorussian SSR delegation welcomed the draft resolution of the Soviet Union with a recommendation to the Member States to take measures to prevent the use of media to promote war and inciting hatred among peoples [3, d. 293, l. 71, 80, 98; 6, d. 157, l. 9-12]. Elected Vice Chairman of the Program and Budget, S. Umreyko joined the union delegation proposal to reduce the contribution of the Soviet republics to the UNESCO budget, but to no avail. Contributions for the BSSR in 1955-1956. Were prescribed amount of 0.48% (86 400 dollars), the USSR - 1.8% (324 thousand. Dollars.), USSR - 13.57% (2 million 442 thousand. USD), USA - 30% (5 million 400 thousand dollars) the budget of organization [3, d. 275, l. 15]. Delegates BSSR and USSR participated in the meetings of the Administrative Commission, which supported the proposal of the delegation of the USSR Russian as working for the General Conference and the Executive Board. Implementation of this proposal, in their opinion, would contribute to the prestige of the Organization, facilitating the work of a number of delegations, the spread of good practice. The Belarusian delegation "strongest way" opposed the exclusion of the Charter of UNESCO staff point at which CEO pledged to take the necessary measures to ensure that persons who have discredited links with fascism or military aggression, not intended Secretariat and the said paragraph Statute of staff remained in force [6, d. 157, l. 15; 4, p. 18]. Delegates to the United States, Britain and France called for the use of Russian as a working at General Conference sessions, but not in the Executive Council through costs. Latin American delegates argued their opposition to the introduction of the Russian language in the Executive Board that it expected the Spanish language for 8 years. On the proposal of the US delegation held a separate vote on the recognition of the Russian language the working language of the General Conference and the Executive Board. The first proposal was accepted, the second - or [3, d. 293, l. 124]. Eighth session of the General Conference allocated as a priority objective of the five - the introduction of free and compulsory primary education, dissemination of knowledge bases, to overcome racial tensions, social and international relations, the mutual recognition of the cultural values ​​of East and West, research to improve the living standards of people. During the spread of knowledge bases meant not only writing teaching adults and children, but minimal transfer of knowledge in medicine, welfare, agriculture and handicrafts. At the initiative of the US and Britain, which was supported by the Soviet delegation, session decided that the members of the Executive Board can not be independent in the future, and must follow the instructions of their governments. It adopted the image as the Parthenon temple emblem and official seal of the Organization, and decided to celebrate the centenary anniversaries of prominent representatives of world culture and to give special calendar [1, p. 49-50]. Summing up the session results after returning to Minsk, S. Umreyko described Organization as "an ideological weapon of the ruling circles of the United States" and noted that many delegates of Member States of UNESCO brewing discontent domination of UNESCO US State Department, which is open until manifested. Unfortunately for the Belarusian side, place the "legitimate representatives of China" continued to occupy "people homindanivskoyi, chankayshystskyy group with which the Chinese people committed once and for all." However, the head of the Belarusian delegation welcomed the approval of the research program on the use of nuclear energy for peaceful purposes and a resolution on the need to study the causes of cancer, which included a broad exchange of information. In discussing these issues USSR, USSR and BSSR as assured delegate, took "a leading role". The session adopted a joint draft resolution submitted by the delegations of the USSR, Czechoslovakia, Colombia, Ecuador, Lebanon, Liberia, Mexico, the USA, India, Canada, England, France on measures to use mass media to enhance mutual trust and understanding between peoples, and its was the initiator of the delegation of the USSR [3, d. 293, l. 1, 3, 53]. In the annual report of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the Belarusian Soviet Socialist Republic stated that the participation of the Republic in the UNESCO provided an opportunity to use the Organization to promote the success of the Republic in education, science and culture, as well as the expansion of cultural relations [3, d. 304, l. 13]. Updating UNESCO new members caused a positive response in the Secretariat and among diplomats of member states. So UNESCO Deputy Director General W. Leyvs and US permanent representative to UNESCO C. Thomson noted that the lack of USSR among members of UNESCO (with its active participation in the UN) UNESCO mostly located in the position of the viewer, the Member States were inclined to consider the application of as something secondary [7, p. 7]. According to the Russian diplomat M. Kanaev (2006), Soviet entry to UNESCO meant a fundamental breakthrough in international and cultural relations of the country, opened a window to the world wide international contacts in key areas of intellectual life [8, p. 53]. Evaluation session his classmate at MGIMO, member of the Belarusian delegation V. Kolbasinym (1963) was rather modest: session showed growth of progressive forces and trends, but failed to take radical measures to enhance the role of UNESCO in the struggle for peace and progress, refused to recognize the legitimate rights of the UNESCO China, postponed consideration of the acceptance of the Organization of Bulgaria and Romania [4, p. 18]. Diplomats Ukrainian SSR respected position in UNESCO predominant influence the US who used the Organization for entering the colonial, semicolonial and even formally independent countries to strengthen their influence in them, and for intelligence purposes. After the entry of the Soviet Union, the USSR and BSSR Americans were more forced to reckon with the possibility of exposing these plans. Some members of UNESCO who tried to pursue an independent policy from the US (for example, Scandinavian and Arab countries) are now able to focus on specific issues of supporting Soviet delegations, increased opportunities for maneuvering England and France. Since 1954 the Organization for the apparatus, the slave task spread of American influence, turned to the international body that is certain, albeit limited, possibilities of international cooperation. The Soviet delegation to the 8th session of the General Conference, "closer look" to the work of the Conference and UNESCO in general, stronger in the assessment that a political organization can not and should not be another [5 d. 512, l. 8, 9, 17]. Entry of the Soviet Union and two Soviet republics to UNESCO was illustrated the process of de-Stalinization, the expression of the desire of the new leadership of the Soviet Union used the Organization to showcase the achievements of socialism, especially young country, and learn and borrow a foreign experience, recognized as eligible for the completion of socialist construction and implementation Communist ideas. Byelorussian SSR and Ukrainian SSR joined to the race, which was just beginning between the Soviet and Western blocs for influence in countries that have recently embarked on the path of independent development by offering assistance through training, sending experts and equipment. Republic supported the five priorities of UNESCO and the first year of membership took part in the formation of the regulatory framework, which stimulated the improvement of domestic law,


1. Svilas S. Activities Byelorussian Soviet Socialist Republic to UNESCO (1954-1964.) / S. Svilas. - Minsk: BSU, 2013. - 463 p.2. Snapkoўskі William E. Zneshnepalіtychnaya dzeynasts Belarusi. 1944-1953 gg. / Pad Red. YP Broўkі.- Mіnsk: Belarus. Navuka, 1997.- 207 p.3. Archives of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the Republic of Belarus. - F. 907. Op.4. V. Kolbasin Byelorussian SSR - UNESCO / V. Kolbasin member. - Minsk BSSR State Publishing House, 1963. - 39 p.5. Archive of Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Ukraine. - F. 1. Op. 1.6. The National Archives of the Republic of Belarus. - F. 907. Op. 1.7. Uranov G. UNESCO: the 40th anniversary of activity / G.V. uranium. - M.: Intern. relations. - 1986. - 129 p.8. Kanaev M. Roads UNESCO. Memories diplomat / M Kanaev - M.: Intern. relations, 2006. - 432p.


EU's Eastern Partnership in today's realities: problems and prospects

Tetyana Sydoruk


The effectiveness and prospects of the European Union project called "Eastern Partnership" in the context of experience of the initiative and contemporary geopolitical realities in Europe are analyzed. Conclusions on the need for a new concept of modern eastern EU policy are made.Key words: Eastern Partnership, European Union, eastern neighbours, association agreement, reforms. Part II.Association agreements have long been a foundation of bilateral relations with the EU countries of the southern dimension of the ENP (North Africa and Middle East). However, a significant impact on political systems and economies of these countries are not. Therefore, the conclusion of association agreements is unlikely directly and inevitably affect the processes of transformation in Eastern Europe. Deep and comprehensive free trade zone promise eastern neighbors access to the EU internal market. The proposal is certainly generous, but somewhat blurred, distant and expensive. EU Strategy is built on benefit neighboring countries from access to the EU internal market. However, since this access depends on compliance with the rules and standards of the internal market, the EU offers neighboring countries to adopt a significant part acquits (EU law), which regulates the functioning of the internal market (about 80%). In the case of such a joint venture proposal is a significant challenge not only because of the lack of legal and administrative capacity of the adoption and implementation of acquits, established the need to change business practices, but because of the inevitable costly. CEE countries that joined the EU were on expenditure for benefits of membership (including assistance programs). SP does not provide such incentives. Model "integration without membership" [1] that proposes EU within the joint venture does not create sufficient conditions for partner countries for effectively implement structural reforms. It is recognized that in order to improve the efficiency of the joint venture, the EU should offer new incentives to partner countries in exchange for the introduction of European standards and strengthening democracy. The biggest incentive for Ukraine and other countries are actively involved in the joint venture (Georgia, Moldova) to continue the movement towards European integration, the prospect of EU membership. It is not only a declaration like that EU door for EaP countries remains open, and the assurance that, depending on the progress of internal reforms really ready to start EU pre-accession process with the country concerned. Only in this case an association agreement - a step in the integration process - can provide long-term effectiveness of the joint venture. However, as this path is real, despite the apparent reluctance of most EU countries to assume any liability for the possibility of further EU enlargement to the East? And even if we can reach a consensus on this issue, is the prospect of membership to countries inevitably result in irreversible joint venture and the success of their integration into the EU? The prospect of membership, which played important in the process of integration of CEE countries may not be as effective incentive in the case of the joint venture and the new geopolitical conditions. Even his time in CEE granting EU membership only reinforced the liberal reform strategy in Poland, Hungary and the Czech Republic, but also it could not prevent illiberal strategies for getting and using power in Romania, Bulgaria and Slovakia, almost to the end 90s of the twentieth century [ 2, p. 21]. It was only after the EU "went towards expansion", that began to involve active instruments (pre-accession process discipline), its impact on the internal reforms in candidate countries increased incomparably [2, p. 20-21]. Another controversial issue - whether membership perspective provides a crucial incentive for countries to begin modernizing reforms; whether the country receives the prospect of EU membership if it has already made significant progress [3, p. 17]. It seems that in practice the EU is more inclined to the second and less inclined to hand out advances than it was in the past. It follows that the necessary tools are other intermediate incentives for the implementation of a clear reform plan, which could lead to the prospect of membership to countries joint venture in the near future. Finally, although the prospect of membership is still regarded as an effective tool, it is not an acceptable solution for many EU countries (mainly western and southern). In the context of the current war in Ukraine added to fears that any move to expand the EU in this area will lead to countermeasures by Russia and further destabilization in Eastern Europe. According to the expert of the German Marshall Fund (USA) D.Schwarzer, European politicians must first convince national group that incentives such as membership perspective necessary [3, p. 21-22]. But it can become a reality only if the partner countries show clear progress and readiness to implement costly reforms. The referendum in the Netherlands, April 6, 2015 on an association agreement between Ukraine and the EU clearly demonstrated the validity of these concerns. Given the fact that Member States and EU institutions still seriously considering the possibility of European perspective EaP states needed other tools to solve, at least partially, the above problems. It is clear that in the case of Georgia, Moldova and especially Ukraine should strengthen EU policy. The EU can offer intermediate steps towards full membership, consistent with short-term thinking Eastern European political elites and the current reluctance to talk about the EU membership prospects of these countries. An interesting and not devoid of logic thought in this context, offering scientists the Lithuanian Research Center Eastern Europe [3]. In their view, "golden mean" between two poles - the de facto suspension of the joint venture programs and rapid extension of membership prospects to partner countries - could be action plan (road map) to give membership perspective offered by each country. This should be a reform plan, based on standard principles in accordance to the direction of the "Copenhagen criteria", but differentiated for each country according to its main problems, which lead to the fulfillment of giving it EU membership. Providing this Roadmap will be an incentive for reform and thus will "throw the ball" in the hands of the EaP, as they will have to realize the goals set by EU rules and to implement EU standards before the latter adopt politically difficult the decision to grant membership prospects [3, p. 22-23]. Indeed, the experience of the Action Plan on Visa Liberalization Georgia, Moldova and Ukraine showed a significant effect of EU conditionality when the criteria set out clear and tangible rewards promised. All three countries have demonstrated significant progress in implementing reforms in the area of migration, the fight against corruption and improving border control and human rights. It is hard to believe that the reforms launched in the framework of the visa liberalization process, would become a reality without compensation from the EU. The biggest obstacle to modernization and Europeanization EaP countries is the unwillingness of political elites to carry out reforms that threaten their power and existence. The costs of compliance with EU requirements and associated political risks are too high, while their failure is almost worthless. We can assume that elite refused to be of such behavior on the offer compelling and clear incentives and strict discipline on the part of the EU, as evidenced by the example of the Action Plan on Visa Liberalization three countries joint venture, and the practice of EU enlargement to the East and the Western Balkans. One of the latest evidence of effectiveness of external incentives and pressures from those who offer them is the story of an attempt to disrupt the Kyiv last commitment for the implementation of a visa-free regime with the EU, while Ukraine August 15, 2016 launched the work of non-certified system of electronic declaration of wealth of high officials, that does not meet the objectives of securing key legal consequences in case of false declarations. However, under pressure from the EU and IMF (at stake were free regime with the EU, $ 3 billion loan from the IMF, 1.2 billion euros from the EU) Ukraine was forced to abandon the disruption of e-declaration after the meeting held by the President of Petro Poroshenko, was achieved arrangements for urgent clearance certificate of conformity of electronic declaration to August 31, [4]. Thus, to improve EaP EU can enhance the action of conditionality, increasing the potentially high rewards compared to relatively high costs of reforms to introduce short-term incentives are compatible with short-term thinking Eastern European political elites (assurance to provide the perspective of membership subject to a clear reform plan, for example, as part of the implementation of the AAs) and implement strict monitoring of implementation of commitments partner countries. The alternative of above ideas concerning of roadmaps with the prospect of membership may be determining the list of priorities in the framework of the implementation of the Association Agreements, limited in time, with clear benchmarks and indicators of real progress for which the EU will commit to make a decision on granting a European perspective three countries. This means focusing on sustainable implementation of Association Agreements by Georgia, Moldova and Ukraine in the coming years, launching key reforms, the results of which will go through the formal assessment to contribute to getting (or not getting) the status of candidate for EU membership. This approach will allow the EU Member States that have a negative attitude to the idea of ​​further expansion to the East, to control the development of relations with partner countries and suspend it if the results are unsatisfactory reforms. On the other hand, of the EaP will mean that depending on the results of the specific conditions set by the EU, they will be able to move to a higher level of relationship with him and get a "green light" as a recognition of the status of potential candidate for membership. Georgia, Moldova and Ukraine have shown some progress in implementing European standards in many areas, but the problem is still their proper implementation, ensuring the sustainability and irreversibility of internal transformation and Europeanization. Analysis of economic and political indicators of three countries, their positions in various international rankings (corruption perception index, the index of freedom, the index of global competitiveness, the level of public debt relative to GDP, etc.) and compare them with those of the Western Balkans in 2003, when the EU has in recent European perspective [5, p. 10-15], shows that in most cases the first are now in much better position than the Western states were then. This suggests that a serious offer from the EU that will dispel doubts about his intentions regarding the EaP States and give the latter a clear direction and ultimate goal, to provide real impact on EU reforms, similar to the pre discipline process. However, returning to the example of the Western Balkan countries should point out, perhaps the key difference that causes and specifics of the joint venture as an alternative to expansion. Unlike the Western Balkans in the late XX - early XXI century, EaP states are not "empty space" has just stripped communist influence and area of ​​"special Russian interests." And while most EU capitals will be inclined to consider this factor before the joint venture will be devoid of any political symbolism, and above all binding capabilities to full membership in EU partner countries. The security situation. The EU went about topics of security and frozen conflicts in the eastern neighborhood till this time. EaP was constructed so as to avoid these reefs, as the EU was convinced that these problems can not be solved by diplomatic means, instead they faint provided positive political, social and economic changes. But we see that it is not - is actually the opposite: conflicts are undermining the democratic and economic development of the EU's Eastern neighbors. Moreover, the outbreak in 2008 Russian-Georgian war, Russia's recognition of breakaway republics of Abkhazia and South Ossetia, the military annexation of Crimea and aggression in eastern Ukraine significantly changed the security situation for the worse. A key factor in these changes is Russia willing to use its military might to project power and influence within the former Soviet Union. The Kremlin has an ambitious program of military modernization, increases defense spending and began extensive use of military force as an instrument of foreign policy [6, p. 59]. For a long time it has been accompanied by indifference to defense issues elsewhere in the region. Spending on security and defense of Ukraine remained at a level no higher than 2% of GDP over the past two decades. In addition, this spending was not accompanied by the modernization, reform the military and defense sectors, efforts to fight corruption, which led to the theft of a large part of the military budget. In 2016, Ukraine increased spending on security and defense to 5% of GDP [7]. However, as rightly emphasizes N. Popescu, any increase in defense spending will not venture any country able to win the war with Russia [6, p. 60]. But the proper state armed forces and the security services could make use of the tactics of "hybrid warfare" is much more complicated and thus increase the threshold for the use of military force against them. Militarization of regional geopolitics, where power was used to change the borders of Georgia and Ukraine, is the new trend of international relations in Europe, which the EU can not ignore. Moreover, the threat of force to remain acute in the coming years, and states in the region are still poorly prepared for in order to deal with this new challenge. If the EU still had to cope adverse effects of armed conflict only in the South, but now he has to do it in the East. This requires both short-term actions such as crisis management, mediation, etc., and a clear long-term vision and strategy for its implementation, aimed at promoting security and development of neighboring countries is a vital interest for the EU. The current situation especially in Ukraine, but also in Georgia and Moldova requires the use of the European Union (and the West in general) an integrated approach to political, security and modernization components, similar to that successfully applied on EU Western Balkans. A key element of the political aspect is the prospect of EU membership. Security component requires the use of special tools Security Policy. This may be an in-depth dialogue on security policy with the countries of the EaP, both in bilateral and multilateral formats, support for security sector reform, clear coordination goals and objectives of the joint venture with other instruments of the EU under the Common Foreign and Security Policy, the maximum possible use of the potential the latest in resolving "frozen conflicts" in the partner countries and more. Lack of political component and lack of attention to the security situation in the region make it impossible to create the conditions for sustainable socio-economic development of the partner countries and the success of the policy of modernization. Ukraine, Georgia, Moldova require much support and help the EU to succeed. On the other hand, the result of a comprehensive and effective operation in the near vicinity, the EU could restore its international reputation has been undermined by the economic crisis and migration and the referendum on Brexit. So, the EaP needs to be reviewed on several fronts. Firstly, the new approach to relations with partner countries should take into account their sensitivity to external pressure, especially "hot spots" that are open to the impact of, and propose ways that would allow it to minimize the increase in the sense of "soft force" of the EU in the near vicinity and capabilities against "harsh force" of the Kremlin. Secondly, the EU should think about what are the real incentives community can offer its pro-European oriented eastern neighbors (Georgia, Moldova and Ukraine), and gradually pave the way for recognition of their status of potential candidates for membership provided irreversibility of internal reforms. Thirdly, the cardinal change in the security situation in the region requires the involvement of EU policy instruments to promote security stabilization on its eastern outskirts, such as those it has applied in the Balkans and the Southern dimension of the European Neighbourhood Policy.


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