№5 / 2017

Indonesia: the path from “third world” to “first”

Volodymyr Golovchenko


The article spotlights peculiarities of the Indonesian modernization, its relevance for independent Ukraine, especially in circumstances of the Russian hybrid aggression. Special attention was paid to perspective vectors of Indonesia’s economical and social development, democratization of the political system of state.

Keywords: democratization, infrastructure, modernization, region, state.

Following the 2016 Indonesia’s economy, the most powerful in Southeast Asia, ranked 8th in the world in GDP calculated at purchasing power parity – US $ 3.028, overtaking the UK and France [1]. Moreover, the year the increase was 4.9%, indicating a striking increase in consumer demand middle class, which is part of the most numerous Muslim countries of the world with a population of 258.3 million people., Consisting of nearly 300 ethnic groups (the fourth figure is the number of planet). The Indonesian archipelago – the world’s largest – has, according to the National Coordinating Agency for topography and cartography 13 466 islands (of which only 922 are inhabited) with a total area of 1904.6 thousand sq. M. km [2].

Indonesia path from “third world” to “first”, lessons of its modernization are instructive significance for an independent Ukraine. Unveiling the country’s recent history should begin with elimination attempt radical left coup on the night of 30 September to 1 October 1965 by the army strategic reserve command led by General Suharto. The gradual removal from power “father of the nation” and life president – socialist and populist Sukarno was accompanied by a massive anticommunist terror that killed half a million people (even as many got to prisons and concentration camps) [3]. These tragic events have created conditions for rapid (“catch-up”) for the modernization Japanese model. At the same time, elected March 12, 1967 Acting President Suharto said: “If we are not achieve economic success in ten years, families of dead communists can take up arms and take revenge.” By a strange coincidence, less than six months, Indonesia plays a leading role in creating one of the most successful regional integration projects – Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN), which now marks the half-century anniversary.

Having inherited completely bankrupt economy, the new head of Indonesia invited governance supporters of market economy, so named “Berklists” – Indonesian economics graduate of the University of California, located in the suburb of San Francisco – Berkeley (named after the influential Irish philosopher and Anglican Bishop first half of the eighteenth century George Berkeley). They occupied key posts of ministers of economy, finance, industry, commerce and planning quickly and successfully liberalized the economy, introduced market mechanisms have begun to create a mixed sector revived cooperation.

Directly curator of “berklists” was the father of the current Sultan of Yogyakarta – active member of Indonesian National Revolution Hamenhkubuvono IX, who was appointed by Coordinating Minister for Economic Affairs, and in the 1973-1978 was the Vice-president of Indonesia. Merit for the national liberation revolution Hamenhkubuvono IX retained the post of governor and descendants Yogyakarta Special District, and in 1990 was awarded posthumously the honorary title of National Hero of Indonesia. Hamenhkubuvono IX successfully achieve the treaty of revision debt of the country and polite return of US aid, which was once Sukarno sent “to hell.” Anti-Western Positioning changed inviting foreign investors to develop oil fields in Eastern Sumatra, farmers and rice growers in Central Java and Bali have new cereal varieties, pesticides, chemicals and technical assistance from the arsenal of the “green revolution”.

Already in 1969 the inflation rate reached a definitive numbers, despite the fact that several years earlier, that is, “Indonesian socialism” inflation led to a 20-fold rise in prices of essential commodities. Over the next decade, income began to steadily increase, Indonesia has become the largest getter of oil in the Asia-Pacific region (APR), and soon for annual economic growth (8%) left behind a lot of the “third world” and close the second ten most developed countries of the planet . The slogan “new order” was “Development” [4].

Suharto fundamental principles of “new order” was the weakening of party influence on politics and law the Armed Forces ‘dual function’ (army not only protects the country from external threats, but also shapes its internal policies). The new policy on foreign capital was built on the principle of “open economy”, which meant that capital free access to most of the sectors of the national economy. Opening the green light to foreign capital, Indonesia hoped to solve their short- and long-term task to rebuild populist “managed democracy” Sukarno economy in a short time and ensure its intensive development by attracting foreign investment and advanced technologies and know-how.

A new model of socio-economic development of Indonesia was formed gradually, and it was characterized by almost simultaneous focus on import substitution and export. The possibility of such an impressive combination of predetermined scale state and diversity of its economy. In agriculture, large-scale diversification began only at the turn of 1980-90, to provide for most applications a combination of intensive and extensive methods of crop and livestock production. Over time, with the assistance of the US Agency for International Development (United States Agency for International Development, USAID) program implemented efficiency of farms, to diversify their production and agricultural trade liberalization. In accordance with it and conducted training farmers new methods of farming, infrastructure was created specific to direct products to the world market.

Despite the objective difficulties of implementing reforms, they brought visible positive results: three decades of Suharto’s reign GDP per capita of Indonesia has increased four times, in some years, industrial growth reached 25% – an unprecedented achievement by today’s times!

But after a long period of sole authoritarian of Suharto, the country was on the verge of financial bankruptcy, inflation exceeded 500% external debt was $ 140 billion (4th place in the world after Brazil, Mexico and Argentina), from 6% to 40% increase in the number of people in poverty. Almost all profitable sectors of the economy in the hands of Suharto clan, whose assets totaled $ 40 billion, i.e. half of the state budget. So news of the election of the General President for the seventh time in March 1998 caused widespread student and youth performances in almost all major cities. In addition, the Javanese were terribly unhappy preferences those who received individual businessmen from national diasporas. For example, developers Jakarta Chinese origin (huaqiaos) for pennies bought housing in poor citizens and built luxurious shopping malls and luxury properties.

At the request of Parliament Suharto had evening May 21, 1998 to announce his resignation as president and transfer the power to Vice President Yusuf Habibi – Indonesian creator of the “economic miracle.” Indonesia has become the third largest democracy in population (after the Republic of India and the United States). The former president and his family were the targets of a number of lawsuits and deprivation of property, but we should recognize that the people of the late (Suharto died in early 2008) kept a good memory. Indonesians say they had two presidents, Sukarno, which created the nation, and Suharto, who held power through reforms to modernize and possible future prosperity.

“Third Wave” of democratization spread to Indonesia as one of the consequences of the financial crisis of 1997-1998. Drama and acquired forms. In October 1998 the People’s Consultative Congress president elected leader of the Islamist Party of Abdurrahman Wahid national awakening, and Vice-President Megawati Sukarnoputri – daughter of Sukarno and the head of the Democratic Party fight Indonesia (DPBI), which is the first free parliamentary elections won a relative majority. Radical center-left opposition eventually succeeded in electing the head of state of 23 July 2001 (Wahid at that time almost blind due to two heart attacks). Sukarnoputri has improved the international image of Indonesia when it agreed to recognize the independence of East Timor (was occupied by Indonesia in 1975-1999) and successfully became a mediator in the inter-Korean dialogue. However, growing economic difficulties (late 2003 Indonesia withdrew from the IMF program), and activation of fundamentalist terrorists DPBI led to the defeat in the parliamentary elections April 5, 2004 In the first-ever direct general and presidential election victory that year (60.9% votes) took the former Minister of state security Susilo Bambang Yudhoyono (re-elected for a second term July 8, 2009).

Political liberalization has occurred in terms of stabilizing the Indonesian economy: by tight financial policy of the government managed to reduce inflation from 70% in 1998 to 3.8% in 2016, but then there has been steady growth in annual GDP per capita (11.7 ths. dollars. USA in 2016), i.e. Indonesia this macroeconomic indicator overcame finally deemed “red line” of the IMF, which separates developing countries (“third world”), from developed countries (“first world”) and foreign reserves reached 106.4 billion dollars. United States (21 in the world).

Logically, an analyst at one of the largest investment companies “Goldman Sachs” – British financier George. O’Neill in 2005 Indonesia introduced as the newest industrial state with income above the average of the national economy, the list of 11 countries (The Next Eleven), whose national economies have the best chance to become the greatest in the near future locomotives international system of economic relations of the XXI century. [5]. Indonesia then there was a “Big Twenty” (G-20) – a group of finance ministers and heads of central banks of the largest economies in the world and the EU (from 2008 – Heads of State).

From the beginning of the “reform era” was revived a few private banks began to recover public banking sector, but the financial sector of the country long shunned new debt. Atrocities and cruelty in the Sector struggle and dissatisfaction unsuccessful attempts to pay off debts and develop the banking system were serious obstacles to the implementation of government plans for economic growth. Basic industries were oil and gas, textile industry, sewing clothes and footwear, mining and cement industries, chemical fertilizers, rubber production, food processing and tourism. The main agro-industrial products were rice, cassava (manioc), peanuts, rubber, cocoa, coffee, palm oil, copra (dried coconut kernel), poultry, beef, pork and eggs.

Thus, the current model of economic modernization Indonesia is one of the options “mixed economy” in which the emphasis is on the use of market methods, but also the role of the state in national economic mechanism of the country is quite high. Mostly state participation in the economy through the formation of five-year plans long-term strategy of national development that specified on the five-year to five-year and from year to year. State promotes the implementation of this strategy and the specific provisions of five-year plans through an extensive system of indirect regulation, including budgetary, tax, licensing, customs and monetary and financial leverage. As for his own involvement in the economy, the state assumes mainly the development of water supply, transport, communications, power and other types of industrial infrastructure.

Providing with products and services of these sectors to the private sector at fixed prices, the government has the ability to effectively influence the level of production costs, and therefore also on the level of activity of private entrepreneurship. In fact, the same function in the business of the state and performs production of commodities such as fertilizers and cement (country among the ten leading producers in the world). Recently, Indonesia has established and successfully operate modern industries such as aerospace, electronics and chemical industries. The fact that the country has achieved this status through trade and major export quotas of finished products to Western countries, especially the US, rightly considered far more important than any foreign aid and investment.

Progress in the economic field, along with the democratization of the political system, have allowed Indonesia to move to the process of development. In place of the “Mafia of Berkeley,” as the people were called reformers, the government began to come proponents of technological development. In 2004 the system was implemented “services under one roof”, i.e. the execution of the contract to invest only in the department of coordination of investment in Jakarta. In the provinces and districts documentation for opening small businesses happen in just one day. These and other examples show that although Indonesia and could not pursue a policy of modernization in the national scale, but the progress of new forms of industrial enterprises (centers of rapid economic growth, export processing zones, industrial zones, industrial parks, etc.) contributed the development of capitalism and qualitatively changed the structure of the national economy.

Creation of export processing zones started in the first phase of the replacement of exports, and the second phase, according to a government plan envisaged establishment of 52 large state enterprises steel, aluminum, car assembling and other industries. But development in Indonesia v. BC. “Screwdriver technology” that is in the automotive assembly, held back due to lack of qualified personnel and the slow implementation of new technologies. Therefore, despite the high production costs, product quality did not meet the requirements of foreign automobile giants. And given the growing corruption, nepotism and uncontrolled spread of the use of public funds, Indonesia’s economy grew high-cost and inefficient. In the 1991 plan that called for a gradual increase in local production of components for the automotive industry, was canceled. But in future infrastructure created zones and clusters continued to improve.

The new socio-economic strategy has three objectives:

1) to achieve high and sustainable growth based on intensive investment and expand exports;

2) encourage the development of the real sector to create new jobs;

3) support the modernization of rural areas.

However, taken into account the need to prepare the country to move to a new phase of economic organization, i.e. the knowledge economy, and this required a significant expansion and modernization of infrastructure. Focusing on its priority, Indonesia followed the example of Singapore, Malaysia, Thailand and China and has prepared a program improvement and modernization of the transport system of the future. The first part of the plan concerned the modernization of energy, telecommunications, transport (sea, air, land, pipeline), water supply and construction of expressways. But the formation of new strategies and models of socio-economic development is still at an early stage. Government paradigm focuses on the revitalization of the market mechanisms for strengthening planning and moderate state intervention to be tested soon. Indisputable is only that the Indonesian government’s economic policy, aimed at simplifying the business rules for foreign investors and entrepreneurs and increase investment in infrastructure (primarily for the construction of 29-km bridge between Sumatra and old as [6]) and of convincing the money credit policy perspective.

In July 2014 the Indonesians came again to the polls to elect a successor Susilo Bambang Yudhoyono, known in the country under the acronym SBY. For the first time in history has the power to move from one nationwide and democratically elected president to another, so the choice was dramatic. Competed former carpenter’s son from Surakarta in Central Java, which was first governor of his native city and the capital then represented DPBI not belong to the traditional political elite – Joko Widodo (commonly known by the nickname Jock), and one of the creators of the “new order” – in-law Suharto, a retired lieutenant general and former commander of special forces and strategic reserve of ground troops Prabovo Subianto. But although he also tried to reach the latent nostalgia electorate by dressing and acting like Suharto and resorting to promote his idea of a strong leader with steel fists won new wave of politicians – self-made Jock, and with him and representative democracy. Indonesia came close to the “first world.”


1. The World Factbook : Country Comparison : GDP [Електронний ресурс]. – Режим доступу : https://www.cia.gov/library/<wbr>publications/the-world-<wbr>factbook/rankorder/2001rank.<wbr>html#id.

2. The World Factbook : East & Southeast Asia : Indonesia [Електронний ресурс]. – Режим доступу : https://www.cia.gov/library/<wbr>publications/the-world-<wbr>factbook/geos/id.html.

3. Hughes, John. The End of Sukarno: A Coup that Misfired: A Purge that Ran Wild / John Hughes. – Singapore: Editions Didier Millet, 2014. – P. 204.

4. Hannigan, Tim. A Brief History of Indonesia: Sultans, Spices, and Tsunamis: The Incredible Story of Southeast Asia’s Largest Nation / Tim Hannigan. – Tokyo, Rutland, Vermont, Singapore, 2015. – P. 239-240.

5. Jim O’Neill, Dominic Wilson, Roopa Purushothaman and Anna Stupnytska. How Solid are the BRICs?. 01.12.2005 / Global Economic Paper No: 134 [Електронний ресурс]. – Режим доступу :www.goldmansachs.com/<wbr>our-thinking/archive/archive-<wbr>pdfs/how-solid.pdf.

6. Pakhomova L.F. Indonesia: Choice of the Model of Social and Economic Development / Lyudmila Pakhomova // Southeast Asia: Topical Problems of Development. – 2010. – T. 14. – P. 142.

Ukrainian vector in foreign policy of Lithuania in first years of independence

Taisiya Shulga


The problem posed in the article is the foreign policymaking of Lithuanian Republic as to Ukraine in the first years after the independence restoration.

Keywords: Lithuanian Republic, foreign policy of Lithuania, restoration f the independence, bilateral relations.

In August 2017 is the 25th anniversary of the opening of the Lithuanian Embassy in Ukraine. Traditionally, Lithuania acts “lawyer” Ukraine stands with the European institutions, and from 2014 – the most active donor countries, humanitarian, professional and military assistance to Ukraine. The issue of post-Soviet countries the state remains a hot topic among both domestic and European researchers. Relations between Lithuania and Ukraine given period is enough interest to analysts because their economies were transformed from planned to market, but despite the proximity of Lithuania with the EU, it was forced to maintain a long-established finding in the USSR economic ties with post-Soviet states. Along with the transformation of public institutions security systems of both countries also had to reform, but for each national scenario.

It is believed that Lithuania is an example of post-Soviet countries, which could make rapid reforms in all spheres of political and social life in order to join the European Union and NATO, but it should be noted that this process lasted almost 13 years. In comparison with Ukraine Lithuania transformation can be called rapid reform – profound and timely, and is made possible by the fact that Lithuania in the early years of the restored independence defined the vector of development towards the EU and NATO. This choice was dictated by the demands and the available balance bipolarity of international relations as whole, real fears of Russian aggression and, above all, European historical heritage of Lithuania.

Lithuanian origins activity internationally seen before the collapse of the Soviet Union, because of its independence Lithuania announced March 11, 1990, not without reason, backed by Western countries and the USA. For October 5, 1990 government program of Lithuania was the main directions of its foreign policy, aimed primarily at how to restore the independence of Lithuania and return to the international community of sovereign states through bilateral agreements with the Soviet Union already as an independent country; become a full player in the European political integration within the Council of Europe; become part of the European Economic Area. Less than a year Lithuania proclaimed the restoration of independence. Recall that the United States did not recognize the Republic of Lithuania as part of the USSR, exposing the devastating criticism of the existence of a secret “Molotov-Ribbentrop Pact” in which the Soviet Union and Germany divided its sphere of influence in the Baltic region, which today is classified under international law as an occupation. And it is the US issued the existence of such agreements the Soviet Union and Nazi Germany.

It should be added that the fact of occupation of the conviction Russia ARC in 2014 the United States once again showed the sequence of international support for US sovereignty of countries internationally defined borders. US refusal to recognize the Crimea part of Russia after the occupation under international law with economic and political sanctions can be considered an important precondition for restoring the rights of Ukraine on the Crimean peninsula in the future.

Lithuania in its policy on supplies to Ukrainian territory of Crimea also demonstrates the consistency and determination. In 1994, when Russia carried out measures to destabilize the situation in Crimea in command of the Black Sea Fleet in Crimea, Lithuanian President A. Brazauskas became the third leader of the world (after the US and Germany), which reacted to the events in Crimea statement calling comply with international law and compromise [1]. It was later statement the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the Republic of Lithuania for supporting Ukraine and its territorial integrity [2] and the declaration of the ruling political party “Union Center of Lithuania” condemned the separatist actions in support of Ukraine and its territorial integrity. Support for sovereignty and territorial integrity of Ukraine was in Lithuania guarantee its independence and territorial integrity.

Along with other post-Soviet states, Lithuania after the restoration of independence passed to a new stage of development of the state, which will Historical Heritage Grand Duchy of Lithuania with sufficient precision formed a new foreign policy of Lithuania. It should be noted that unlike domestic policy exterior look more stable. It says at least that for the period from March 1990 to November 1992 has changed five prime ministers, foreign affairs while the same Minister A. Saudarhas (one of the founders of the Council of Baltic Sea in which Ukraine is an observer) represented Lithuania.

According to Minister of Foreign Affairs of Lithuania L. Linkyavichusa (Minister of Defense of Lithuania from October 1993 – November 1996) in the Lithuanian Seimas lasted long discussion on the choice of security [3]. The key factor in this was the fact that while in Lithuania from the Russian Federation for a long time do not actually withdraw. In December 1993, after a noisy debate in the Diet on foreign policy issues, political parties Sejm consensus on the importance of Lithuania’s accession to NATO. January 4, 1994 were sent a letter signed by the President of Lithuania A. Brazauskas Secretary General. Unlike the opposition party “Fatherland Union” V. Landsbergis (Chairman of the Seim of Lithuania from July 1992 to November 1992), the pro-presidential party “Democratic Labor Party of Lithuania” coming to Euro-Atlantic integration moderate understanding that Europe needs only Lithuania with normal relations Russia.

The difficult process of withdrawal of Soviet troops from Lithuania remained in the territory of the Kaliningrad region of the Russian Federation, which shares a border with Lithuania. Therefore, a key element in the formation of Lithuania’s foreign policy remains the question of accession to collective security systems – such as the OSCE and NATO. If at that time, Lithuania and Ukraine join the NATO alliance just as partners, primarily due initiated by America program “Partnership for Peace” in 1994 in the hope of future membership in the alliance, the members of the OSCE (at the meeting on security and cooperation in Europe – CSCE) became Lithuania in 1991, Ukraine – in January 1992.

The desire to become an EU member Lithuanian government said the EU Council December 8, 1995. Almost two years later. This detail delay Lithuania’s adoption of this decision is important in view of the fact that, for example, Petras Aushtryavichus (Director of the European Commission under the Government of Lithuania for negotiations on the accession of Lithuania to the European Union from 2001 to 2003, a Lithuanian member of the European Parliament in 2014 ) states that the Lithuanian authorities allegedly did not make any difference between the European and Euro-Atlantic integration, because it was no alternative way [4]. However, decisions were adopted with a gap in time in almost two years. Mainly this delay was due to the fact that the President A. Brazauskas and government guided economic conditions of that time: almost 60% of exports and 86% of Lithuania’s imports accounted for the CIS countries, as do clear leader of the country was in no hurry. [5] However, adherence to these European organizations as the Conference on Security and Cooperation in Europe (since 1995 – the Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe) and the Council of Europe, membership in which is not contrary to the participation of the EU and NATO showed a clear pro-European direction of integration of Lithuania and demonstrative distance from the descendant of Soviet Russia.

At the constitutional level, the Act on Non Lithuania to Post-Soviet Eastern Unions Lithuania, inter alia, decided to develop mutually beneficial relations with each country, formerly part of the USSR. [6] This principle actually began to be applied in relations with Ukraine as soon as the state recognized the independence of each other relevant resolutions of the national parliaments.

The official beginning of the establishment of bilateral cooperation was the Protocol on establishing diplomatic relations between Ukraine and Lithuania, which entered into force on 12 December 1991. Lithuania opened its embassy in Kiev in August 1992 and in August 1993 – his Ukraine in Vilnius. By the time the Ukrainian diaspora numbered about 45 thousand Ukrainian, while Lithuanians in Ukraine there were over 10 thousand. A month earlier, in July 1993, then-Prime Minister of Ukraine Leonid Kuchma made, in fact, the first visit by such a high level, during which signed a number of intergovernmental agreements on cooperation in transport, communications, international transportation, air transport, customs, science, culture and non-trade payments. All by 2000 there were 56 bilateral agreements at all levels, while today – there are more than 350.

In general, any state of bilateral relations, even if they do not have common borders, focus on a common contractual base and, most importantly, the duration of the history of cooperation, because no matter how accumulated was not a list of bilateral and multilateral agreements, if people do not prefer be friendly, no obligation, even recognized by the international community, not forced to respect each other.

The period of becoming the already independent Lithuania can not be called an intensive period of cooperation with Ukraine, in contrast to the period that began in 2004, but the number of signed interstate, intergovernmental and interdepartmental agreements and made reciprocal state visits at all levels indicates that Lithuania in their international politics saw Ukraine as a partner in several areas [7].

When asked why Lithuania and Ukraine have always supported ties in political, economic, social and cultural levels, the researchers Ukraine and Lithuania give different answers that are always positive common denominator. In one recent study Lithuanian sociologist and professor of Vilnius University Z. Norkusa states that “after the collapse of the Soviet Union in the former territory of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania restored independence not only in Lithuania, but also formed two independent states (Belarus and Ukraine), which is used to design own national identity means “grand narratives” [8]. Of course, history is never simultaneously true for all objects of study that existed in the same time. After all, like Lithuania, Ukraine, although in the short term, however, declared its independence in 1918. And, therefore, the Ukrainian state is not only the result of the collapse of the USSR. There is no doubt correct when Lithuania include in its history Ukrainian people as an integral part of the history of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania, but must take into account the fact that, like Lithuania, Ukraine was the creation of the state of the USSR.

The phenomenon of social and genetic memory, and positive, a factor which encourages Ukrainian and Lithuanian support and develop friendships. Close Lithuanian-Ukrainian relations, even in the absence of a common border on the modern world map is historically conditioned.

Among some skeptical observers of that period, it is believed that there are no alternatives to European and Euro Lithuania not reviewed and that any bilateral contacts than strategic, did not care. Chronology of bilateral cooperation in research is often cited fragmentary [9], although every year since 1990, been signed agreements, protocols, memoranda of mutual visits at all levels. It should be noted that, despite the decision of the first independent leadership headed by V. Landsbergis minimize relations with former Soviet states, in practice it is concerned over Russia, after all, some called paranoid fears of alleged Russian aggression, the fact remains that only after treatment Baltic Council of the UN, OSCE and the Group of Seven (G7), Russia was forced to withdraw Soviet troops from Lithuania.

After the election in February 1993, the first president of Lithuania A. Brazauskas Ukrainian side made the first state visit to Vilnius on 8 February 1994. President of Ukraine Leonid Kravchuk returned with the signed Treaty of Friendship and Cooperation between Ukraine and Lithuania and has a number of agreements. The visit was considered to build the foundation of international relations, but for some reason some Ukrainian writers produce the event timeline of bilateral relations [9].

From the contents of the interview initiated by the Ukrainian side President of Ukraine Leonid Kravchuk to Lithuanian newspaper “Lietuvos Rytas” a month before the visit [10] clearly stated that the Ukrainian president first proposed to meet the Lithuanian counterpart through the media, thus confirming the president’s lack of dialogue by the time even in an informal way. Given the questions that he answered the president, his main messages was “prudent” decision support for Ukraine to join NATO Lithuania and Vilnius condemning the official statements of the then political leaders of Russia (Vladimir Zhirinovsky and others), who tried to deny the legitimacy of the recognition of Ukraine as independent state.

His visit Ukrainian president sought support in the countries that experienced the danger from the side of Russia, Ukraine’s decision to abandon nuclear weapons on the eve of signing an agreement with Moscow and Washington. V. Landsbergis said then that the Ukrainian leadership showed no special interest in Lithuania until there was a threat from Russia. He definitely agreed that Ukraine really need support, because its fate is important for Lithuanian independence. [10]

During the visit, both presidents stressed that no agreement on the establishment of regional military alliances were not the leaders of both countries with Russia only want to build positions and compromise agreements. [10] But the results of the presidential elections in Ukraine in the summer of 1994 will change the emphasis in this regard.

Economic relations between Lithuania and Ukraine after the collapse of the Soviet Union gained new momentum. As of 1993, Ukraine was in fourth place for investment after Russia, Poland and Germany in the company of Lithuania – 5.7% of Lithuanian enterprises with foreign capital were Ukrainian capital. [11]

An important stage in the development of economic relations with Ukraine launched free trade agreement signed August 4, 1993 during the visit of Prime Minister of Lithuania A. Shlyezhavichusa to Kyiv. This aspect was very important signing of mutual settlements, as “transitional” economy is not focused on a particular currency.

So, for the first two years of the restored independence of Lithuania not immediately determined the directions of its foreign policy, because, like other post-Soviet states, it could not avoid a deep economic and political crisis. Ukrainian trend was interesting for Lithuania pragmatic reasons, because for the preservation and expansion of Ukrainian investment needed continued international dialogue, simplify cross-border trade via the mechanism of individual transactions, the introduction of new conditions of settlements. Political dialogue also had only pinpoint, pragmatic approach, the heads of Lithuania and Ukraine were cautious about a possible merger of new military alliances and to join the existing alliance because of pressure from Russia.

Lithuania became one of the first countries which has made a declaration in support of the territorial integrity of Ukraine due to the destabilization of the situation in Crimea, Ukraine strongly supported the decision to abandon nuclear weapons in exchange for guarantees from the United States and Russia, which was caused by its own security interests of Lithuania.


1. [Lithuanian President’s statement on the situation in Crimea] / Unofficial translation // State Archives Department of the MFA of Ukraine: Fund 8 (Embassy of Ukraine in the Republic of Lithuania) Description 145 – is 110 – P. 29

2. Statement of Foreign Ministry of Lithuania on the situation in Crimea / Unofficial translation // State Archives Department of the MFA of Ukraine: Fund 8 (Embassy of Ukraine in the Republic of Lithuania) Description 145 – is 110 – P. 32

3. Lynkiavichus L. What did Lithuania strive for and what Lithuania gained from joining NATO / L. Linkyavichus // Economical chasopis – XXI. – № 3-4, 2009. – Access mode:soskin.info/ea/2009/3-<wbr>4/20099.html

4. Aushtryavichus P.: What is the benefit of EU membership: the experience of Lithuania / J. Yvanochko // IPress.ua – 05.07.2013 – Access: ipress.ua/articles/<wbr>ukraina_23_roky_imituie_<wbr>protses_zmin_pora_perehodyty_<wbr>do_reform_22861.html

5. [Letter of the Embassy of Ukraine in Lithuania on discussions in the Seimas of Lithuania on the directions and priorities of foreign policy] // State Archives Department of the MFA of Ukraine: Fund 8 (Embassy of Ukraine in the Republic of Lithuania), description 145, right 110, p. 91-94

6. The Constitution of the Republic of Lithuania. Access: www3.lrs.lt/home/<wbr>Konstitucija/Konstitucija_RU.<wbr>htm

7. Political relations between Ukraine and Lithuania. Access: lithuania.mfa.gov.ua/<wbr>ua/ukraine-it/diplomacy

8. Norkus Z. Uncroclaimed Empire: Grand Duchy of Lithuania in terms of historical and comparative sociology empires [monograph] / Per. with lit. P. Beletsky. -K.: Criticism, 2016 -S.3

9. S. Vidniansky Ukraine’s foreign policy in the context of globalization. Annotated historical chronicle of International Relations (1991 – 2003) / Dep. Ed. SV Vidniansky /. – K: Genesis, 2004. – s.216-217 (Note that the author gives the wrong date, place and signatories of the Treaty of Friendship and Cooperation between Lithuania and Ukraine, thus losing the chronology Kravchuk state visit to Lithuania)

10. [On the reaction of the media to visit the Republic of Lithuania President of Ukraine Leonid Kravchuk] / Annex to the letter of the Embassy of Ukraine in Lithuania // State Archives Department of the MFA of Ukraine: Fund 8 (Embassy of Ukraine in the Republic of Lithuania), 145. description – business 110 – S.122-123

11. [Foreign investment in Lithuania housekeeper] / Annex to the Letter of the Embassy of Ukraine in Lithuania // State Archives Department of the MFA of Ukraine: Fund 8 (Embassy of Ukraine in the Republic of Lithuania), description of the case 145.- 210. – P. 8

The foreign policy of Brazil

Igor Hraban, Oleg Barabash


The article deals with the formation of directions of the foreign policy of the Federal Republic of Brazil, defines the principles on which Brazil relies in its international relations and the achievements of the Brazilian economy, foreign and social policies.

Keywords: foreign policy, Latin America, the Federative Republic of Brazil, integration, regional level, global level, leadership, South America

The Federal Republic of Brazil (FRB) is the largest country in Latin America (47.5% of the continent), on its territory (8.5 million sq. Km), it ranks fifth in the world, and the number of people (202 million individuals approximately half the population of South America or one-third of residents of Latin America) – sixth. It is the only country in the region self-sufficient with a huge resource and economic potential (in terms of GDP – the first place in Latin America and eighth – in the world). It boasts of banking and financial sector of the world, the third largest stock exchange in the world.

Brazil has the largest Latin American armed forces personnel with the number of 327 thousand. People. Financing of the very small relative to GDP and accounts for only 1.39% of GDP. This is due to the lack of both external and internal enemies and relatively large size of Brazil’s neighboring countries. Now the main task of the armed forces is to protect the borders and promote economic development in the Amazon, the fight against the traffic of drugs from the Andean region and police operations. However, translating into practice its ambitious foreign policy plans, 24 March 2016 adopted a long-term “Plan 2016-2019. Modernization of the Armed Forces of Brazil”, which will cost the government at 24.1 billion dollars. USA. In addition, its military budget increased in 2017 to 3.5 billion dollars. USA [1].

By the end of XX century, Brazil’s foreign policy was based on four principles: protection of large areas, consolidation and strengthening of the republic, to prevent or resolve conflicts with neighbors and support removed, but warm relations with the United States. Brazil, one of the founders of the League of Nations and the UN sent troops to fight with the Allies during the Second World War. She never sought to dominate Latin America. During the reign of the military in 1960-1980 years. Brazil has successfully positioned itself as a non-aligned country and partner of the United States.

Formation areas of modern foreign policy Fed is due to the restoration of the country’s civilian form of government and the start of democratic reforms. The coming to power in March 1985 constitutionally elected President Jean Sarneya marked revision previous foreign policy of the country. But talk about the real appearance of the first shoots FBI conversion to an active geopolitical áktora in international relations is possible only under President F. Cardoso (1995-2002). More clearly defining the current foreign policy of Brazil began to receive during the tenure of L. Silva. This process was continued and the next president D. Rousseff.

Today Brazil has the seventh constitution adopted in 1988 under this Constitution, Brazil is a federal presidential representative republic where President is both the head of state (that represents Brazil in international relations) and the head of government (that has considerable executive and appoints ministers). According to Art. 4 of the Basic Law states “Federal Republic of Brazil is based in their international relations on the following principles: I – national independence; II – preferred rights; III – self-determination; IV – interference; V – equality among States; VI – to protect peace; VII – peaceful settlement of conflicts; VIII – the rejection of terrorism and racism; IX – cooperation among peoples for the progress of mankind; X – political asylum.

The Federal Republic of Brazil seeks to integrate economic, political, social and cultural development of the peoples of Latin America, considering the formation of a Latin American community of nations. Bright outline the achievements of the Brazilian economy, foreign policy and social life speech of President L.Lula. In October 2005, speaking in Rome to Italian entrepreneurs, he said: “The nineteenth century was the century of European twentieth – century United States, and Brazil XXI century will be” [2]. When L. Lula was President, Brazil has been successful in South-South in the near and far abroad. It was during the presidency of L. Silva Brazil has achieved such remarkable success in many spheres of the state.

Now Brazil is a member of the Inter-American treaty of mutual assistance is part of the Amazon Cooperation Treaty Organization, Mercosur (the customs union with Argentina, Uruguay, Paraguay and Venezuela), the Rio Group, Inter-American agreements on mutual assistance Tiara. Together with Argentina, Chile, Brazil and the United States – one of the guarantors of the Peruvian-Ecuadorian peace process. According to some Brazilian scientists in the search for leadership in the region to achieve its global interests Brazil is at the head of the UN peacekeeping force in Haiti, directing financial resources for facilities development and social projects, prepare their forces in an effort to focus the basic principles of Brazilian foreign policy on international situation, which could bring her great results and concrete benefits for society [3].

In 1991, Brazil, Argentina, Uruguay and Paraguay signed a memorandum on the South American common market organization, which came into force in 1995. Later this organization as an associate member includes Chile and Bolivia. Brazil also announced full commitment Tlatelolskomu Treaty, which declares the Latin America and Caribbean region a nuclear-free zone.

Also of particular interest in the South American integration FBI indicate participation of Brazil in such communities as SELA (Latin American Economic System) and LAM (Latin American Integration Association), creating its initiative La Plata communities and the Amazon group, its active involvement in the movement of non-alignment and fight for the reorganization of the OAS (Organization of American states), etc.

Last year Brazil is positioning itself as not only a regional leader, but loudly asserting itself in the international political arena, claiming pride of place among the leading countries of the world. This guide FRB diplomacy relies on “soft power” without a military component.

Brazil is a member of major global and regional international organizations – UN and its organs (such as the United Nations Industrial Development Organization, the Food and Agriculture Organization, UNICEF, the World Health Organization and others), International Organization trade, International Monetary fund, World bank, intergovernmental organizations of developing countries (G77) and others. Formation in 2008-09 Union of BRIC (Brazil, Russia, India, China) marked out on the FRB integration processes in the world, developing a qualitatively new level. In fact BRIC is the first global organization of the South, access to which developed countries of the North closed. Naturally, in the West were extremely alarmed execution of such an alliance of countries – the leaders of “non-Western world.” In connection with joining South Africa (South Africa) to the BRIC February 18, 2011 the organization received abbreviation name BRICS. Following the 2014 BRICS countries accounted for 43% of the world population, 21% of world GDP, 17.3% of international trade, 12.7% of the global market for 20.5% of global foreign direct investment, 45% of world agricultural production [4].

Within the BRICS group, in Asia-Pacific area, Brazil pursues a consistent policy in the economic sphere, especially with China. FRB first among Latin American countries with China has established a comprehensive strategic partnership, with both countries view each other as important partners in cooperation and collaboration for South-South. Relations between China and Brazil are based on the concept of so-called “win-win”, the logic of which implies a balance of trade and economic exchanges. Already in 2006 bilateral trade reached 16.3 billion dollars. US, and in 2009 China surpassed the US and become the largest trading partner of Brazil.

In the format of BRICS Brazil also works closely with India, which is a major trading partner of Brazil. Of course, cooperation is not as extensive as with China. However, the Brazil has much in common with this country. The question of combating poverty in both countries is very serious. It is cooperation in the scientific and cultural spheres. Significant role in the development of bilateral ties play a variety of joint projects for the development of high technology, bio- and nanotechnology, space exploration.

Active cooperation is in the direction of African countries, including South Africa. Contact notably Brazil and South Africa covering not only trade, but also other areas of international cooperation, including investment projects, science and education, military-technical and diplomatic activity. In many cases, the delegation of Brazil and South Africa in favor of agreed positions, often tend to speak on behalf of their continents. In fact, Brasilia and Pretoria, acting together, as proponents claim the interests of the majority accordance Latin American and African countries.

Brazil is a fan of the decision by the UN special convention on combating terrorism, speaking for the Non-proliferation of other weapons of mass destruction and their technologies as a member of the Treaty of Tlatelolco in 1967 of the nuclear-free zone in Latin America; Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons in 1968, which she joined in 1998, while having the key technologies required to manufacture nuclear weapons; and the international regime of control over missile technology (MTCR). She participates in an international convention to ban anti-personnel mines, and the Organization of American States and the Latin American level – all the conventions belonging to an arms control issues, including conventional and dedicated to the strengthening of trust between the countries of the region.

FBI sent its soldiers in UN troops to maintain peace to the Belgian Congo, Liberia, Central African Republic, Côte d’Ivoire, Cyprus, Mozambique, Angola and East Timor. In 2010-2011 FBI was part of the Security Council for the tenth time. Now Brazil is the group of G4 (along with Germany, Japan and India), which is trying to become permanent members of the UN Security Council. She intends to organize developing countries, more powerful coalition of trade negotiations under the Doha Round and to expand voting rights for themselves and others at the World Bank and the International Monetary Fund.

Brazil is trying to strengthen cooperation with EU countries on a bilateral and multilateral basis (within Mercosur is ready to push ahead with free trade zone with the EU), seeking to establish closer cooperation with Asia-Pacific Region (APR) strengthen relations with African partners, particularly with Portuguese-speaking countries and South Africa.

Another evidence of successful reputation of the country was holding in Rio de Janeiro World Cup 2014 and Olympic Games 2016.

We believe that special attention needs to review relations with the US Fed. Traditionally considered US territory controlled South America, countries in which they dictate their own rules in all spheres of life. However, Brazil is known focus on the US to almost the end of the twentieth century gradually changed rejection diplomatic pressure of the United States, the desire to strengthen its foreign policy potential of the first steps in carrying out an independent foreign policy.

Despite the very real ideological differences in foreign policy, presidents of Brazil F. Cardoso and L. Silva distanced program of the United States in Latin America. In the 1990s., when South America mainly moved in the wake of Washington’s recommendations, which included free trade, democracy and the fight against drugs, F. Cardoso government refused to participate in the “Colombia Plan” proposed by the administration of Bill Clinton, did not support idea of the free trade area of the Americas two, opposed the US embargo of Cuba and concerning attempts to overthrow Chavez in Venezuela in 2002, which was originally approved by the White house. As F. Cardoso, L. Silva tried to distance itself from the US on regional issues, thus giving the nod to the establishment of several regional institutions, including Mercosur, Union of South American Nations, South American Council of Defense and the Commonwealth of Latin American and Caribbean countries.

Relations Brazil and the US deteriorated significantly through unprecedented in the history of relations between the two countries precedent related to US intelligence espionage against Brazil. President of Brazil D. Rousseff rejected the official visit of President Obama, which was scheduled for October 2013 Brazil considered this fact as a threat to the sovereignty of the state. However, despite this, the two countries remain dynamic relationship, but it is not yet possible to achieve the declared strategic partnership. According to the famous Russian explorer P.Yakovlev, in the broader context of the evolution of Brazilian-US relations there is a complex process that includes the objectively existing commitment to enhance cooperation and the inevitable competition for influence in Latin America and the world market a variety of products. In the short term obstacle remains the problem of Brazil’s permanent membership in the Security Council [5].

Severe to further sustainable development of the country was inside scandal erupted in late 2015. It was associated with the beginning of impeachment Brazilian President D. Rousseff. The reason for the procedure removal of the president from power were made public allegations of criminal actions in carrying out the duties of head of state, including mismanagement, embezzlement and concealment of public funds. The discontent fueled by the president and the state of the economy caused by the ruling Left politics “Workers’ Party” (port. Partido dos Trabalhadores, PT).

It should be noted that, according to some analysts, especially Russian and leftist leaders in some South American countries, the decision was the result not only of the growing political instability and crisis in major public institutions Fed, but also the organization and holding of the typical “color revolution” that inspired and launched the United States. Moreover, D. Rousseff is known for its anti-American views and was a supporter of close cooperation with Moscow, both within the BRICS and at interstate partnership.

Duties of the President before the end of the term of office D. Rousseff in 2018 during the so-called “Transition” will perform to Vice President M.Temer – Chairman of the Party of the Brazilian Democratic Movement (port. Partido do Movimento Democrático Brasileiro, PMDB), – which is the most influential political force, generally following the centrist and populist positions.

Brazil and Cuba objectively Ukraine is a priority partner in Latin America. There is mutual interest in intensifying the work on the main Ukrainian-Brazilian project in the field of high technology, particularly in the aerospace and pharmaceutical industries. Promising is cooperation with Brazil on the implementation of joint launches of spacecraft “Cyclone-4” of the equatorial spaceport Alcantara. Although the construction of the spaceport was discontinued in 2013, Ukraine considers it necessary to continue the dialogue with Brazil on this restoration project. [6]

Ukraine supports the FRB application for permanent membership in the UN Security Council. Do not forget that in Brazil living third largest Ukrainian diaspora among countries outside the former Soviet Union – about 500 thousand people.

So, first and foremost geopolitical challenge for the FRB at present was the consolidation of the South American countries, deepen bilateral relations with neighboring countries and the formation of effective regional institutions that can enhance the centripetal tendencies give new impetus to integration processes and increase the influence of Latin America on the world stage.

Brazil is positioning itself in the international arena as a country with an independent foreign policy of development and adoption of important political decisions. Brazil “came” out of Latin America. The country became consistently, systematically expand diplomatic, and trade relations with almost all, especially the most, of the world.

Today Brazil is a country that is a member of the large international community, participation in which it contributes to the acceleration of economic and social development. All this suggests that Brazil has a chance to become one of the leading states of the XXI century. FRB initiated a radical expansion of cooperation with Latin American countries in Asia, Africa and Eurasia, which led to the creation of the first global organization sufficiently authoritative South – BRICS. This country, as a regional center, aims to balance US influence in Latin America to expand its ties and contacts to a level corresponding to great power status in the current context of globalization. Although Brazil’s special place in the world order not based on the opposition itself a world power such as the US, but rather is embodied in life in the context of diplomacy “soft power.” The strategy of “soft power” is that Brazil sees itself as a country that could in the future become a superpower without associating its growing role in the world using military component. Impeachment FRB President D. Rousseff, left as a representative vector of Brazil, and PT removal from power, not only adversely affect the results of foreign activity FRB last fifteen years, but significantly alters the balance of power in the region. Despite the importance of Brazil as a partner country for Ukraine in the current national and international research Ukraine Brazilian topics covered is not enough, especially in the field of national security. The vast majority of research in this area has a differential character, with historical, economic, political or historical analytic focus.


1. Forças Armadas receberão mais verba do Governo Federal: [Електронний ресурс]. – Режим доступу: tecnodefesa.com.br/<wbr>forcas-armadas-receberao-mais-<wbr>verba-do-governo-federal/

2. Great plans of Brazil (“Foreign Affairs”, USA): [Electronic resource]. – Access mode: www.rodon.org/polit-<wbr>121031132616 3. Bijos L., Arruda V. A diplomacia cultural como instrumento de política externa brasileira: [Електронний ресурс] / L. Bijos, V. Arruda – Режим доступу:


4. BRICS Economic Partnership Strategy / Official website of the Russian Federation Presidency in BRICS: [Electronic resource] – Access mode: URL: brics2015.ru/load/382484

5. Yakovlev P. Brazil Dilma Rousseff: continuity and changes in international affairs: [Electronic resource] / P. Yakovlev – Access mode: www.perspektivy.info/<wbr>table/brazilija_dilmy_russeff_ prejemstvennost_ i_peremeny_v_mezhdunarodnyh_<wbr>delah_2011-05-19.htm

6. Strategy of Ukraine’s foreign policy: Who are our main allies [electronic resource]. – Access: ua.112.ua/mnenie/<wbr>stratehiia-zovnishnoi-<wbr>polityky-ukrainy-khto-nashi-<wbr>holovni-soiuznyky-234524.html

Humanistic ideas, political and diplomatic views and the concept of public diplomacy of Shota Rustaveli: institutional dimension

Vyacheslav Tsivatyy


The political, diplomatic and literary working of the famous contemporary of the Renaissance – Shota Rustaveli, because his practical experience and literary and poetic heritage had not lost their relevance to this day, and his name and work closely to bind Giorgia and Ukraine through the centuries and millennium of the European history is analized at the article. Shota Rustaveli is a guide of ideas of Renaissance humanism in Georgia.

Keywords: diplomacy, institutionalization, humanism, the Renaissance, Shota Rustaveli, Georgia, Ukraine.

Shota Rustaveli is outstanding poet and humanist of Georgia. His life, creative, political, and diplomatic activity related to the late XII – early XIII centuries – during the peak of the Georgian state. Extraordinary personality Rustaveli gradually reveals the secrets of his life and destiny. One very important new fact, increasing the range of our knowledge of the genius son of the Georgian people, since until recently were known only legends about him and some individual conflicting dates of birth of the poet, anecdotal evidence about his life.

The dates of his life – roughly 1172-1216, although some researchers believe these dates and conventional notes that the date of birth and death of this statesman, poet and politician known for certain.

It is real information about Shota Rustaveli, his individual features as a person and artist, his inner world, humanistic ideas, political and diplomatic views and activities, the situation in the Georgian society is his immortal work – the poem “The Knight in the Panther’s Skin” single work of poet who came to us. The content and form of the poem Rustaveli embodied therein progressive socio-political and political-diplomatic and philosophical ideas, composition, language and poetical skills, the brightness of the characters – all this puts the author in a number of the greatest poets and writers of the world – Firduosi, Nizami, Dante, Shakespeare, Goethe, Shevchenko, Pushkin, Frank, etc. [1, p. 133-141]. The brilliant poet, humanist and diplomat people’s ideas implemented in Georgia during the reign of Queen “sun” Tamara. She ruled Georgia from 1184 to the year of death – 1213. She made a lot of good for the state union, economic, political, diplomatic and political-cultural education and strengthening its exaltation. Georgian borders stretched from the Black Sea to the Caspian, including a steppes to the north, the south – the area around Lake Van and land to the west and southwest of it far Trebizond. In 1204, when the Byzantine Empire was divided into parts Crusaders troops entered Georgia to the Black Sea provinces of. To prevent capture of the eastern Byzantine Empire Turks created Tamara Empire of Trebizond, lifted its throne his cousin Alexis Comnenus. Georgia has gradually become the most powerful states in the Middle East [2].

Caravan and water trade routes it is tightly contacted with many surrounding countries near and far – from the Southern and Northern Black Sea, Persia, India, Egypt, southern Italy, with Rus feudal principalities. On political relations with Georgia Kievan Rus evidenced by the first married Tamara (1185) with George – son of Grand Duke Vladimir, Andrew Bogolyubsky.

The development of crafts, their rapid improvement and a simultaneous increase in demand for handicraft products – all of which create conditions for the expansion of trade, and thus to an unprecedented revival in all spheres of social and cultural life. This period in the history of Georgia generally called the Georgian Renaissance.

Shota Rustaveli, as evidenced by his “The Knight in the Panther’s Skin”, was very well aware of domestic and international economic, political, diplomatic and cultural phenomena, events and processes that took place at that time in Georgia. The poet embodies all the best in what was then the Georgian people age. His poem reflects fullest and brightest features in the Georgian Renaissance comprehensiveness of the term – identifying socio-political, cultural and literary aspects of life.

According to the poems, especially “Introduction” to it and “Final stanzas” Rustaveli really been at court, was connected with the court environment, speaking singer Tamara, who also dedicated his poem. Rustaveli was a poet of great magical power. Most scientists have no doubt that the hero of “The Knight in the Panther’s Skin” Avtandil – is Rustaveli.

Rustaveli grew up in aristocracy circles, in an atmosphere of general care of the best of his spiritual and physical development, education wisdom, the ability to manage the state to negotiate, have diplomatic tools, command troops. After the death of his father, the poet Grigol won Rustavi province. That’s where his name that he carried out in 1196 to 1207. During this period Shota wrote his poem “The Knight in the Panther’s Skin” and Rustaveli name remains forever linked with it. In creating the book the poet was 30-40 years. As owner of Rustavi, Shota took it for Rustavi traditional rulers and their fixed position of the king’s vizier – treasurer.

State activity Shota has especially great patriotic significance after the death of Tamara, in the second quarter of the XIII century, when Georgia suffered a great national disaster and it fell under the rule of the Mongols. During this period, Shota trying to raise the morale of his compatriots. He is one of the main leaders and members of all the major patriotic endeavors, People diplomat. After occupation Mongols eastern Georgia he was instructed to negotiate with the enemy hard.

Rustaveli lived to a ripe old age. He died in the Crusades monastery in Jerusalem. The appearance of the portrait of Rustaveli and “memorial recording” in the temple explained Shota outstanding service as one of the patrons of the monastery, a famous historical statesman, diplomat and national poet of genius, whose name was widely known to the Georgian people.

Folk art of Georgia had a huge impact on the character, outlook, Shota aesthetic tastes, it brought a lot of respect and love for true and honest people willing to help and hurt disadvantaged, placate conflicts. Folk art filled the optimistic outlook of the poet bore him faith in the victory of good over evil. This belief, illuminated, strengthened and motivated most advanced philosophical and political-diplomatic doctrine that time was the beliefs of the poet, has turned into one harmonious, it is a complete philosophical and political-diplomatic system of his views. All this was a vivid reflection of the pages of “Knight …”. Rustaveli brilliant poet and thinker, spoke as a great humanist. At the center of his attention is man’s life, ideals, that earthly material, the whole complex reality of social material and spiritual life. Rustaveli affirms the triumph of goodness and light in mortality [3].

Collection of manuscripts of Rustaveli’s poem “The Knight in the Panther’s Skin” with ancient manuscripts from the Byzantine period, the National Archives of Georgia were included in the Register of UNESCO “Memory of the World”. This Register comprises a total of 348 documents and documentary collections from all five continents.

The creative legacy of Rustaveli “Vephistkaosani” (“The Knight in the Panther’s Skin”) repeatedly published in Ukrainian. Thus, in 2015 was published the next edition, which was dedicated to the 300th anniversary of the first printed edition of the poem Rustaveli “Vephistkaosani” (“The Knight in the Panther’s Skin”) – the most famous monuments of Georgian culture verbal XII century. The problems of peace and war, high earthly love and loyalty in friendship, responsibility and sense of life on earth, glory and bezslavnist, life and death – these are important philosophical and political and diplomatic problems that solves author pages highly, refined by form poem. Content, imagery, way of thinking and poetic form Rustaveli work captures readers of different nations, different cultural traditions. The publication contains a poem in the original language – Georgian (codified version of the text prepared by the team of scientists Georgian Academy of Sciences in 1966) and the brilliant Ukrainian translation M.P. Bazhana. The text of the poem accompanying theoretical generalization studio-prof. M. Elbakidze of work and figure Shota Rustaveli and M.P. Bazhana, illustrations of famous Georgian artist S. Kobuladze created in 1935-1937 years.

At the end of XX – beginning of XXI century it was published a significant number of important researches of Shota Rustaveli. The book, written by Shota Rustaveli, in his homeland called Georgian Bible. Thoroughly imbued with biblical allusions, this poem, created at the end of XII century, least of all oriental tale or medieval chivalry – just as passion bearer tiger skin Tariel not only mandatory element of the narrative genre as painful advancement of souls to eternal human love, political wisdom and diplomatic harmony: for us and given to life to join to host a higher order. The poem draws its upbeat sound that stems from all of the action from the initial point – the possibility of happiness, the final – happiness after all the hardships that they suffered characters for a comprehensive peace and harmony. Philosophy politics of author, subject goodness, peace and happiness arise by chance at some stage of development scene. It is present in the product from the outset as a base that moves the whole story. That nation, postulates and principles of public diplomacy, gave Rustaveli those advanced artistic means, the artistic material that was needed to create a truly realistic political and philosophical poem. The fusion of folk and literature into one, political and philosophical poem is beginning its development of internal contradictions to more resolutely optimistic finale, the stronger the internal conflict of the plot. Fortunately Rustaveli value measures the depth of misery experienced (concepts of “peace” and “war”): “Those who did not suffer does not know the joys”.

Author, spokesman of thoughts and political and diplomatic ideals of its people, serves as a great internationalist and at the same time as the Georgian national poet deeply. And interesting detail: even their homeland – Georgia – Rustaveli directly and does not speak, though the characters of the poem – the foreigners, numerous pictures of the work that are changing rapidly with the development of the plot, give the reader a complete picture of the complicated political and diplomatic and diverse socio-historical life is XII century feudal Georgia, its people, customs, way of life, citizenship, national identity, even of different in the Georgian state and interstate political and diplomatic situations and events.

Under foreign clothes of heroes “Knight …” Georgian beating heart from pages of the poem presents a concrete reality in Georgia. Let not surprise us, this feature works: recall the promise of the poet in the “Introduction” to sing Queen Tamar (and, accordingly, the Georgian state) not directly, not as he did before, when he was still quite young, and allegorical … [3 ].

No wonder the 1712 Georgian King Vakhtang VI made the first publication of the poem, he was its first commentator. It is the beginning of the XVIII century, in a difficult historical period for Georgia, this book served as tools of public diplomacy and nation rallied around him, was the cornerstone of national identity. As an experienced politician and diplomat Rustaveli called for peaceful dissolving of conflict: “With heartfelt holes can cause snake …”.

The literary work and political and diplomatic activity Rustaveli was focused on creating peace in the Caucasus. In his legendary poem “Vephistkaosani” (“The Knight in the Panther’s Skin”) famous Georgian poet wrote: “… The second good friend will help, not scare him trouble. The heart he will give his heart and love – his waybill star … “. Love, friendship and loyalty, peace and quiet are shown in the fight against evil, war for the triumph of goodness and harmony in the world of international relations. Heroes Rustaveli prefer death over shame: “Better death worthy of glory, rather than disgraced life.” Claiming loyalty in friendship (“must not leave each other dear nowhere”), poet condemns treachery, violation of oath, betrayal and second Motherland (TB state, in particular – Georgia): “With enemies worst enemy is the one that was carried out as friend … “[3].

It should be noted that in terms of international labyrinths and systems coordinate political and diplomatic uncertainty relations of Georgia with other states in the Middle Ages through the daily jungle, dead ends and congestion of official diplomacy and more punched take effect sprouts new relationship public diplomacy. Where governments and their official diplomacy are not able to “enter,” “maneuver” and marking in the place where people, poets, scientists, artists prepared the intellectual space platform for the settlement of international relations.

Of course, not their right to decide their task – to see the problem as a whole, provide the most complete picture of that on this basis, politicians and diplomats easier to negotiate. Speaking of the then stage of formation of the system of international relations, we can emphasize that hostility countries not officially taken over hatred between people, nations and countries were far ahead and were consistent in preventive processes than power states. Poem of Shota Rustaveli was brave challenge to church great master of poetry and prose, imbued with religious fervor scholasticism. The fight ended in victory for the author of “Knight …” on the church books. Rustaveli was the “dominant intellectual influence people.” The Georgian people love poem because it has absorbed all that was best in the ancient writing of the Motherland and the whole world for its organic connection with the life-giving traditions of folk art and folk diplomacy, exaltation fiction homeland and its elevation to a level which it had never reached [4]. The most valuable of the poem is that its center is actively operating, spiritually rich, endowed by nature diplomacy, noble man who seeks to overcome evil, military conflicts and misunderstandings, to assert on Earth, including the Georgian lands, goodness, happiness and peace. This work is the best example of display of humanistic ideas in Georgian society. Extremely small poem profound impact on all subsequent literature ages of Georgia. Humanistic ideas of Rustaveli Georgian become extremely important for socio-political and political-diplomatic thought of the Middle Ages and early modern times, have become an integral part of European humanism as a socio-political phenomenon in general. Rustaveli rightly recognized the Georgian people and has a popular title – brilliant artist and humanist. [4]

“The Knight in the Panther’s Skin” was first published only in 1721, and has since been translated poem is not in all languages. Russian symbolist poet Konstantin Balmont completed translation into Russian. Nicholas Ukrainian poem translated desires (1937) [5]. In addition, “The Knight in the Panther’s Skin” is a true masterpiece of illustrated secular works in Georgia. Institute of Manuscripts of Georgia in Tbilisi has two tomes XVI and a few lines of the poem, dated XIV. Other copies of the poem belong to the XVII century. Today the most important and most prestigious award in literature of Georgia named Shota Rustaveli. His name was given Batumi State University, the same name is glorious Georgian Literature Institute and others.

Rustaveli also connected with Ukraine. The name of the poet named streets in the cities of Ukraine. In particular, in Kiev, Lviv, Odessa, Lutsk, Kharkiv, Ternopil, Sarny and Kalush is named after Shota Rustaveli Street. “God divided the Earth between nations – said Georgian legend. – Georgians late, pausing for a traditional meal and Toasting, and they appeared the world had already been divided. When the Lord said those who came, what they drank, the Georgians said, “For you, God, for themselves and for peace.” Almighty liked the answer. And he told them that although all the land (territory) distributed, he has reserved a small piece for himself, and now he gives it to the Georgians. The land is, according to the Lord, their beauty is not comparable to anything and ever will be people to get involved and enjoy it … “.

Always It worth remembering the fact that the evolution of international relations indicates a need to find new forms of diplomatic flexible implementation of state policy in any historical period. In the world of diplomacy is constant adaptation to new conditions of international relations. The international community there are new challenges that need to adequately respond. That flexibility and speed of response to these challenges – an opportunity to build a new international order, which happened a day early modern times [6, pp. 28-29].

So, undoubtedly, today Rustaveli is a brilliant representative of the Renaissance. It was truly educated, spiritually rich man, which absorbed all the best of the best Georgian and world culture XII – early XIII century and earlier ages. The problem of war and peace, war and diplomacy worried Rustaveli and his contemporaries. They were in constant search for answers to those questions put to them objective reality and international relations. After this period of history could not leave anyone indifferent, because “peace and harmony – priority necessities for kings and nations.” But along with this story for the then international relations of Georgia and the region as a whole, the European system of states, formed at the time as best suited Zarathustra word: “Love peace as a means to new wars. And the short peace more than the long.”


1. V.G. Tsivatyy Political and diplomatic portrait of Dante Alighieri (1265-1321): Institutional dimension of the Renaissance and Ukrainian context / Vyacheslav Tsivatyy // Scientific notes of Ternopil National Pedagogical University named Hnatyuk. Series: History. – 2016 – Vol. 2 (1). – S. 133-141.

2. Reyfield Donald. Georgia. The intersection of empires. The story is three thousand years old / Donald Reifield. – Moscow: KoLibry, 2017. – 608p.

3. Matsay O. Shota Rustaveli. – K .: Knowledge, 1966. – 50s.

4. Rustaveli Shota. The Knight in the Panther’s Skin. Poem / Trans. M. Bazhan / Shota Rustaveli. Kyiv – Kharkiv, 1937. – 294 p.

5. D. Vateishvili. Georgia and European countries. Essays on the history of mutual relations of the XIII-XIX century: In 3 volumes / D.L. Vateishvili. – M., 2003-2006.

6. International Relations. Edited by Stephen McGlinchey. – Bristol, England, 2017. – Part I: Diplomacy. – P. 26-36.

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