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Історичне минуле

Ukrainians in Poland − a statistical outline
Моніка Шлєзак
13.05.2015, 11:43

УДК: 327: 94

АНОТАЦІЯ

У статті розглядаються результати переписів 2002 і 2011 рр. у контексті розподілу української громади в Польщі та Лемко. Автор подає загальні дані про кількість українців у Польщі, кількість осіб, які послуговуються в цій країні українською мовою, а також соціологічні дані по окремих провінціях.

Стаття базується на фундаментальних правових засадах Польської Республіки, які стосуються національних та етнічних меншин, а також прав іноземців. Дослідження містить історичні аспекти і дані щодо чисельності та розподілу українців у Польщі в міжвоєнний період і після Другої світової війни.

Ключові слова: українці, Польща, національна міграційна політика, закон.

In the Polish law, the notions of national minority, ethnic minority, regional group and aliens are defined by the Act on National and Ethnic Minorities and on Regional Languages and the Aliens Act. The Polish law makes a clear distinction between national minorities, ethnic minorities and aliens.

Pursuant to the Act on National and Ethnic Minorities and on Regional Languages, a national minority is a group of Polish citizens who jointly fulfil all of the following criteria: it is numerically smaller than the rest of the population of Poland; it significantly differs from the remaining citizens in its language, culture or tradition; it strives to preserve its language, culture or tradition; is aware of its historical, national community, and is oriented towards its expression and protection; its ancestors have been living on the present territory of the Republic of Poland for at least 100 years; it identifies with a nation organised in its own state. Therefore, the following communities meet the criteria of a national minority: Belarusian, Czech, Lithuanian, German, Armenian, Russian, Slovak, Ukrainian and Jewish. Persons coming from homelands of these minorities, after obtaining Polish citizenship, join these minority groups. In accordance with the Polish law, people from other countries, while migrating to Poland for permanent residency, cannot obtain legal status of a national minority even after obtaining Polish citizenship, as the condition of a minority group living 100 years on Polish territory is not fulfilled.

As defined by the aforementioned act, an ethnic minority is a group of Polish citizens who jointly fulfil the criteria for a national minority but do not identify with a nation organised in its own state. The following ethnic minorities meet these criteria: Karaims (Karaites), Lemkos, Romani and Tatars. Apart from Ukrainians, who form a national minority in Poland, this paper also presents the results of censuses concerning Lemkos. Some of them, represented by the Lemko Union, declare their national identity as Ukrainian, and therefore Lemkos have been included in this analysis. However, we must remember that a significant part of the Lemko people living in Poland definitely do not consider themselves as Ukrainians. Most of them consider Lemkos as a distinct ethnic group, but there are also some who identify with the Polish nationality (Michna 1995; Slezak: 1997, 2001, 2006).

Ukrainians in the interwar Poland

In the interwar period, Poland was a multinational state. The eastern territories of Poland were to a large extent inhabited by Ukrainians (Ruthenians), who also dwelled in large cities in other parts of the country. As far as the eastern provinces are concerned, Ukrainians (Ruthenians) lived in six areas. In the former Eastern Galicia, these were two entire provinces (wojewodztwa): Stanislawow and Tarnopol as well as Lwow Province excluding eight districts (powiaty): Kolbuszowa, Łańcut, Krosno, Nisko, Rzeszów, Przeworsk, Strzyżów and Tarnobrzeg. In Lemkovyna Krakow Province), Ruthenians lived in about half of the districts: Nowy Sącz, Grybow, Gorlice, Jaslo and Krosno. The Ruthenian population also inhabited the entire regions of Volhynia and Polesia, as well as the following districts in the area of ​​Chelm Land and Podlasie: Konstantynow (excluding one commune), Biala Podlaska, Radzyn Podlaski (excluding three communes), Chelm, Hrubieszow, Bilgoraj (excluding one commune), Tomaszow Lubelski, as well as a single commune in Lubartow District and six communes in Krasnystaw District (Krysiński 1928a: 353, 1928b: 567-592).

As reminded by D. Matelski (1996: 184), A. Fischer divided Ukrainians into several ethnic groups. The first group are Carpatho-Ruthenians including Lemkos, Boykos and Hutsuls. They were characterised by a low level of Ukrainian national consciousness. The second group are Polishchuks including Pinchuks and Volhynian Polishchuks. They were characterised by a minimum level of Ukrainian or Belarusian national consciousness. The third group are Podlasians who, along with Zabuzanie (the inhabitants of the areas beyond the Bug River), lived in Podlasie and Chelm Land. While they represented a slightly higher level of Ukrainian national consciousness compared to the previous groups, they constituted just a small group. Another group are Ruthenians proper who lived north of Carpatho-Ruthenians. In this group, particularly Volhynians distinguished in terms of ethnicity. The last, fifth group are Ukrainians, the so-called Ukrainians proper, who inhabited the area of Soviet Ukraine (Fisher 1996: 184).

The census of 1921 included two questions: about nationality and religion. According to Krysinski, in 1921, the eastern territories, previously indicated as inhabited by a Ukrainian (Ruthenian) population, were populated by 3,150,439 Poles, 3,863,849 Ukrainians, 421,619 Belarusians, 15,971 Russians, 38,652 "locals", 647,873 Jews. Of course, the religious and ethnic composition of the Second Polish Republic was also affected by migrations, which Krysinski (1931: 18-60) also writes about.

The census of 1921 comprised a civil part and a military part. According to my analysis, the data included in the census shows that the country was inhabited by 25,694,700 people according to the civil census, and 318,525 people according to the military census, which makes a total of 26,013,225. There were 3,898,428 Ruthenians (1,902,706 men and 1,995,722 women) according to the civil census, and 12,231 (12,171 men and 60 women), according to the military census, a total of 3,910,659.

A detailed analysis of the civil census is a good opportunity to examine the religious diversity of the Ruthenians living in Poland at the time. And so, the population of Ukrainians (Ruthenians) was constituted by 16,239 Roman Catholics and Armenian Catholics, 2,667,840 Greek Catholics, and 9 people of other Catholic denominations (including, e.g., Mariavite Church). 1,207,739 Ruthenians were Orthodox Christians and 47 people declared other Eastern Catholic denominations. In this national group, there were 1,992 representatives of the Evangelical Church of the Augsburg Confession, the Evangelical Reformed Church and Evangelical and Union Church, and 720 people were members of other Protestant groups. Moreover, among the Ukrainians (Ruthenians), there were also 3,751 Jews, 35 people of other non-Christian religions, 50 non-denominational people, and 6 persons of unknown denomination.

The census of 1931 did not include questions about nationality (ethnicity). Information was collected on mother tongues and religions, and based on this data, we can estimate the number of particular national groups. According to this census, 24 districts of eastern Poland had a population of 3,171,000, including 449,000 Ukrainians (Ruthenians). However, the Ukrainian-Ruthenian population exceeded 25% of the total population in only five districts, and 40% in only one, while it inhabited five districts of Polesia, Bielsk Podlaski District, seven eastern districts of Lublin Province. Moreover, six districts (Sanok, Krosno, Jaslo, Gorlice, Nowy Sacz and Nowy Targ) were inhabited by Lemkos (Krysinski 1937: 579).

Directly from the census books we can learn that in Poland, 10.1% of its 31,915,779 citizens, that is 3 221 975 people declared that they spoke the Ukrainian language, while 3.8%, that is 1,219,647 people declared the Ruthenian language. 707 088 people, accounting for 2.2% of Poland's population, indicated the "local" language as the one they spoke. The data from the entire country also shows that in Poland at that time, 11.8% (nearly 3.8 million) of the population were Orthodox Christians, and 0.5% represented other Christian denominations except for the Eastern Orthodox Church and the Latin Church (therefore including Greek Catholics).

In six provinces, the use of the Ukrainian or Ruthenian language was noted, and four provinces were populated by Greek Catholics.

Ukrainians in the Polish People's Republic

After World War II, significant ethnic changes took place in Poland. They consisted in repatriation of the Polish population from the Ukrainian SSR, resettlement of Ukrainians (Eberhardt 1996: 122-123, Kersten 1989: 472-477, Banasiak 1997: 161-172), and others. The number of Ukrainians meeting the criteria for resettlement was estimated at 480 to 546 thousand, although, in reality, the number amounted to at least 700 thousand (Sakson 1997: 56-57, Misilo 1996: 29, Potocki 1984: 226). During Operation Vistula, people of Ukrainian nationality, Lemkos and mixed families were resettled to northern and western areas of Poland (Misilo 1992: 392, Motyka 1998: 129-131, Pudlo 1987:30; Боярчук Л., 1998; Bobusia 1996: 154, Holuszko 1995: 24, Olszewski 1993: 76-79; Chojnowska 1992: 24). According to the data of the State Repatriation Office, a total of about 150 thousand people were resettled to the western lands, 80% of which were settled in the northern region, and the remaining 20% in the western region (Kwilecki 1964: 379). More accurate data on the distribution of the displaced people is presented in Table 1. It shows that most people were resettled in Szczecin and Olsztyn provinces.

Table 1. Population distribution in the Recovered Territories in 1947

Province

Number of the settled

Ratio of the number of Ukrainians to the total population of the province in %

 

Families

Persons

Bialystok

252

991

lack of data

Gdansk

1,116

4,293

4.7

Olsztyn

13,390

54,581

11.5

Poznan

1,692

7,706

3.7

Szczecin

11,483

49,371

8.2

Wroclaw

4,755

24,014

5.9

Total

32,688

140,956

lack of data

Source: Iwanicki 1994: 75.

The first post-war census in Poland took place in 1946. It included a question about nationality, however the data collected on the ethnic situation is considered unreliable. In the subsequent censuses, there were no questions concerning nationality, native language or religion.

The first estimates of the ethnic composition of Poland in the communist era are from 1954. According to them, Poland was then inhabited by 162 thousand Ukrainians, which made up 0.6% of the total population. Between 1955 and 1957, a migration of ethnic Germans and Jews from Poland and Poles to the USSR took place. This migration resulted in a change in the ethnic composition of Poland: the number of Ukrainians was estimated at 170 thousand at that time (Byszkowski 1976: 164, Wlk.Enc.Powsz. PWN 1967: 71). Table 2 shows the number of Ukrainians in particular provinces in 1961. According to the data, the majority of representatives of this nationality lived in Olsztyn Province (51 thousand), then Koszalin, Rzeszow and Lublin provinces (between 20 and 30 thousand), followed by Wroclaw, Szczecin, Zielona Gora provinces (9 to 16 thousand); Bialystok and Gdansk provinces (4.5 to 5 thousand), and finally Opole and Poznan provinces (1 to 1.5 thousand Ukrainians).

Table 2. Ukrainian population in Poland in 1961

Province

Number in thousands

Bialystok

5.0

Gdansk

4.5

Koszalin

29.0

Lublin

20.0

Olsztyn

51.0

Opole

1.5

Rzeszow

26.0

Poznan

1.0

Szczecin

11.0

Wroclaw

16.0

Zielona Gora

9.0

Total

174.0

Source: Winnicki 1965: 91.

According to the data from the Department of the Culture of Ethnic Minorities (Departament Kultury Mniejszosci Narodowych - DKMN) on the size of particular ethnic minorities in Poland, at the end of the 20th century, Poland was inhabited by: 300-500 thousand Germans, 300 thousand Ukrainians, 200-250 thousand Belarusians, 20-25 thousand Lithuanians, approx. 20 thousand Slovaks, 20-30 thousand Romani, 10-15 thousand Jews, approx. 3 thousand Czechs, up to 8 thousand Armenians, up to 5 thousand Tatars (DKMN 1999). The estimates of the size of minority communities in Poland in the 1990s were based on standard calculations of the rate of natural increase over the years. They did not include the assimilation process that the Ukrainian minority was subject to.

Ukrainians in Poland in light of the 2002 census

The census taken in 2002 included two questions that are interesting for our research. The first one concerned ethno-national affiliation, and the second one - the language spoken at home. The questions were as follows:

What is your national identity? (not to be confused with nationality, that is citizenship, which we asked about in question 16). In the case of rejection of the Polish national identity and declaration of a non-Polish ethnicity, please enter its name.

What language(s) do you usually speak at home?

The choice of answers: only Polish, Polish and other (which one?), only other (which one?). The respondents who chose answer 2 or 3 were required to name the language(s).

The form of the National Census of 2002 did not contain questions about religion. Therefore, only questions concerning the declared ethno-national affiliation and the language spoken at home were asked. The main reservations that the representatives of national and ethnic minorities had about the wording of these questions related to the fact that people of a dual identity, e.g., Polish and Ukrainian, Polish and Kashubian, were not given an opportunity to express it.

According to the census, in 2002, Poland had a population of 38,230,080, nearly 471.5 thousand of which were persons of non-Polish identity. At the time, the country was inhabited by 30,957 people of Ukrainian national identity, 27,172 of whom had Polish citizenship, which should be considered equivalent to their belonging to the Ukrainian minority, while 3,749 had the alien status. In the case of 36 people, we do not know their national identity. As far as the representatives of the Lemko community are concerned, there was a total of 5,863 Lemkos in Poland at the time, only 13 of whom did not have Polish citizenship or their citizenship was undetermined.

Tables 3 and 4 show more detailed data on answers to the questions about national identity and language spoken at home, collected during the census in particular provinces. In the case of the question about national identity, the largest number of people of Ukrainian national identity inhabited Warmia-Masuria Province, that is over 12 thousand, which accounted for more than 0.8% of the population of that province. Slightly more than 11,700 of those Ukrainians had Polish citizenship.

Following it were the provinces:West Pomerania - nearly 4 thousand Ukrainians, including about 3.7 thousand with Polish citizenship; Podkarpackie - about 3.3 thousand Ukrainians, including almost 3 thousand with Polish citizenship, Pomerania - nearly 3 thousand Ukrainians with more than 2.8 with Polish citizenship. The third group of provinces inhabited by a significant number of Ukrainians includes: Lower Silesia - over 1.8 thousand Ukrainians with more than 1.4 thousand with citizenship; Podlasie - similarly, over 1.5 thousand with more than 1.4 thousand with citizenship, and Mazovia - nearly 1.3 thousand with less than 600 with citizenship. The remaining provinces were inhabited by 141 to 769 people with Ukrainian identity.

The presence of the representatives of the Lemko community was observed in six provinces. They were almost exclusively Polish citizens. The largest concentration of Lemkos was in Lower Silesia (over 3 thousand declaring this ethnicity) and Malopolska provinces (nearly 1.6 thousand). Significantly less Lemkos inhabit Podkarpackie Province - only 147 people, while they are the least numerous in West Pomerania (66 people) and Opole (10 people) provinces.

Table 3. Declared Ukrainian and Lemko identity and citizenship by province in 2002

Lower Silesia

2,907,212

1,859

1,422

3,084

3,082

Malopolska

3,232,408

754

472

1,584

1,580

Podkarpackie

2,103,837

3,271

2,984

147

147

Opole

1,065,043

275

109

10

10

West Pomerania

1,698,214

3,943

3,703

66

66

Mazovia

5,124,018

1,281

579

30

30

Lubuskie

1,008,954

769

615

x

Pomerania

2,179,900

2,987

2,831

Wielkopolska

3,351,915

392

247

Kujawy-Pomerania

2,069,321

191

108

Lodz

2,612,890

290

122

Swietokrzyskie

1,284,796

141

35

Lublin

2,199,054

695

389

Podlasie

1,208,606

1,441

1,361

Silesia

4,742,874

660

309

Warmia-Masuria

1,428,357

12,009

11,701

x - lack of data

As for the data on the language spoken at home, unfortunately, the compilations made by the statistical offices of particular provinces lack some data. This mainly concerns the data from Warmia-Masuria Province that does not present a list of particular national identities in relation to the language spoken at home. However, given that Warmia-Masuria Province was inhabited by over 12,000 people of Ukrainian identity, and only 2,226 spoke exclusively a non-Polish language, it can be concluded that the majority of people declaring themselves as Ukrainians spoke two languages or only Polish. The data from the provinces does not contain information about which languages, except Polish, were spoken by the population of particular provinces who spoke two languages at home.

On the other hand, we have complete data on the use of the Lemko language at home from all the provinces, where residents declared use of such language. Residents of six provinces declared that they spoke this language at home. Only in Lower Silesia Province, the number of people using the Lemko language at home (almost 3 thousand) is higher than the number of inhabitants of this province who only speak a non-Polish language at home (approx. 1.8 thousand). Therefore, it can be concluded that a significant number of people who use the Lemko language at home also speak Polish (the total number of people speaking two languages ​​at home amounts to more than 28.2 thousand here). The Lemko language is also used at home by 1.8 thousand inhabitants of Malopolska Province, nearly 700 in Lubuskie, over 130 in Podkarpackie, 90 in Opole and 11 in Pomerania provinces. These people almost always have Polish citizenship too. There is no data in this matter from Opole Province but, taking into consideration the number of people declaring themselves as Lemkos who have Polish citizenship, we can state with almost absolute certainty that it is also true with regard to the relation between the Lemko language and citizenship.

Table 4. Ukrainian and Lemko languages spoken at home by province in 2002

Province

Total population

Polish and non-Polish

Non-Polish

Ukrainian language

Lemko language

total

citizens

total

citizens

Lower Silesia

2,907 212

28,212

1,766

1,344

1,142

2,921

2,914

Lubuskie

1,008 954

8,080

5,286

499

429

686

682

Malopolska

3,232 408

24,235

25,919

474

344

1,791

1,780

Podkarpackie

2,103 837

16,776

17,647

2,757

2,606

131

131

Pomerania

2,179 900

73,322

76,902

2,103

2,048

11

11

Opole

1,065 043

99,548

108,431

175

x

90

x

Wielkopolska

3,351 915

15,073

716

201

133

x

West Pomerania

1,698 214

14,519

1,349

348

339

Kujawy-Pomerania

2,069 321

11,585

12,857

63

28

Lodz

2,612 890

10,827

12,301

135

63

Mazovia

5,124 018

36,669

41,097

730

443

Swietokrzyskie

1,284 796

5,303

5,774

72

37

Lublin

2,199 054

9,637

10,947

525

359

Podlasie

1,208 606

44,251

56,151

1,452

1,414

Silesia

4,742 874

93,836

104,102

329

x

Warmia-Masuria

1,428 357

19,109

2,226

x

x

x - lack of data

The largest number of people who speak Ukrainian at home live in Podkarpackie (nearly 2.8 thousand), Pomerania (over 2.1 thousand), and Podlasie provinces (nearly 1.5 thousand). The vast majority of those people also have Polish citizenship, therefore they constitute a Ukrainian minority - treated as an indigenous people. In other provinces, the number of people speaking Ukrainian at home does not exceed 500, the least in Kujawy-Pomerania (63 people) and Swietokrzyskie provinces (72 people).

Завершення публікації у наступному числі "З.С."

Bibliography:

Banasiak S., 1997, Wysiedlenie Niemcow z Polski z perspektywy polwiecza [w:] Lach S. (red.), Wladze komunistyczne wobec Ziem Odzyskanych po II wojnie swiatowej, Slupsk.

Bobusia B., 1996, Wybor tekstow zrodłowych dotyczących sytuacji na terenach objetych akcja "Wisla" w 1947 roku (przechowywanych w Centralnym Archiwum Panstwowym CAW) [w:] "Rocznik Historyczno-Archiwalny" t. XI.

Byczkowski J., 1976, Mniejszosci narodowe w Europie 1945-1974 (wybrane zagadnienia), Opole, ss. 164; Wielka Encyklopedia Powszechna PWN,1967, T. IX, Warszawa.

Chojnowska A., 1992, Operacja "Wisla" (przesiedlenie ludnosci ukrainskiej na ziemie zachodnie i polnocne w 1947 r.) [w:] "Zeszyty Historyczne" z. 102.

Dane DKMN z 17 marca 1999 roku.

Monika SLEZAK (Моніка ШЛЕЗАК)

,

Academy of Special Education in Warsaw, Poland

SUMMARY

The article discusses the results of the censuses of 2002 and 2011 in the context of the abundance and distribution of Ukrainian minority in Poland and the Lemko. Shows the general data on the number of Ukrainians in Poland and the number of people using the Ukrainian language in Poland as well as data on the individual provinces.

Everything was preceded by information on the meaning of the Polish law concepts such as national and ethnic minority, a foreigner. The article includes a historical introduction, outlining the abundance and distribution of Ukrainians in Poland in the interwar period and after the war.

Key words: Ukrainian, Poland, national migration policy, law

АННОТАЦИЯ

В статье рассматриваются результаты переписей 2002 и 2011 гг. в контексте распределения украинской диаспоры в Польше и Лемко. Автор предостваляет данные о количестве украинцев, проживающих в этой стране, а также количестве людей, которые пользуются украинским языком в польских провинциях.

Статья базируется на основоположных понятиях польских законов, регламентирующих жизнедеятельность национальных и этических меньшинств и иностранцев. Материал включает исторические сведения о численности и расселении украинцев на территории Польши в межвоенный период и после Второй мировой войны.

Ключевые слова: украинцы, Польша, национальная миграционная политика, закон.