Право

INTERCULTURALISM IN PORTUGAL: PUBLIC POLICY TOOLS AND INSTRUMENTS
Марина Марцмнюк
23.11.2016, 13:17

УДК 94:327:325.2

Анотація

Мультикультуралізм або інтеркультуралізм можуть служити ефективними засобами державної політики та інструментами, які пов'язують іммігрантів і громадян приймаючого суспільства в єдине ціле. Іммігранти, в свою чергу, також можуть стати джерелом конкурентної переваги для країни, якщо вона здійснює ефективну мультикультурну чи інтеркультурну політику. Щодо Португалії, то мультикультурна політика жодним чином не закріплена у Конституції цієї країни, однак у країні ефективно розвивалися різноманітні інституційні засоби і моделі включення іммігрантів у приймаюче суспільство, які знайшли своє відображення у законодавстві Португалії і досліджуються у цій статті.

Ключові слова: інтеркультуралізм, державна політика, законодавство, інституційні органи, адаптація іммігрантів.

In this paper, we propose that effective public policy tools and instruments such as legal frameworks, institutions and associations may create special sociocultural environment in favor of immigrants. These instruments may bind immigrants and host country nationals together, creating special intercultural links that can serve a basis of effective multicultural policy. We found the confirmation of this idea in a Portuguese immigration policy in the late 90th and the beginning of the 2000 years.

Portuguese Law 18/2004 prohibits discrimination based on race, skin color, nationality, ethnic origin and a number of other grounds. Article 3(1) provides that, "for the purpose of this law the principle of equality of treatment means the absence of any discrimination, direct or indirect, based on racial or ethnic origin". While Article 3(2) notes that, "all actions or omissions affecting persons on the grounds of race, skin color, nationality or ethnic origin which violate the principle of equality are considered as discriminatory practices". [1]

In 2003 was passed the Labor Code, which protects individuals against direct and indirect discrimination on the basis of ancestry, age, sex, sexual orientation, civil status, family situation, genetic patrimony, impaired work capacity, disability or chronic disease, nationality, ethnic origin, religion, political or ideological persuasion and membership of a trade union. [2]

Article 25 of the Labor Code provides that, "legislative measures of a specifically defined temporary nature, benefiting certain disadvantaged groups, including groups defined by reference to sex, reduced working capability, disability or chronic illness, nationality or ethnic origin, enacted with the aim of guaranteeing the exercise, in conditions of equality, of the rights provided for in this Code and of correcting a situation of factual inequality persisting in social life, shall not be considered discriminatory". [3] This suggests that affirmative action policies would be permissible if they aimed at correcting existing inequalities. However, as Malheiros pointed out, this provision of the code had not been implemented.

In 2001, the government passed the Law, which established the legal status of sociocultural mediators whose function it is to promote social cohesion, intercultural dialogue, inclusion and respect for cultural diversity. Still, in the act noted that recruitment would give preference to those who belong to immigrant or ethnic communities or who possess knowledge of the socio-cultural characteristics of target communities. While not an affirmative action policy per se, this assertion would give some preference to immigrant and ethnic minority groups.

The mediators are typically from immigrant or ethnic communities and operate largely in schools, social service agencies (including immigrant support centers), and other public bodies.

At an institutional level, the position of High Commissioner for Immigration and Ethnic Minorities created in 1996. In 2003, it was refashioned into a High Commission, and its responsibilities were expanded (Santos 2004); in 2007, it was renamed the High Commission for Immigration and Intercultural Dialogue (ACIDI). As Sardinha points out, the High Commission has been created partly to ensure immigrant and minority communities could become partners in the policy process. [4]

ACIDI is responsible for immigrant integration and operates a number of National Immigrant Support Centers (CNAI), which use a "one-stop-shop" model to deliver services to newcomers. These include assistance related to health, education, banking, the labor market, and citizenship. [5]

In 1998, an Advisory Committee for Immigration Affairs created. Its structure was changed in 2002 to make it more of a government agency, and it was renamed the Consultative Council for Immigrant Issues. [6]

It works to strengthen consultation and dialogue between the government and organizations that represent immigrants and ethnic minorities. It also issues statements related to migrant rights and participates in policy-making processes related to immigrant integration. [7] Associations were recognized by the High Commission and have the right to participate in the Consultative Council and to be consulted on matters concerning immigrants and ethnic minorities. [8]

In 1981, Portugal passed a law that would allow citizens who attained a foreign citizenship to retain their Portuguese citizenship; prior to that, Portuguese citizens who attained another citizenship automatically lost their Portuguese citizenship. [9]

A new citizenship law was passed in 2006. It expanded the right to acquire Portuguese citizenship, most notably allowing third-generation migrants to acquire Portuguese citizenship (third-generation migrants are those who are born in Portugal to a parent who was also Portuguese-born, but whose own parent(s) was foreign-born). Children who were born in Portugal to a foreign-born parent or parents are still prevented from becoming citizens until they have satisfied residency requirements. [10]

While Faist and Gerdes (2008) position Portugal as a country that accepts dual nationality, they note that naturalization by immigrants remains low because of the restrictions placed on attaining citizenship if one is not born in Portugal. Still, they categorize Portugal as having a "tolerant" citizenship law (as opposed to, say, Austria, Belgium, Denmark, Finland, Germany, the Netherlands and Norway, which are regarded as "restrictive").

Fonseca notes, "Despite referring to the respect for the immigrants' social and cultural identity, the law focuses on 'the promotion of the knowledge and acceptance of the Portuguese language, laws, and also of the cultural and moral values of the Portuguese Nation as conditions for a complete integration". [11]

Prior to 2000 when several changes to immigration laws were adopted, the bulk of immigrants to Portugal were Portuguese speaking. Increasingly, however, immigrants are arriving from China, Eastern Europe and other non-Lusophone countries, and schools are having some difficulties adapting to their new student bodies. Several schools are apparently offering Portuguese classes to students who speak a foreign language, but it is not clear that the classes are specifically bilingual or offered partially in the students' mother tongues. [12]

Lima and Gomes further report that, "The Ministry of Education provides specialist language learning support to those whose mother-tongue is not Portuguese (with the possibility of providing tutors and involvement in specific projects)."

Legislation legally recognize immigrant associations in 1999 also made them eligible for state funding. [13]

Sardinha notes that since 2000, the number of immigrant and ethnic associations in Portugal has increased significantly, in part because of the adoption of new funding initiatives. In particular, associations may apply for technical support and project funding through a program called GATAIME, which is the Portuguese acronym for the Immigrant Associations Technical Support and Grants Office or Gabinete de Apoio Técnico às Associações de Imigrantes e Minorias Étnicas; the program is administered by the High Commission for Immigration and Intercultural dialogue. [14] In a report on civic engagement in Portugal, Sardinha (2007) notes that in between July 2002 and February 2005, the High Commission granted 88 financial requests to 44 immigrant associations; 43 of the grants were one-off, while the remaining 45 were renewable on an annual basis. Altogether, the High Commission distributed about $962 million to immigrant and minority associations in the period under examination. [15] There are also programs that offer funding to support the placement of socio-cultural mediators in the country's immigrant service centers; these are employees of various immigrant associations, who the High Commission remunerates to assist with intercultural dialogue, translation and interpretation in the immigrant service centers. [16]

Portuguese legislation also provides sensitivity in representation of immigrants and ethnic minorities in the public media or media licensing.

Legislation that provided for the legal recognition of immigrant associations in 1999 granted them a right to participate in the process of assigning public broadcasting time. [17] However, this legislation did not stipulate that ethnic minorities be represented in public media or media licensing, but merely that immigrant associations have a right to participate in public consultations relating to the allocation of public broadcasting times.

A new Television Law (Law 27/2007) was passed in 2007; it amends several earlier laws passed in the 1990s. Although the law does not specifically mention ethnic or cultural minorities. Article 6 does notes "the state, public service concession holders and other television operators shall collaborate in the pursuit of values of human dignity, the rule of law, democratic society and national cohesion, and in the promotion of the Portuguese language and culture, taking into consideration the special needs of specific groups of viewers". Prior to the 2007 Television Law, there was no requirement that the media take into consideration the needs of particular groups of viewers.

Article 9 of the Television Law further stipulates that, "the purposes of general television program services are: (a) to contribute to the information, education and entertainment of the public; (b) to promote the right to inform and be informed, accurately and independently, without impediments or discrimination; (c) engender the creation of habits for civic harmony appropriate in a democratic state and contribute to political, social and cultural pluralism; and (d) to promote Portuguese culture and language and the values that express national identity." In this way, there are provisions related to respect for cultural pluralism, although the law does also emphasize the importance of promoting Portuguese culture.

Regulations related to programming content confirmed, that at least 50 percent of the broadcasting airtime must be allocated to Portuguese language programming and at least 20 percent for creative works in Portuguese. Non-Portuguese language programming must not exceed 25 percent of airtime, and preference is to be given to European productions Nonetheless, Sardinha notes that once an immigrant association has been recognized by the High Commission for Immigration and Intercultural Dialogue (a process provided for in Law 115/99 which was passed in 1999) it has the right to participate in public processes related to the allocation of public broadcasting time on radio and television. Fonseca also points out that the High Commission has worked to increase ethnic representation in the media, most notably by producing documentaries and television programs that explore challenges faced by immigrants and minorities; these include the program entitled Nós (Us), which was broadcast on RTP 2, the Portuguese public television station. The High Commission also instituted the Immigration and Ethnic Minority--Journalism for Tolerance award, which recognizes exceptional reporting or journalism related to anti-racism or combating xenophobia. [18]

Conclusions

We conclude that there are legislative and institutional affirmation of multiculturalism in Portugal that displayed at the central and municipal levels. Furthermore, Portuguese legislation provides sensitivity in representation of immigrants and ethnic minorities in different areas of social life. Legislative instruments and institutional tools helped not only immigrants to adapt in host society but bind them together with country nationals creating multicultural environment.

Literature

1. Malheiros J. "Irregular migration in OECD member states: Nature, profiles and policies: an overview", unpublished research paper, 2008.

2. Malheiros. J. "Ethnic Civic Communities and Political Participation: the case-study of CapeVerdean associations in 3 municipalities of the Lisbon Metropolitan Area and in Rotterdam" in Fonseca, L. (ed.), Cities in Movement: Migrants and Urban Change, Lisbon, CEG, pp.165-202, 2008 (with Ana Paula Horta and António da Graça).

3. Malheiros J. (With Ana Paula Horta). "Citizenship and Integration Policies in Portugal: an overview of recent immigration to Portugal" - Canadian Diversity, nº 4, vol.6, 107-110pp., 2008.

4. Sardinha J. Providing voices? Civic participation opportunities for immigrants in Portugal. University of Oldenburg. POLITIS Working Paper Series, Working Paper n. 7, 2007. [Електронний ресурс]. - Режим доступу:
www.uni-oldenburg.de/politis-europe/download/WP7__POLITIS_Sardinha_2007.pdf

5. Machado, Fernando Luís, Maria Abranches, Ana Raquel Matias and Sofia Leal, "Where is African immigration in Portugal going? Sedentarisation, generations and trajectories", in Guerreiro, Maria das Dores, Anália Torres and Luís Capucha (orgs.), Welfare and Everyday Life, (Portugal in the European Context, vol. III), CIES, ISCTE-IUL, Lisbon, Celta Editora, pp. 185-205, 2009.

6. Fonseca M. L., Ormond M., Malheiros J., Patricio, M. and Martins F. Reunificação Familiar e Imigração em Portugal. Lisboa: ACIME/Observatório da Imigração, 2005.

7. Machado, Fernando Luís, Maria Abranches, Ana Raquel Matias and Sofia Leal, "Where is African immigration in Portugal going? Sedentarisation, generations and trajectories", in Guerreiro, Maria das Dores, Anália Torres and Luís Capucha (orgs.), Welfare and Everyday Life, (Portugal in the European Context, vol. III), CIES, ISCTE-IUL, Lisbon, Celta Editora, pp. 185-205, 2009.

8. Sardinha J. Immigrant Associations, Integration and Identity: Angolan, Brazilian and Eastern European Communities in Portugal. IMISCOE Dissertations / Amsterdam University Press. (ISBN 978 90 8964 036 9), 2009.

9. Fonseca M. L., Ormond M., Malheiros J., Patricio, M. and Martins F. Reunificação Familiar e Imigração em Portugal. Lisboa: ACIME/Observatório da Imigração, 2005.

10. Fonseca M. L., Ormond M., Malheiros J., Patricio, M. and Martins F. Reunificação Familiar e Imigração em Portugal. Lisboa: ACIME/Observatório da Imigração, 2005.

11. Fonseca M. L., Ormond M., Malheiros J., Patricio, M. and Martins F. Reunificação Familiar e Imigração em Portugal. Lisboa: ACIME/Observatório da Imigração, 2005.

12. Sardinha J. Immigrant Associations, Integration and Identity: Angolan, Brazilian and Eastern European Communities in Portugal. IMISCOE Dissertations / Amsterdam University Press. (ISBN 978 90 8964 036 9), 2009.

13. Sardinha J. Immigrant Associations, Integration and Identity: Angolan, Brazilian and Eastern European Communities in Portugal. IMISCOE Dissertations / Amsterdam University Press. (ISBN 978 90 8964 036 9), 2009.

14. Sardinha J. Providing voices? Civic participation opportunities for immigrants in Portugal. University of Oldenburg. POLITIS Working Paper Series, Working Paper n. 7, 2007. [Електронний ресурс]. - Режим доступу:
www.uni-oldenburg.de/politis-europe/download/WP7__POLITIS_Sardinha_2007.pdf

15. Sardinha J. Immigrant Associations, Integration and Identity: Angolan, Brazilian and Eastern European Communities in Portugal. IMISCOE Dissertations / Amsterdam University Press. (ISBN 978 90 8964 036 9), 2009.

16. Sardinha J. Providing voices? Civic participation opportunities for immigrants in Portugal. University of Oldenburg. POLITIS Working Paper Series, Working Paper n. 7, 2007. [Електронний ресурс]. - Режим доступу:
www.uni-oldenburg.de/politis-europe/download/WP7__POLITIS_Sardinha_2007.pdf

17. Fonseca M. L., Ormond M., Malheiros J., Patricio, M. and Martins F. Reunificação Familiar e Imigração em Portugal. Lisboa: ACIME/Observatório da Imigração, 2005.

18. Ціватий В.Г. Імміграційні процеси та імміграція з Латинської Америки до США: інституційно-політичні дилеми сучасного світоустрою / В. Ціватий, Н. Бурейко // Зовнішні справи. - 2015. - № 05. - С. 25-29.

 

Summary

Multiculturalism or interculturalism can serve both an effective public policy tool and an instrument that binds immigrants and host country nationals together. Immigrants can also be a source of competitive advantage for the country when it has effective multicultural or intercultural policy. In the case of Portugal, there is no constitutional discourse of multiculturalism in this country, but country offers various institutional bodies and models of immigrants' incorporation that displayed in Portuguese legislation.

Keywords: interculturalism, public policy, legislation, institutional bodies, immigrants' incorporation

Аннотация

Мультикультурализм или интеркультурализм могут служить эффективными средствами государственной политики и инструментами, которые связывают иммигрантов и граждан принимающего общества в единое целое. Иммигранты, в свою очередь, также могут стать источником конкурентного преимущества для страны, если она осуществляет эффективную мультикультурную или интеркультурную политику. Что касается Португалии, то мультикультурная политика никоим образом не закреплена в Конституции этой страны, однако в стране эффективно развивались различные институциональные средства и модели включения иммигрантов в принимающее общество, которые нашли свое отражение в законодательстве Португалии и исследуются в этой статье.

Ключевые слова: интеркультурализм, государственная политика, законодательство, институциональные органы, адаптация иммигрантов.