Регіональна політика

Ethnic structure of Ukraine and ukrainian diaspora in selected european countries (Poland, Belarus, Latvia, Lithuania, Estonia)
Monika Slezak
08.09.2015, 12:49


У своїй статті "Етнічний склад України та української діаспори в окремих європейських країнах (Польща, Білорусь, Латвія, Литва, Естонія)" доктор Моніка Шлензак (Академія спеціальної педагогіки, Варшава, Республіка Польща; Університет імені Кардинала Стефана Вишенського, Варшава, Республіка Польща) аналізує дані з переписів населення, Литви, Латвії, Естонії, Білорусії та Польщі та на їх основі висвітлює стан українських етнічних меншин в етнічних і соціально-демографічних структурах цих країн. Цьому передує інформація про етнічний склад України, а також про чисельність української діаспори в країнах Східної та Західної Європи.

Ключові слова: українці, діаспора, етнічна структура, Польща, Білорусь, Латвія, Литва, Естонія.

Ethnic situation in Ukraine

The territory of the present-day Ukraine is constituted by nine former south-western provinces of Russia. The Russian census of 1897 showed the following linguistic structure of the population of the Ukrainian lands.

Table 1

The territory of the present day Ukraine, which in the late 19th and early 20th century was under the rule of the Austro-Hungarian Empire, was populated by 4,176.8 thousand people, 64.8% of which used the Ukrainian language, 30.8% Polish and 4.4% other languages. In addition, 64.9% were Greek Catholics, 21.1% Roman Catholics, 13.0% Jews and 1.0% professed other religions (Eberhrdt 1996: 152-153). In this area, religion corresponded almost completely with nationality.

The Northern Bukovina was populated by 410.3 thousand including 58.7% Ukrainians, 16.0% Jews, 14.9% Romanians, 6.8% Poles and 3.6% people of other nationalities. Carpathian Ruthenia was populated by 524 thousand including 56.3% Ukrainians, 21.9% Hungarians, 14.7% Jews and 7.1% representatives of other nationalities. For all the discussed areas of the present-day Ukraine, Ukrainians made up more than 70% of the total population (Eberhrdt 1996: 154-156).

According to the data collected by I. Zyteckyj in the second half of the 19th century and published in the fifth issue of the journal "Kievskaya Starina" in 1883, the ethnographic region of Ukraine (there was no Ukrainian state at that time) spanned about 680 thousand square kilometers and was inhabited by nations such as Ukrainians (78.7%), Jews (8.2%), Russians (6.3%), Romanians (1.1%), Germans (1%), Poles (1%) as well as Greeks, Bulgarians, Belarusians, Armenians, Gypsies and others (Roszczenko 1993b: 38).

At the time of the outbreak of World War II, the ethnic composition of the lands within the borders of Poland that later changed their national belonging and became an integral part of Ukraine was as follows: 61% of the total population were Ukrainians, 27% Poles, 9.9% Jews, and 2.1% other nationalities (out of 7,650 thousand people inhabiting these areas) (Eberhardt 1994a: 150).

The first post-war census in Ukraine revealed that the area was inhabited by 41,869 thousand people, of whom 76.8% were Ukrainians, 16.9% Russians, 2.0% Jews, 0.9% Poles, 0.8% Moldavians and Romanians, 0.7% Belarusians, 0.5% Bulgarians, 0.4 % Hungarians and 1.0% other nationalities. On the other hand, the more recent data from 1989 indicates that on the eve of the restoration of independence by Ukraine, its territory was inhabited by nearly 37.5 million Ukrainians, over 11.3 million Russians and nearly 2.7 million representatives of other nationalities (Eberhardt 1996: 191, 193). So after the war, there was a spatial expansion of Russians and the Russian language to the Ukrainian ethnic areas. Only the western oblasts, which had belonged to Poland before the war, retained their fully Ukrainian nature. The decrease in the percentage of Ukrainians in the population of Ukrainian territories from 76.8% in 1959 to 72.7% in 1989 resulted from Ukrainians' emigration to other republics of the former USSR, their low population growth rate, and the mass influx of Russians to the industrial areas in the eastern Ukraine.

In 1989, in the western oblasts of Ukraine, 93.3% of the population declared Ukrainian nationality, while before the war that number had been 60%. Table 2 presents more detailed data on the national composition of Ukraine in the 20th century.

Table 2

This change was caused by almost complete disappearance of two other large groups inhabiting this territory: Poles and Jews. After World War II, major changes occurred in the ethnic structure of cities in the lands which formerly were mainly Polish-Jewish. For example, in Lviv there were 51% Poles, 32% Jews, 16% Ukrainians and 1% Germans. Currently, there are about 75% Ukrainians, about 18% Russians and about 2-3% Poles. In Stanisławów, which after the war was inhabited by 41% Jews, 37% Poles, 19% Ukrainians and 3% Germans, there are presently more than 80% Ukrainians, about 15% Russians, 1% Poles and 0.5% Jews. Compared to western Ukraine, in the south and east of the country there is a mixing of the Ukrainian and Russian population - in the Donetsk Basin, Russians represent 44% of the total population and the Russian language is used by two thirds of the population, whereas Ukrainians account for 51.1% of the total population. In 1989, the Crimea was inhabited in 25.8% by Ukrainians and Jews (Podlaski 1990: 71).

S. Wojciechowski reports that in 1994 and 1995, the inhabitants of Ukraine were in 74.0% Ukrainians, 21.0% Russians, 0.9% Belarusians, as many Jews and Tatars, 0.5% Poles, 0.4% of both Hungarians and Romanians, and 1.0% other nationalities (Wojciechowksi 1998: 194).

The data from the census carried out in Ukraine in 2001 shows a slight increase in the Ukrainian population compared to 1989. What is worth noticing is a decrease in the Russian population (over 3 million), as well as Jewish (about 400 thousand), Belarusian, Moldavian, Polish and, to a lesser extent, Tatar, Hungarian and German. On the other hand, the populations of Crimean Tatars (over 2 million), Armenians, Georgians and Romanians have increased.

Table 3

Compared to the number of people declaring Ukrainian nationality, more than 5 million less declare the Ukrainian language as their mother tongue. On the other hand, over 6 million more people declare the use of the Russian language as their mother tongue than declare Ukrainian nationality. The same tendency can be observed as far as the Hungarian language and Hungarian nationality are concerned. For other languages declared as mother tongues, we can observe that the number of people speaking the language is smaller than the number of people declaring the nationality related to it. The trend is particularly strong in the relationships between the Polish language and Poles, German language and Germans, Hebrew language and Jews, Greek language and Greeks. Thus, it can be concluded that this trend strengthens the position of the Russian language and possibly Ukrainian as well. As far as the people declaring Romanian and Crimean Tatar languages as their mother tongues are concerned, their number is only slightly smaller than the number of people identifying themselves as Romanians and Crimean Tatars.

Table 4

Ukrainian diaspora in various countries

at the end of the 20th century - a general overview

At the end of the 20th century, Ukraine was populated by 37.5 million Ukrainians, while about 12 million lived beyond its borders, about 7 million of which in the post-Soviet states. The remaining 5 million lived in other countries (Roszczenko 1992: 27). From the Ukrainian point of view, the Ukrainians living in the post-Soviet states belong to the so-called Eastern Diaspora. According to the census of 1989, 6.8 million Ukrainians lived there, although this number is considered to be underestimated. It is estimated that approximately 300 thousand Ukrainian officers serve outside Ukraine. Usually, they cannot return to their homeland because of a lack of jobs and housing.

Table 5

The data from the late 19th and early 20th century on the ethnic structure of the territories presently belonging to Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania and the northern part of East Prussia did not show any population of Ukrainian nationality living in this area. The same can be said of the interwar period. After World War II, a radical exchange of the population took place in the discussed territory. Germans were replaced by Russians, together with some Belarusians and Ukrainians. The census of 1959 showed that Ukrainians accounted for 1.3% of the total population of this republic of 1,197 thousand. Over the years, this percentage increased so that in 1970 the Ukrainians formed 2.1% of the total population of the Estonian SSR, 2.5% in 1979, and 3.1% in 1989 (Eberhardt 1996: 53-54).

The situation was similar in other Baltic republics. On the territory of Latvia, Ukrainians accounted for 1.4% of the total population in 1959, 2.3% in 1970, 2.7% in 1979, and 3.5% in 1989. On the territory of Lithuania, they formed respectively: 0.7%, 0.8%, 1.0% and 1.2% of the total population of the republic. Finally, in Kaliningrad Oblast, there was 5.8% of Ukrainians in 1959, and this figure has not changed much until 1989, when the Ukrainians constituted 7.2% of the total population (Eberhardt 1996: 55-58). The Ukrainians who come to the Baltic countries usually used and still use the Russian language (Roszczenko 1993a: 19), just as Belarusians.

In the late 19th and early 20th century, the territory of Slovakia had a population at 2816.9 thousand. Using language as the criterion, it was calculated that 3.5% of them were Ukrainians (Ruthenians). They lived in the north-eastern part of the country, near the border with Galicia. In the interwar period, on the territory of the Czech Republic, Ukrainians formed 0.2% of the total population, while in Slovakia, about 3.3% of the total population. After World War II, the percentage of Ukrainians on the territory of the Czech Republic did not change and until now it constitutes 0.1-0.2% of the total population. On the territory of Slovakia (in the north-eastern part), there is approximately 0.5% of Ukrainians (i.e., 30.4 thousand), while 58.6 thousand people declares the use of the Ukrainian language. Greek Catholics and Orthodox account together for 213.1 thousand (Eberhardt 1996116-139).

The Ukrainian influences in the south-west of the present-day Belarus are old and strong but the ethnic composition of the population was changing throughout the centuries. At the end of the 19th century, the Ukrainian population of Kobryń and Brest counties was in 80% rural. Since 1939, the Brest Region belongs to Belarus and in that time an intense Russification of the local population took place (Roszczenko 1993a: 19). Therefore, it is difficult to determine the number of Ukrainians in Belarus in the late 19th and early 20th century, since the national consciousness of this people was low at that time. 70.8% of the total population were Orthodox Christians, while the use of the Ukrainian language was declared by 4.4% out of 6493.6 thousand of the total population (Eberhardt 1996: 148-149). The census of 1937 showed that 1.3% of Ukrainians lived on the discussed territory. After World War II, an increase in the number of Ukrainians was visible in the ethnic structure of the Byelorussian SSR, and so in 1959 they formed 1.6% of the total population of the republic, 2.1% in 1970, 2.4% in 1979, and 2.9% in 1989 - mostly in the Brest and Gomel oblasts (Eberhardt 1994b). In the recent years, a significant influx of Ukrainians to Belarusian regions other than the Brest Region took place, mostly to cities (Kuprianowicz 1992: 14-17).

On the territory of Hungary, a significant number of Ukrainians could be observed only until World War I. At the time, there were 426.6 thousand of them which accounted for 2.2% of the total population of the state. On the territory of Romania, there was 0.6% of people of Ukrainian nationality (71.2 thousand) at the time, while only in Bukovina as much as 17.4% of the population (i.e., 55.2 thousand) declared the use of the Ukrainian language. At the same time, the number of Ukrainians in Moldova was estimated at 194.6 thousand, i.e., 13.5%. In the interwar period, the number of Ukrainians living in Romania increased to 3.3% (582 thousand), while the number of those living in Moldova decreased to 3.7% (i.e., 70.1 thousand). After World War II their number returned to the level from before World War I. These changes resulted mainly from border shifts (Eberhardt 1996: 211-258). According to official statistics, 60 thousand Ukrainians currently live in Romania. However, the people concerned estimate the number of representatives of their minority at about 300 thousand. In 1989, the Union of Ukrainians in Romania was established, there is also the Democratic Union of Ukrainians in Romania (operating illegally), as well as a youth and women's organization. The Ukrainian language is taught at the University of Bucharest (Місіюк 1998).

Ukrainians began to settle in the present-day Russia in the 16th century. The Ukrainian colonization was particularly intense after the fall of the Cossack uprisings in the 17th and 18th centuries. At the end of the 18th century, after the destruction of the Zaporizhian Sich, some Cossacks were formed into the Black Sea Cossack Host and resettled to the North Caucasus (Kuban) to defend it against mountain tribes. It was the beginning of a great wave of the Ukrainian colonization of the steppes of the Kuban and Stavropol regions which continued throughout the 19th century (Roszczenko 1993a). In the 19th century, Ukrainians settled in Russia because the soil and climatic conditions were similar to those in Ukraine. The late 19th and early 20th century witnessed also a mass Ukrainian colonization of the Far Eastern territories seized by Russia. Ukrainians also participated in forced migration during the Stalinist period and labor migration to the Far North.

In Russia, Ukrainians presently live in cohesive groups in Kuban and in the following oblasts: Belgorod, Kursk and Voronezh, and in Siberia. While the population of Kuban is at 5 million, only 200 thousand people declared the Ukrainian language as their mother tongue. About 1.4 million descendants of the Ukrainian Cossacks live here but they speak a dialect and do not have Ukrainian national consciousness. The revival of the Cossack movement in 1990 and 1991 did not change that situation (Darski 1993). Surrounded by Russians, Ukrainians quickly assimilated and the linguistic assimilation also frequently occurred - people who consider themselves Ukrainians declare Russian as their mother tongue. In 1989, such people accounted for nearly 19% of the Ukrainians living in the Soviet Union, and in Russia, 57% of Ukrainians declared Russian as their native language (Maryanski 1995: 64-65). Presently, Siberia is inhabited by 1.5 million Ukrainians, only 44% of which declare the Ukrainian language as their mother tongue, while others use Russian. The strongest assimilation is observed in the oblasts where the Ukrainian colonization is the oldest.

In the period between 1926 and 1989, the Ukrainian population in Russia, in the areas of the traditional Ukrainian colonization, significantly decreased. It was the result of the rapid pace of denationalization of the descendants of displaced persons caused by policy pursued by the Moscow authorities (Базеюк 1994: 44-45).

The data shows that in Central and Eastern Europe in 1994 and 1995, Ukrainians formed 2.9% of Belarusian citizens, 0.1% of the population of Bosnia and Herzegovina, 3.1% in Estonia, 1.2% in Lithuania, 3.5 % in Latvia, 13.0% in Moldova, 0.8% in Poland and 0.3% in Slovakia (Wojciechowski 1998: 192-194). Many Ukrainians live in exile in Western European countries, for instance 25 thousand in Germany (Roszczenko 1992; Швагуляк 1992), and in both Americas, especially in Brazil - about 400 thousand (Лебчук-Киричук 1992), in the United States - about 2 million (Лебчук-Киричук 1992), and in Canada - about 530 thousand (Лупул 1992) (according to M. Roszczenko, in Canada there are 1 million Ukrainians). Ukrainians also live in other countries not mentioned so far such as: Argentina - 250 thousand, France - 80 thousand, former Yugoslavia - 60 thousand, Australia - 35 thousand, the United Kingdom - 30 thousand, Austria - 15 thousand, Uruguay - 10-15 thousand, and Paraguay - 10 thousand (Roszczenko 1992: 27).

In the 2012 edition of the Encyclopaedia Britannica, we find information on the percentage of Ukrainians in populations of European and other countries. In relation to Europe, it is as follows:

· Ukraine - 77.8%

· Slovakia - Ruthenians and Ukrainians 0.7%

· Russia - 2.03%

· Romania - 0.3%

· Poland - 0.1%

· Moldova - 8.4%

· Latvia - 2.5%

· Lithuania - 0.6%

· Hungary - Ruthenians 2.9% (Greek Catholics - 2.6%)

· Belarus - 1.7%.

In other countries, either there are no Ukrainians or their number is so low that the publication does not identify them as a significant minority group, including them in the "other" category (Brittannica 2012).

Grzegorz Janusz informs that a Ukrainian minority also lived in:

· Armenia - 8,341 people (0.2%) in 1989,

· Azerbaijan - 29 thousand (0.4%) in 1999,

· Georgia - 0.2% of Ukrainians, i.e., more than 7 thousand people in 2002,

· Estonia - 0.9% of the population used Ukrainian (29.69% - Russian), and 2.12% declared Ukrainian nationality (i.e., more than 29 thousand) in 2000,

· Serbia (without Kosovo) was inhabited by 4,635 Ukrainians and 15,626 thousand Ruthenians (out of 7.5 million citizens) in 2002,

· Moldova - 13.8% of Ukrainians in 1989 (Janusz 2006).

In Croatia, the Ruthenian community accounted for 0.07% of the total population in 1999, and for 0.05% in 2001 (Janusz 2006).

Ukrainians in Poland

A. Krysiński informs that in the interwar period, Ukrainians (Ruthenians) inhabited the following areas in Poland:

· Stanisławów, Tarnopol and Lwów Voivodeships (provinces) except eight powiats (counties),

· half of the counties in Kraków Voivodeship: Nowy Sącz, Grybów, Gorlice, Jasło and Krosno,

· Chełm Land and Podlasie (without several municipalities)

· Bielsk county in Białystok Voivodeship,

· Volhynia,

· Polesia (Krysinski 1928).

According to the census of 1921, this territory was inhabited by 3,150,439 Poles, 3,863,849 Ukrainians, 421,619 Belarusians, 15,971 Russians, 38,652 "locals", and 647,873 Jews. Naturally, the religious and ethnic composition of the Second Polish Republic was also affected by migrations, which Krysiński (1931: 18-60) also writes about. Fischer divided Ukrainians into five ethnic groups: Carpathian Ruthenians, Polishchuks, Podlasians, Ruthenians proper and Ukrainians (proper) (Matelski 1996: 184).

According to the census of 1931, the 24 counties of eastern Poland had a population at 3,171,000, including 449,000 Ukrainians (Ruthenians). However, the Ukrainian-Ruthenian population exceeded 25% of the total population in only five counties and 40% in only one, while it inhabited five counties of Polesia, Bielsk Podlaski county, seven eastern counties of Lublin Voivodeship. Moreover, six counties (Sanok, Krosno, Jasło, Gorlice, Nowy Sącz and Nowy Targ) were inhabited by Lemkos (Krysinski 1927).

The war period and border shifts caused ethnic changes in the Polish territory - for example repatriation of the Polish population from the Ukrainian SSR and the resettlement of Ukrainians (Eberhardt 1996: 122-123). The number of Ukrainians who met the criteria for resettlement was estimated at 480 to 546 thousand, although in reality the number was at least 700 thousand (Sakson 1997, Misilo 1996, Potoski 1984). As part of Operation Vistula, all groups of Ukrainian nationality together with the Lemkos and mixed families were resettled (Misilo 1992: 392). According to the data of the State Repatriation Office, a total of about 150 thousand people were resettled to the western lands, 80% of which were settled in the northern region and the remaining 20% in the western region (Kwilecki 1964: 379). The subject of the resettlement to northern and western lands was the entire population of the Ukrainian origin, including Lemkos, Dolinians, Shlakhtov Ruthenians and the remaining Boykos (Pudlo 1987: 30).

Table 6

The first census in Poland after the war took place in 1946. It included a question about nationality, however the data collected on the ethnic situation is considered unreliable. In the subsequent censuses there were no questions concerning nationality, native language or religion.

In 1954, ​​the first estimates of the national composition of Poland were made. According to them, Poland was then inhabited by 162 thousand Ukrainians who made up 0.6% of the total population. The years between 1955 and 1957 were a period of political liberalization which caused the migration of ethnic Germans and Jews from Poland and Poles to the USSR. This resulted in a change in the national composition of Poland - the number of Ukrainian was estimated at 170 thousand at that time (Buszkowski 1976: 164).

Table 7

According to the latest figures from the Department of the Culture of Ethnic Minorities (Departament Kultury Mniejszości Narodowych - DKMN) from 1999 concerning the number of particular ethnic minorities in Poland, the situation was as follows: Germans - 300-500 thousand, Ukrainians - about 300 thousand, Belarusians - 200-250 thousand, Lithuanians - 20-25 thousand, Slovaks - about 20 thousand, Romani (Gypsies) - 20-30 thousand, Jews - 10-15 thousand, Czechs - about 3 thousand., Armenians - up to 8 thousand, Tatars - up to 5 thousand (DKMN 1999).

In 2002 and 2011, censuses were carried out in Poland that included questions about nationality and language spoken at home. In 2002, out of 38,230,080 inhabitants of Poland, 30,957 people declared Ukrainian nationality, 27,127 of which had Polish citizenship which means that they were representatives of the Ukrainian minority in Poland. They mostly inhabited the following voivodeships: Warmian-Masurian (over 12 thousand), West Pomeranian, Pomeranian and Subcarpathian (about 3-4 thousand) and, to a lesser degree, Podlaskie, Masovian, Lower Silesian and other (NSP 2002).

In the census of 2011, respondents could indicate two national identities, therefore it is difficult to compare this data with the data obtained from the previous census. In 2011, over 50 thousand people declared Ukrainian nationality as their first or second identity. Poland's total population was 38,511,824. Ukrainians live mostly in Warmian-Masurian Voivodeship (more than 26% of all Ukrainians in Poland) and in the following voivodeships: West Pomeranian (10%), Pomeranian, Subcarpathian and Silesian (7.3-8.3%) and, to a lesser degree, in Podlaskie, Lublin, Lesser Poland, Silesian, Greater Poland and Lubusz voivodeships (4.4-2.4%). The remaining voivodeships are populated by less than 2% of the Ukrainian population living in Poland (NSP 2011).

Ukrainian minority in Belarus, Lithuania, Latvia and Estonia - present situation

According to the data from the census carried out in Belarus in 2009, the country was inhabited by 158,723 Ukrainians. Most of them lived in Brest Oblast - over 40 thousand, Gomel Oblast - about 31 thousand, Minsk (city) - over 27 thousand. The remaining oblasts were inhabited by 13-18 thousand people of Ukrainian nationality (Перепись Населения 2009, Belarus)). Thus, Ukrainians accounted for 1.7% of the total population of Belarus. This means that over the recent years, the number of representatives of this minority decreased compared to 1980s and 1990s. In fact, their number returned to the level from 1959. The censuses of 1970, 1979, 1989 and 1999 recorded respectively 2.1%, 2.4%, 2.9%, 2.4% Ukrainians in Belarus. Therefore, the dissolution of the Soviet Union and emergence of the independent Ukraine led to migration of some members of this community from the territory of ​​Belarus (Перепись Населения 2009, Belarus).

In 2009, among those who declared themselves as Ukrainians, 29.2% declared the Ukrainian language as their mother tongue, 7.9% declared Belarusian, and as many as 61.2% Russian. It is a significant change compared to 1999 when 42.8% of Ukrainians declared Ukrainian as their mother tongue, 14.3% Belarusian, and 42.8% Russian. A similar trend could be observed throughout the period between 1979 and 1999 (Перепись Населения 2009, Belarus). Therefore, we can speak of a significant deepening of Russification of the Ukrainian community in Belarus.

Furthermore, in the post-Soviet Baltic states, there are 29 thousand Ukrainians in Estonia (2.12%), 63.6 thousand in Latvia (2.68%), and 22.5 thousand in Lithuania (0.65%) (2000 round... 2003). Out of this population, 25.2 thousand Ukrainians living in Estonia were born in Ukraine as well as 51.4 thousand of those living in Latvia and 20.1 thousand living in Lithuania. It is known that in Latvia, 1.5 thousand Ukrainians have the nationality of that country. There is no data on the other two countries (2000 round... 2003).

The number of representatives of the Ukrainian minority in Latvia between 1935 and 2011 was changing as follows:

· 1935 - 1 844 people (0.1%);

· 1959 - 29 440 people (1.4%);

· 1970 - 53 461 people (2.3%);

· 1979 - 66 703 people (2.7%);

· 1989 - 92 101 people (3.5%);

· 2000 - 63 644 people (2.7%) (Latvin 2000... 2002);

· 2011 - 45 700 people (2.2%) (csb.gov.lv).

In 2000, nearly 32 thousand Ukrainians lived only in Riga, while the rest of the community was distributed in a more even way (a few hundred people in each region). However, the districts of Bauska, Jēkabpils, Ogre, Jelgava and the Riga region had slightly bigger populations than others. To sum up, nearly 51.5 thousand people of Latvia's total population were born in Ukraine, over 35 thousand of which declare themselves as Ukrainians (csb.gov.lv).

Between 1989 and 2000, the number of Ukrainians in Estonia decreased. In 1989, there were more than 48 thousand people of that nationality, which accounted for 3.1% of the total population, while in 2000, there were slightly over 29 thousand Ukrainians, which made up 2.1% of the total population. At that time, 2,864 people born in Ukraine had Estonian citizenship, while only 435 were born in Estonia. In 1989, 21.3 thousand Ukrainians living in Estonia considered Ukrainian to be their native language, almost 600 Estonian, and more than 26 thousand Russian, while in 2000, less than 12 thousand Ukrainian, almost 500 Estonian and almost 16.5 thousand Russian (2000. AASTA). The census of 2011 showed that less than 22 thousand Ukrainians now live in Estonia, over 8 thousand of which are permanent residents. As far as Lithuania is concerned, we can talk about a migration of the Ukrainian community out of this country. In 2001, 22.5 thousand Ukrainians lived here, while in 2011, only 16.5 thousand. So the size of this population decreased by 27% in that period. Currently, Ukrainians account for 0.5% of the total population of Lithuania. Most of them live in Vilnius and Klaipėda. Nearly 33% of people declaring Ukrainian nationality declare Ukrainian as their native language (Lietuvos... 2012: 23-25).

By way of conclusion, it can be stated, that there has been a significant decrease in the number of Ukrainians in the mentioned countries in the recent years.


1. 2000 round of population and housing censuses in Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, Vilnius 2003.

2. 2000. AASTA. Rahva ja eluruumide loendus. Kodakondsus, savus, emakeel ja voorkeelte oskus, Tallin 2001.

3. Banasiak S., 1997, Wysiedlenie Niemcow z Polski z perspektywy polwiecza [in:] Lach S. (ed.), Wladze komunistyczne wobec Ziem Odzyskanych po II wojnie swiatowej, Słupsk.

4. Перепись Населения 2009. Национальный состав населения республики Беларусь, том 3, Минск 2011.

5. Швагуляк М., Українська політична еміграція в Німеччині у 30-х роках ХХ ст. [in:] Українська eміграція. Історія і сучасність, Львів. - 1992.

Dr. Monika SLEZAK

Academy of Special Education (Poland, Warsaw)

Cardinal Stefan Wyszynski University (Poland, Warsaw)


Статья представляет собой анализ данных из переписей населения, Литвы, Латвии, Эстонии, Беларуси и Польши. На их основании освещено состояние украинских этнических меньшинств в этнических и социально-демографических структурах этих стран. Всему предшествует информация об этническом составе Украины, а также о численности украинской диаспоры в странах Восточной и Западной Европы.

Ключевые слова: украинцы, диаспора, этническая структура, Польша, Беларусь, Латвия, Литва, Эстония.


An article presents information about ethnical situation in past and present Ukraine. The same presents statistical data about Ukrainian diaspora in Europe. The author chose a few countries for more thorough analysis. It is Poland, Belarus, Latvia, Lithuania and Estonia. Analysed information is being presented based on statistical data coming from general censuses.

Keywords: Ukrainians, diaspora, ethnic structure, Poland, Belarus, Latvia, Lithuania, Estonia.

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