Russia's participation in European regional organizations.Opportunities for Ukraine
The article is devoted to the analysis of participation of Russian Federation in the European international organizations (OSCE, CE, CBSS, BSEC), its goals and the efficiency of use of multilateral platforms for the Russian international agenda. There is considered the level of correspondence of the goals of Russia with the basic goals of the given international organizations and influence of the military conflict between Russia and Ukraine on the policy within the organizations. There are conclusions and recommendations for the Ukrainian authorities at the end of the article.Keywords: international organizations, foreign policy of Russian Federation, OSCE, CE, CBSS, BSEC. After the Russian aggression against Ukraine Baltic regional partnership found itself in a crisis situation - multilateral format as it was not stopped, but the partnership with Russia needed revision because she EU policy toward Russia has changed. Russian aggression and the subsequent imposition of sanctions against Russia caused the cancellation (for the first 22 years of the organization) scheduled for June 2014 10th Summit of the Council of Baltic Sea States - CBSS at the level of prime ministers.  These meetings have not yet recovered. Indicative in this crisis is regional cooperation that is the State-aggressor was at least partially excluded from full size of CBSS. The level of consolidation position of other member states is relatively high, and their position is clearly reflected in two regional reports 2014 - economically and politically. The first  begins: "When the leaders of the Baltic region meet at the 16th summit of the Baltic Development Forum in Turku, regular dialogue on economic opportunities must be accompanied by a complex discussion of the political context. Russia's actions towards Ukraine and the consequences of these actions for relations between Western Europe and Russia affect the very essence of cooperation in the Baltic region. ... Responding appropriately to Russian actions against Ukraine, the region should see its economic cooperation and directions of its development." In the political report  states: "2014 can be a year of business as usual for Russia, a member of the Council of the Baltic states, annexed part of the territory of observer organizations." There's also noted that the Russian economy "pay the price" for Russian actions in Ukraine, although it suffers losses and region. Thus, the crisis of confidence associated with the Russian aggression against Ukraine, caused a halt of political dialogue in the Baltic region, the main indicator of which is the abolition of CBSS summits and ministerial meetings of the 2014 Cooperation with Russia is limited to lower regional level and regular meetings of senior officials CBSS. At the same time, the European Commission and the partners of Russia in the Baltic region show interest in a wide involvement of regional projects is also reflected in the renewed EU strategy "Northern Dimension". Traditional areas of cooperation in the nuclear sphere are CBSS, prevention of smuggling of radioactive materials and strengthening of preparedness in case of emergency cases. Another priority area of Russia in the framework of regional cooperation - the fight against organized crime: Russia in 2015-2016 years. Presidency in the relevant target group, which aims to strengthen cooperation between police and prosecutors Baltic States in the fight against illegal migration, human trafficking and drug trafficking. Today Russia has the ability to work effectively in all Baltic initiatives aimed at environmental protection, development of infrastructure capabilities and humanitarian partnership. It is likely that in terms of sanctions, the Russians will give more attention to all the existing opportunities to which they previously ignored, to a more financial assistance and compensation a partial political isolation. In the search for additional ways to obtain financial resources, Russia has turned its attention to environmental protection (that previously was not part of the priorities of regional and international cooperation) and one of the first filed Expected national defined contribution (INDC) prior to the Climate Conference in Paris . The signing of the Paris Agreement in April 2016 provides for the establishment of the 2020 market trading permits for greenhouse gas emissions worldwide. There are new financial tools and resources, access to which will bypass Russia and international sanctions. In the Baltic region, the environmental lobby has also become the subject of cooperation with Russia. Despite the fact that this area is not very defined Russia as a priority during its presidency of the CBSS in 2013, one of the Kremlin lobbyists Paavo Lipponen (Prime Minister of Finland in 1995-2003, now - independent consultant Nord array) insists on maintaining environmental partnership with Russia under the Northern dimension and openly said that the sanctions, which prevent this cooperation should be revised or even withdrawn (EBRD and EIB froze funding for new projects): "and if sanctions cannot be lifted then be developed new mechanisms for financing projects from the EU ." In this context, Russia has a powerful lever of influence sabotaging addressing the issues that are within its jurisdiction. Indicative Russian authorities ignore the problem of overflow of toxic waste to landfill "Krasny Bor" in the Leningrad region. Burial today is a threat to the Gulf, which puts its problem on the international level. Expressed his concern Estonia, Sweden, Finland and the Commission of Environment of the Baltic Sea HELCOM . A Finnish company Ekokem declared its readiness to begin work on decontamination waste landfill.  Regional cooperation in the Black Sea region, primarily because of the size of the Black Sea Economic Cooperation, includes various áktoriv and position of significantly stronger compared to other countries in the region. BSEC has 12 member countries and developed institutional structure , which has in itself the highest political level of representation - the Council of Foreign Ministers. Since BSEC was established to promote economic cooperation, the most effective was the institution of the Black Sea Trade and Development Bank, which became operational in 1997; and collective strategies to achieve specific results and goals of the BSEC is approved in 2001, "Economic Agenda for the BSEC." In opposite the tough and principled position of the Baltic region, the Black Sea states continued communication at the level of Foreign Ministers usual schedule - Ministerial Council conducted regularly throughout the 2014-2016 biennium. During the meeting, in January 2016 Ukrainian delegation demonstratively left him a sign protest against the presidency of  and for six months Ukrainian representatives did not participate in the meetings that take place in Russia , including the Parliamentary Assembly of BSEC (28 June 2016) and the Council of Foreign Ministers (1 July 2016). The most effective institution today BSEC is the Black Sea Trade and Development Bank, through which the BSEC states have access to funds for their involvement in banking, business development, implementation of infrastructure projects and more. For external partners is a handy tool BSTDB financing for major projects in the Black Sea region. In May 2016 the BSTDB and Bank of China signed a Memorandum of Understanding aimed stated promote mutual cooperation between two banks in areas of common interest, particularly in infrastructure, transport, energy and communications sectors. Thus, China is trying to build a convenient system implementation and support for their projects in the region, one of which is announced by Georgia in February 2016 the construction of a new deep-water port at Anaklia, on the West Coast of Georgia, which has become part of the Chinese New Silk Road. Another institution functioning within the BSEC is the International Centre for Black Sea Studies. The effectiveness of its activities provided by financing projects from the EU - as the current (Black Sea horizon) and completed . It should be noted that it is binding to the EU programs and EU funding makes projects within BSEC effective. In all other cases, the activities of institutions and associations BSEC generally comes down to negotiations and declarations. BSEC Member States due to significant differences in the interests of hard work out a consolidated position. The most powerful integration project in the region is the EU is likely most of the BSEC Project is implemented in the "Black Sea Synergy" - the EU strategy for the region and by EU regulations. However, given the growing interest of China to the Black Sea region and its readiness to finance projects interesting for yourself, it is expected to create additional opportunities for cooperation within the BSEC. However, all the above listed does BSEC effective regional organization, as Member States have the political will to develop regional cooperation, clearly recorded mutual obligations and responsibilities within the organization. Therefore, BSEC remains mainly a platform for dialogue. For Russia the BSEC is interesting on two levels: 1). using of the organization to attract financial resources for implementation of Russian projects; 2). attempt to legalize the Crimea Crimean through the involvement of the economic, educational, public (especially environmental) of international projects within the BSEC (which actually announced January 22, 2016 Director of Economic Cooperation Foreign Minister Yevgeny Stanislav Istanbul during the presentation of the priorities Russia's chairmanship in the BSEC) . Among the priorities of the Russian presidency can distinguish the following :- Increased use of guarantee funds to facilitate access of small and medium-sized companies to credit funds, their prospects of entering international markets;- Implementation of the Russian initiative for the development of multimodal freight and passenger ferry service in the Czech Republic;- The project Kiltsovoyi highway around the Black Sea and the development of sea routes in the Czech Republic;- Implementation project of the Electricity rings around the Black Sea;- Development of new and improvement of existing mechanisms of interaction of national services for the prevention and elimination of natural disasters and man-made disasters;- The development of cooperation in matters of food safety, attraction of investments to the development of agriculture in Russia and the BSEC;- Development of common research area through the creation of mechanisms for funding multilateral research projects; Network support cooperation research and educational institutions, especially in the framework of the Black Sea Universities (BSEC partner for sectoral dialogue); sharing research infrastructure BSEC. Russia is interested in the implementation of infrastructure and transport projects in the Black Sea region, such as the construction of a new deep-water port of Taman (with the use of concessions); construction of a bridge across the Kerch Strait; expansion capabilities Krasnodar railway junction. Russia is also interested in development of bilateral business contacts, which uses ground BSEC, primarily the Business Council. During the presidency of Russia in the activities of this body was actually a continuation of the Russian National Committee for Black Sea Economic Cooperation Organization , and the head of the Russian RNKBSEC was elected chairman of the BSEC Business Council for the period of presidency. RNKBSEC announced the following priorities for its activities: development of situational information-analytical center (preventive awareness of possible man-made crises); work on the project "Environmental monitoring of the Black Sea"; RNKBSEC interaction and representative of the Government of Stavropol Territory, Government of the Russian Federation. However, in practice the activities RNKBSEC as the BSEC Business Council in the first half of 2016 focused mainly on the organization and conduct of international trade exhibitions in Russia. Thus, the analyzed material suggests that:- through its membership in the OSCE and Council of Europe, Russia is seeking to strengthen its influence on European decisions in foreign policy and security. A handy tool for Russia in the lobby is suitable for making it to European multilateral venues. OSCE to Russia in 2013 tried to legalize their influence initiatives by signing legally binding international agreements, and after 2013 uses the bureaucracy and the OSCE principle of consensus to promote the Russian position on current events of European security. Conductors influence here is the Russians who work in structures and missions of the OSCE, and international representatives, engaged Russia.- Today 's relations Russia with the Council of Europe is in deep crisis. The Council of Europe has no instruments to influence the policy of the Russian Federation. This situation meets the Kremlin, took a wait and focused efforts on bilateral relations with European countries. But Russia is important for the preservation of formal membership in the Council of Europe, which has a meaning recognition of Europe as a partner, which is in the European space of shared values, although it requires a special approach in foreign policy.- In European international organizations, regional format (Council of the Baltic Sea and the Black Sea Economic Cooperation) are in the interests of attracting financial resources through tools organizations in lobbying their own infrastructure projects and in maintaining its own presence in the regional negotiating areas. The Council of the Baltic Sea, Russia was removed from a full format of cooperation at the highest level, and the implementation of joint projects was reviewed under sanctions imposed by the EU. This contributed to the consolidated position of the Baltic region concerning the inadmissibility of Russia's annexation of Crimea occupation of the territory of Ukraine and the continued aggressive actions in eastern Ukraine.- Russia, seeking to overcome partial obstruction of the CBSS member states and trying to use the mechanisms of obtaining funds through programs of organizations increased activity in areas which previously was not interested - environmental, humanitarian, energy and so on. To promote such cooperation, the Kremlin will use as risk factors (the problem of toxic waste landfill "Krasny Bor") and lobbying Russian interests.- In the Black Sea Economic Cooperation Russia has maintained its position as a member of the organization. However, according to the updated EU policy in the Black Sea region were suspended all international regional projects related to the Crimea. The implementation of major infrastructure projects involving Russia today also stopped. The most active of economic activity in the BSEC today is to create opportunities for bilateral contacts with representatives of Russian business potential foreign partners. However, the main goal for Russia will remain an attempt to legalize the status of Crimea Crimean through the involvement of the economic, educational, environmental, etc. of international projects within the BSEC. Given the growing interest of China to the Black Sea region should expect Russia's attempts to participate in China's economic projects in the Czech Republic for finding possibilities to circumvent economic sanctions and legalize the status of Crimea.- Russia was not interested in the either development of effective regional organizations to 2014 or now. Proof of this is the lack of effective international projects initiated by Russia in the two regional organizations - and the CBSS and BSEC. Low assessment are also projects that are implemented with the participation of Russia. However, given the EU's desire to keep "policy of attraction", we should expect further cooperation with Russia in the framework of European regional cooperation formats. At the same time, we can predict the use of the European countries stricter control over the use of project funds and the progress of the work. Activities of Ukraine in international organizations, especially the European ones, should be one of the priorities of the national Ministry of Foreign Affairs. The goal should be promoting pro-Ukrainian agenda of organizations leveling of Russian lobby and exposure of secret Russian network. The primary steps is to strengthen the staff of the Ukrainian missions and offices, filling of vacancies, simplifying procedures and shortening of the flow of information from middle and lower-level employees to senior management, including the central government bodies. Foreign Ministry of Ukraine has to prepare the ground for a possible initiation of application of the principle of "consensus minus one" in the convenience of a time when Russia, for example, refuse to continue the mandate of SMM or switch to active offensive operations. Substantial support Ukraine's position can be positive decisions of international courts on claims to Russia. Given the lack of impact of Europe on Russian policy (especially in terms of human rights), on the one hand, and the importance of the formal membership in the Council of Europe to Russia, the other - Ukraine may consider initiating exclude Russia from the organization. Politically, public recognition of the Council of Europe, Russia, as a country that is opposed to European values, has a large semantic weight - it just bring Russia out of the European value space representation of Europeans ( "friend or foe") and increase the possibility of European countries to resist Russian propaganda and misinformation. For Ukraine is important because the tools given observer status in the Council of Baltic Sea States, monitor Russia's attempts to circumvent sanctions through participation in regional projects such efforts and provide publicity, including the EU institutions. There should always attract the attention of the CBSS to misuse of funds by the Russian side and to emphasize the need for financial control and monitoring of the quality of design works. Within the framework of the BSEC main task of the opposition Ukraine 's policy is to track and prevent attempts to attract international projects Crimean legal entities, intentions of business activity in Crimea foreign partners, the implementation of any infrastructure projects related to the Crimea and Russia's attempts to get international funding to bypass sanctions through participation in international projects. Ukrainian delegation is important to include in the agenda of each meeting of senior BSEC issues Crimea condemnation of the annexation and occupation of the territory of Ukraine and to insist on the inclusion of such provisions in the final documents of meetings.
1. President of the Republic and the Cabinet Committee on Foreign and Security Policy discussed the situation in Ukraine. Government Communications Department. Press release 159/2014 [Електронний ресурс]. - Режим доступу: www.formin.fi/public/<wbr>default.aspx2. 2014 State of the Region Report. The Top of Europe - Emerging from the Crisis, Adapting to a New Normal [Електронний ресурс]. - Режим доступу: www.bdforum.org/wp-<wbr>content/uploads/2016/02/BDF_<wbr>SORR_2014_web.pdf3. Political State of the Region Report 2014. [Електронний ресурс]. - Режим доступу: www.bsr2014.eu/wp-conte<wbr>nt/uploads/BDF_PSoRR_2014_web_<wbr>03.pdf4. Oleg Gychka "Green" money: how Russia wants to circumvent sanctions. [Electronic resource]. - Access: nv.ua/ukr/opinion/<wbr>gychka/zeleni-groshi-jak-<wbr>rosija-hoche-obijti-sanktsiji-<wbr>148910.html5. Paavo Lipponen. The future of northern dimension cooperation must be secured. [Електронний ресурс]. - Режим доступу: www.northerndimension.i<wbr>nfo/component/content/article/<wbr>50-category-eng/norhern-dimens<wbr>ion/nd-institute/activities/<wbr>335-the-future-of-northern-dim<wbr>ension-cooperation-must-be-sec<wbr>ured=6. Melikyan Tatiana. Do not threaten NATO. As the presidents of Russia and Finland exchanged threats instead of compliments. [Electronic resource]. - Access mode: https://lenta.ru/articles/<wbr>2016/07/02/suomi/7. Ekokem can help Russia with the "Krasny Bor" toxic waste landfill. [Electronic resource]. - Access mode: inosmi.ru/social/<wbr>20160705/237072162.html8. The concept of foreign policy of the Russian Federation. July 15, 2008. [Electronic resource]. - Access mode: kremlin.ru/acts/news/<wbr>7859. Concept of foreign policy of the Russian Federation. Approved by the President of the Russian Federation V.V. Putin on February 12, 2013 [The electronic resource]. - Access mode:www.pircenter.org/<wbr>media/content/files/9/<wbr>13617765900.pdf10. Ukraine refused from participation in PABSEC General Assembly to be held in Russia. [Electronic resource]. - Access: www.eurointegration.<wbr>com.ua/news/2016/01/28/<wbr>7043999/11. A. Snigyr "Russia's initiative for European security." Policy Brief [electronic resource]. - Access: www.niss.gov.ua/<wbr>articles/254/12. Russia became the chairman of the BSEC. [Electronic resource]. - Access mode: sputnik-abkhazia.ru/<wbr>world/20160122/1016970539.html13. Priorities of the Russian Chairmanship. Russian Chairmanship in the BSEC. [Electronic resource]. - Access mode: bsec.mid.ru/priorities14. Renewing dialogue, rebuilding trust, restoring security. The priorities of the German OSCE Chairmanship in 2016 [Електронний ресурс]. - Режим доступу: www.osce.org/cio/<wbr>215791
The religious factor in international relations
The religious factor became the center of social and political attention in modern terms post-bipolar world. There is an influence of the religious factor in the world politics. In particular, the article discusses the likelihood and possible consequences of converting religion in significant factor in world politics and investigates the importance of the religious factor in modern global political processes.Key words: religious factor, international relations, globalization, world politics. Part II. In general religious landscape of the world in the beginning of XXI century (2011) through the prism of belonging to the main religious trends had the following characteristics: Christianity - 2.1 billion, Muslims - 1.3 billion, Hinduism - 900 million, 394 million supporters of Chinese people religions (daos), Buddhists 376 million, 228,4 million supporters of different ethnic religions, 102,4 millions - asia neoreligions, 23.3 million of Sikhs. 1,1 billion of people consider themselves as atheists. According to research of Pew Research Center (2015), Christianity is the largest religion in the world - 2.2 billion inhabitants profess Christianity, which is almost a third (31%) of all 6.9 billion people on our planet. Islam - the second highest (has 1.6 billion adherents, representing 23% of the world population). If current demographic trends continue, the total population of the world will rise to 9.3 billion in 2050 (i.e. 35% increase). During this period, Muslims projected growth of 73%, while slightly slower growing number of Christians. Thus, by 2050 Pew Research Center predicts virtually establish parity between Muslims (2.8 billion people, or 30% of the total) and Christians (2.9 billion or 31%). Buddhist population is expected to be stable enough due to low birth rates and aging population in countries such as China, Thailand and Japan. Worldwide Hindu population is projected to increase by 34% (from less than 1 billion to almost 1.4 billion - about the same with the overall population growth). Number of Jews (the least religious group) will grow by 16% (with a little less than 14 million in 2010 to 16.1 million worldwide in 2050). The number of supporters of various folk religions - including African traditional religions, Chinese folk religions, Native American religions and Australian Aboriginal religion - is projected to increase by 11% (from 405 million to nearly 450 million). If according to census surveys in 2010 there were 1.1 billion atheists, agnostics and people who do not identify themselves with any particular religion, then 2050 is expected to exceed a population of 1.2 billion. Moreover, the number people who do not belong to any religion will grow in most of Europe and North America . Today religious landscape of planet still keeps historical and geographical segmentation and some countries look like sufficiently homogeneous due to religion of citizens. Muslims, for example, are 98% of citizens in Mauretania, Maldives, Tunisia, Somalia, Morocco, Yemen, Afghanistan and other countries. Approximately such amount of Christianity in Malta, Paraguay, Guatemala, Ecuador, Salvador, Poland. Three quarters citizens in Thailand, Bhutan and Cambodia are Buddhists, in India and Nepal are Hindus. But this homogeneity is blurred because religions meet each other not only in "foreign missionary fields" as Christianity and Islam in Africa, but on their traditional areas. Mosques became usual attributes of Western European cities, nobody wonders Mormons - children of Mongolian nomads, as well as Buddhist monks of Belgium origin. Conversions to religion, which were popular in last century among Christianity and Islam, became among different traditions. For example, conversions to Nigerian religious tradition Yoruba people among black population of Brazil and Great Britain took place in the last three decades. In addition, not white Americans conversion to primitive religion. In literature, there are cases of conversion Christianity to Judaism, Buddhist to Pentecostalism. The religious map of the world became more diverse. This process is the most active in Christianity. We note that at the beginning of XІX century there were only 20 religions in USA, and at the end of XX century - more than 1500. In overall, if in 1800 there were 500 Christianity denominations in the world, during XІX century their number increased in 3,8 times, and during XX - in 9,8 times.This trend continued further: only in first 7 years XXІ century the number of Christianity denominations increased from 33 800 to 39 thousand. However, at the same time we can see the movement to unification in large religious traditions - in Buddhist, Hinduism, and especially in Islam. There are two trend, which help to understand the process in Islam in XXI century. First - the dearabisation of Islam. And if Christianity moves to the South, Islam moves to the East, outside the Arab world. In 2010, three countries with the most number of Muslim population were not Arab countries: Indonesia (205 million Muslims, 88,1 % of population), Pakistan (178 million,96,4 % of population) and Bangladesh (145 million, 90,4 %) . Only less quarter Muslims in the world are Arab. Some Muslims authors propose to refuse the definition of "Muslims world" as such that use in the West, ignore the national identity of people which were traditional Muslims and can not understand all differences between cultures of Middle East and East Asia, North Africa and Povolzzya. Others think that Islam is only the one element in history and culture of 55 nations in the world, but this element is crucial, which connect all these nations and give them a clear sense of community. Second trend is in the rapid growth of Muslims outside the traditional Muslims countries. The cause of this is the activation of migration, especially under the influence of events of the so-called Arab Spring. In USA in 2015 there were 6,5 million, in EU - above 20 million, in particular 8 million Muslims live in France, 4,3 million - in Germany. Moreover, Europeans as a rule evaluate the number of Muslims in their countries. Thus, French think about 31% of Muslims in France. The citizens of Belgium think about 29% of Muslims, and real number of them 6%. British think about 21% of Muslims, real - 5%. The same situation is in Italy (4% of Muslims against "virtual" 20%), German (6% against 19%), Sweden (5% against 17%) and Spain (2% against 16%). In the future, according to V. Yelenskyi likely to Islam simultaneously develop two contradictory processes - forming a common global above national trans territorial Muslim identity and diversity of intellectual currents with very different views on key issues of life, society and the Islamic Ummah and the whole world [3, with. 487]. Obviously, the role of religion in global policy is quite wider than apart of religious institutes in political process, escalation or settling the conflicts. Religion deals with final problems and thresholds, and it is determinate it influence on global policy. Religion gives peoples communities great symbolism, and set boundaries between them which are difficult to overcome. There are discussions in Europe about values and identities, which are form on religious ideas and feelings. For instance, the France Law № 2004-228 from 15 March 2004 about using principle of social concerning of bringing signs or clothes which shows religious affiliation in schools, colleges and lyceums According to M. Kowalski, the diversity of relationships religion and international scope could be reduced to a few main areas . First, this indirect influence on the social and moral principles ("setup"), under which, emerging foreign policy is determined by its nature, takes into account political and economic interests. Secondly, it is a direct part in the international activities of religious and secular structures (i.e. churches, clergy - on the one hand and on the other - party religious orientation and so on.). Thirdly, this manifestation by an individual, a supporter of a particular religion, which itself is directly involved in the events of the country and abroad, respond to them, forcing management to reckon with his worldview. Religious factors actively affect intergovernmental relations due to several objective circumstances. First, the phenomenon of globalization, the effects of which are: massive political and labor migration; marriage of people of different nationalities, religions and nations (now up to 10% of industrialized countries of Europe were born at their borders); Export-Import interstate disputes; becoming multinationals like. The consequence of such "comprehensive economic, political, social and cultural changes become final completion of the days of mono-ethnic, mono-ideological, mono-religious societies" [5, p. 94]. The phenomenon of active development of transnational religious networks - religious organizations that spread worldwide through the opening of their national affiliates, due to their methods of management and organization inherent economic transnational corporations. This is made possible through the process of religious globalization, which, according to scientists, is an active member of the human process of globalization. It processes occurring in the religious sphere, in parallel to globalization, and sometimes inspires them [6, p. 125-126]. In particular, thanks to the so-called the phenomenon of "glocalization" (global interaction and synthesis of ideas that spread through globalization of local ideas and cultural traditions) [6, p. 126-127], a new religious organization spread rapidly in regions / countries where they spend most active missionary work (such as Mormons or new charismatic movement in Ukraine), declare themselves as not only religious but also political institutions (impact on forming legislation on freedom of conscience, the inclusion of these issues to international agreements, the formation of financial institutions and lobbying them to their religious interests, etc.) . Another reason of quite colorful expression of the religious factor in international politics - the presence of supporters of religious orientation effective international institutional structures (most of which are streamlined and in some cases with extensive experience in foreign operations). First of all this is Catholicism, which has a single global center - the Vatican with 130 foreign missions. The Vatican has broad interstate relations, a subject of international law - concludes treaties and agreements with other states, both bilateral and multilateral. A powerful tool of influence on international relations in recent years become a party (political organization) program, which focused on religious basis (Christian Democrats, Christian Social et al.). International association of religious forces (such as the World Council of Churches, which includes more than 300 Protestant and Orthodox churches, and including ROC) also play a prominent role in the field of contemporary international politics. Increasingly gaining influence the clergy (the lowest ranks of the clergy communicate directly with parishioners, and even senior management can participate in shaping foreign policy). For example, there is the Council of Episcopal Conferences of European Episcopal Commission for the European Community and others. Note that religion transform itself by external circumstances and, at the same time, she "transforms" them affects them. Colorful marker is a religious psychology and religious consciousness of its emotional roots. It is on the verge of rational and irrational formed preconditions for the emergence or disappearance of the "enemy image" atmosphere of hostility or benevolence. So, keep in mind that the "nose" of faith has the features that are not appropriate for those who think rational and material categories. Analyzing the problem, it is also important to consider the relationship of religious and ethnic factors. Here there is an interesting feature: the greatest impact on the real life and politics are not of single national or religious factors, namely their symbiosis. The interaction and interplay of ethnic and religious factors causing increased influence on public consciousness. However, it should be emphasized the role of traditions. If the economy, politics, management system, etc tradition can evolve very quickly, in the field of consciousness (especially in remote from tangible economic relations as a religious and national consciousness) observed the strongest elements of the stability and strength of tradition. For centuries, remain the same ethnic and religious beliefs, which was valid not only change the political regime, but the social system as a whole. Near the modern forms of church's life there is revival of old liturgical forms, movements which are consider as "return to basics", mass pilgrimages, dissemination of mystical, for example, workshops and circles, became popular of miraculous icons. At the same time, we should note that these challenges are not confined to upgrade. The power of tradition turns out, of course, not only in preserving the negative habits and morals. It became clear in identity of ethnic representatives, their attitude towards their traditional religions. It is a fusion of ethnic and socio-cultural identity - the close relationship of religious and national identity [8, c. 8-9]. The only faith affects the political preference or orientation. In such cases, Western analysts use the term "syndrome fraternal peoples." The real role of each religious organization depends on a number of circumstances - stability, historical traditions, integration into social culture as a particular denomination, features interfaith relations in the country and the region, the ethnic composition of the population, specific church-hierarchical structure, the nature of interpretation of sacred texts clerics and others. So at this stage we can state the growing role of the religious factor in international relations. This is due to increasing importance of cultural factors in shaping world politics because of a certain ideological vacuum after the crisis of communism. If during the "Cold War" world was divided into ideological groups, in the post-bipolar day to solve the problem of identification occurs with regard to other important values: historical past, religion, language, membership of a particular cultural group, nation, civilization . New (or relatively new) global religious cultures appears near old but it does not change them at all. Instead of looking on the appearance of one religion in the one world, the planet became a bystander of arising religions, which show more or less intolerance to other religions. In sociology there are thoughts about religion "big revenge", about "it's returning from exile on the world stage", about it's new militant appearance due to wave of intolerance "from Algeria to Idaho", whose victims were Indira Handi, Benazir Bhutto, and even Itsxak Pabyn and even towers of world centers. Religion leave "ghetto of privatization" and globalization of religion not only abolishes demarcation lines but even consolidate it. That's why now there is a time to develop the system of international religious security in the conditions of transformation of post bipolar international relations and evolution of nowadays world order.
1. The religious map of the world: as they believe seven billion? (25 November 2011) [electronic resource]. - Access: www.religion.in.ua/<wbr>news/vazhlivo/13249-religijna-<wbr>karta-svitu-yak-viruyut-sim-<wbr>milyardiv.html2. The Future of World Religions:Population Growth Projections,2010-2050. - [Електронний ресурс]. - Режим доступу: www.pewforum.org/2015/<wbr>04/02/religious-projections-<wbr>2010-2050/3. V. Yelenskyy Great return of religion in global politics and international relations in the late XX - early XXI century / V. Yelenskyy. - Lviv: Printed Eng. Catholic Univ, 2013. - 504 p.4. Kowalski N. Religion in World Politics // Free thought. - 1992. - No. 39. - P. 54 - 61.5. Filipovich L. Legal problems of religious minorities in Ukraine // // Religious freedom: humanism and democracy of legislatures and initiatives in the sphere of freedom of conscience (the international and Ukrainian context). - K., 2000. - P. 94.6. Kuzmin N.S. Religious globalization as a philosophical problem // Religious studies. - 2009. - No. 1-2. - P. 125-126.7. Sagan A. Religion as a factor in international relations // Religion in Ukraine. - 2011 - 03 March. - [Electronic resource]. - Access: www.religion.in.ua/<wbr>main/analitica/8633-religiya-<wbr>yak-chinnik-mizhderzhavnix-<wbr>vidnosin.html8. Faith. Ethnos. Nation. Religious component of ethnic consciousness / Ed. Count: M.P. Mchedlov (the editor). - Moscow: Cultural Revolution, 2007. - 368 p.9. Boyko Z.O. The religious factor in international relations (theoretical aspects) // diplomats, socio-political magazine. - 2010 - 9 September. dipcorpus-info.at.ua/<wbr>news/2010-09-09-81
On the necessity of world view changes in higher education
The right to education is a fundamental human right, education can change lives and transform society. It is with increased requirements to the algorithms of science and education should be associated key risks and opportunities of Ukraine in the XXI century, as we are able to enter the global education market.Keywords: information, international scientific and technical cooperation, information resource, innovation, information and communication function of the state, information-communication technology. Global trends of the first period of the XXI century suggest that the formation of a new type of society, politics, economics, military affairs and, of course, science and education based on the development of information and communication technologies (ICT), the information and knowledge as a resource development. The latter can be seen as a complex combination of accumulated society - or rather, countries, meta data, are being added all the new knowledge. Today in information and communication sphere of the state we mean a set of information objects of information, information systems and websites in the information and telecommunications on the Internet, networks, information technology subjects involved in the formation and information processing and the development and use of ICT, ensuring information security software and hardware, as well as a set of laws and regulatory laws and mechanisms of regulation of the social relations. All this can still be called information resources (IR) of country, but its exact definition of normalized law, we do not have.We are of the opinion that every society gets information on his own and decides in the informatization of their specific problems with regard to the features of the historical path of the country and ideologies that prevailed in its information and communication space. However, the priority apparently have given ICT, as we see that in our time on these grounds is becoming a fundamentally new economy (knowledge-based economy), and the basis of national competitiveness is the ability to effectively use science and education accumulated fundamental knowledge - information, created based on all the new technology of high level of the real economy (high-tech). In recent decades, ICT and the actual information (knowledge) as a special form of energy of human activity demonstrated conclusively that they formed the principles of a new financial arrangement environment of modern life, acted as sources of innovative industrial, scientific, educational and management technologies have become the primary means of establishing new the quality of interpersonal relationships - communication. Information and knowledge are certainly everywhere are the foundation of communication, determining its nature and ideology is the basis of the information society. Against the background of new information processes it (communication) there is a fresh, modified and transformed, providing information interaction of one person with another in the scientific, educational, industrial, social, political and other activities. We do not notice, but using modern ICT gradually enter the era of "Ecza": computer reaches the limits of historical performance - quintillion (1018) operations per second brings us even the possibility to monitor the functioning of the human brain processes in real time. Humanity is overcome numerous physical and technological barriers, solving the problems of the modern microelectronics and integration in our lives more and more ICT (already coordinates the requirements ideology Information Society, where high-tech and educational paradigms lead to the development of the real economy and sustainable development of societies). Public education is central to this, as the information society evolves in the "knowledge society" and the ideology of the information society is transformed into the ideology of "knowledge societies", based, again, the production and consumption of knowledge to useful and intellectual activity. Global corporations (such as Google and IBM) and other research centers are entered in the competition in so-called quantum race has to create quantum computers, whose performance in millions of times higher than of conventional computers. The world is entering an era of "fourth industrial revolution" that involves mass introduction into production kibephysical systems that fundamentally change human life, the environment, labor market, technological way, the real economy, political and economic system more. Today graduates of our universities begin to serve the powerful knowledge integration processes in science, industry and business. Informatization of society and, consequently, this unprecedented leap in information and communication activities and relations shows that we need much to change the attitude and the very idea of engineering and technical work and begin to work actively in the international arena in the sector of human activity. We cooperate with various countries and international organizations, mastering technology and lifestyles of foreign countries. As a result, we must significantly increase the requirements for professional training of technical specialists high school and radically reform the higher education system. The path that we have to overcome, of course, is difficult and requires great efforts and continuous improvement of scientific and educational processes, but full integration into global, in scope, plans post-industrial building in the world is worth it. We should remember that training in local universities specialists with higher engineering and technical education, with the ability to absorb a new professional knowledge and attitudinal trends in the processes of European and world unification of mankind, for most countries are not available. Unfortunately, the leadership of Ukrainian scientific and educational environment in a timely manner "did not notice" that the advent of the computer world has changed significantly the fundamental idea of technology education, which from the 1970s began to determine the rate of development of countries and markets research for educational services launched an unprecedentedly tough fight. Controversial talks about the impact of computers and technological capabilities are built on scientific and educational services for life no end, as well as scientific and technological progress, which really starts to threaten public and personal safety. Today, for example, there is no privacy - mobile phones, personal computers and other gadgets quickly become the means of tracking the man, and modern electronic storage media arms are strong and far-sighted. They are, firstly, allow any conditions to store information about each person - what is today called "personal data" collected at each individual dossier, which provide the ability to create very precise individual psychological portraits allow covert surveillance and impact the behavior of millions of people, including the conduct of elections and referenda. Under such conditions, performance is extremely important state information and communication functions. Responding to changes in official attitudes to information, scientific, educational, information and communication activities, the quality of which we sorely falls, the state should take more responsibility the responsibility to ensure the safety of views on the constitutional freedoms of citizens, advocacy, scientific and educational policy, the safety of citizens of the state from the effects of enemy forces in its information and communication space. Information and knowledge have always been comprehensive wealth - weapons and protection societies and civilizations intangible asset of nations and states. However, only now comes to us an understanding that information and knowledge by working only with protected from desecration information in secure information and communications space, will compete in the scientific, technical, scientific and educational activities, avoiding de-industrialization, introduce their own and borrowed innovative ideas to the real economy . Today the situation is complicated by the fact that domestic science, and our legislators still have not determined until the end of the meaning of this fundamental concept in science as the foundation of civilization of society. She holds the frame of public institutions of society, its science and education in particular. It keeps in public institutions (based) stability and development of the western democracies and, through them, independent of persons leaders, the existence of the West is not one century, we all win marathon, only occasionally losing the winning pace at certain stages. These current limiting public institutions (narrow) the influence of reformers and mediators policy. Agree that no innovators in power altitudes not interfere carry out infrastructure projects in the US. In addition, the authorities of Ukraine are not yet able to strategically assess and consider national interests in development projects of the country - its informatization, science and education, participation in global scientific, educational and information infrastructure, where cross chains all modern basic industries, including computer' Books, telecommunications, special plants and household electronic means of disseminating information, creating meaning (filling content) with modern communication industry production information sense, that everything that forms the quality of the new information and communication order in the world. This process began in the West recently (Law on Telecommunications, USA, 1996; "Green Book" of convergence, which endorsed the EU, December 1997) and develops faster. We see that self-organization within the information and communication environment of various networking groups and communities within virtual communication constantly pushing to develop new rules for the use of cultural and moral norms of interaction. International codes (UN, UNESCO and others.) set targets world that increasingly informatization and humanities scholars are increasingly involved in the process of socialization, education and the formation of a new culture of communication standards in terms of operation of computerized information and communication environment, are initiated humanitarian expertise and high ethical analysis of IT technologies of the future. It seems that the power of Ukraine under the influence of the rapid growth rate of world science and technology is realized. The problem became have more levels - social, spiritual and even, it seems, our natural and economic hope for a successful installation of the new information and communication-type society, demanding that we weighted the openness of educational information and communication systems and technology . It is therefore clearly can be argued that Ukraine should go to unprecedented reforms in the field of research and education, which we talk a lot during the years of independence and power are much in debt. The main objective is to succeed for us is the need to provide economic, legal, organizational and political support to the person who develops, learns, teaches scientific and technical ideas, creating scientific, technical and commercial potential of Ukraine. Today we must urgently address many matters of procedure on the terms and election of heads of departments and university rectors, conditions and criteria for thesis defense, the exchange of scientific and technical information in the integration processes in the context of its security requirements. We finally have overcome significant flaw in our education, when the departments of national universities are one or two professors with the appropriate professional training and experience in practice. Needless professorial presentation of diplomas has become a particular concern of President of Ukraine, as well as high quality support issues moral and ethical atmosphere in the scientific and educational institutions. Breaking the circle of accumulated problems, Ukraine definitely has to go not only to modernize education as the unprecedented reforms in the scientific and educational sphere, the development of information and communication systems on which it depends to a large extent. This is what we talk a lot during the years of independence, but corruption and bureaucracy invented formal simulation processes are useful activity we gained scale real disaster and not allowing society to overcome it. The existing system of scientific and educational spheres devalues the most interesting and clever ideas creatively thinking scholars Ukraine, transforms them into something completely opposite intentions. Perhaps one should publicly recognize that this results in us is the failure of all the models of innovative development of society. The term "innovation" was the most popular, we just assessment of the state and prospects of development of society, not the basic principle of modern philosophy on building socio-political and economic projects that would determine man's place in the world, the motives and goals of its activities . We have finally overcome "the power of scientific and educational offices" in assessing actions in science and education, which lies on our lives crushing burden oppressive, creating a social atmosphere of depression. The leading countries of the world, especially the US first to feel the value of resolving such problems at national level when in the late 1950s of the last century (after the launch of the Soviet Union in 1957, the first satellite of the Earth) set out to fundamentally change the legal basis of scientific, technical and scientific educational activities, and most importantly - to the principles of scientific and technical information. US Presidents Dwight D. Eisenhower and John. F. Kennedy openly expressed his time that the Soviet Union beat the US compete for space on the school desk and enough for Americans to learn from the experience of the Soviet Union in Education - this was the impetus for their reforms. Since the area of education and science, literally, became for the United States and other leading countries of the world especially sensitive, critical element in the coordinate system of national security, especially because without professionally trained engineers can conduct analytical work with information and competitive reconnaissance plane in search and identification of global science and technology trends, no country will take the path of innovation. As the US government has since suspended its activities exclusively constantly provide adequate support to the development of scientific and educational spheres and storage processes of formation of scientific and technical knowledge. They now do not eliminate these issues to the periphery of public interest in the financing of projects. US learned quickly find means to encourage citizens to actively introduce the ideas and knowledge to the real economy. At the beginning of 1960 through the introduction of a new information policy, they caused the emergence of innovative economy, significantly changing the attitude of its population to education, scholarship, scientific and technical activities, information and knowledge as a resource in their country. In the early 1970s they began to deeply study the phenomenon of information resource today for us is extremely important to study their experience, especially regarding its impact on the development of national scientific and educational environment. Our society finally has to learn to appreciate such qualities as human capacity for learning and invention. Practicality government action have to show in the organization of an economic system that ensures the implementation of innovative features scientific and educational spheres, and legislation to help protect intellectual property and reward inventors. For this political system has finally overcome corruption, do not be afraid to look in the direction of technological innovation and promote successful social entrepreneurs and scientists lifts to higher levels of government. To overcome the many accumulated negative trends of our society, a society, in our opinion, have to, first, the legislation change attitudes towards science and education on the basis techno culture. It has already taken root in the global university practice and means belief in the natural power of science and technology as a key component in the overall dimension of human progress. You can even try to form some principles of the system of training of human resources, which are in its basis, namely competition: working staff; personnel management; reputation and initiatives; achievement; quality; consumer products; information security; forms of marketing; Financial and Resource Services. It is in this perspective, in our opinion, and we need to talk about the reform of higher education to the preparation of national engineering and technical elite, capable of innovative scientific and technical work and able to work in global markets, developing global information and communication society . Unfortunately, the update management of scientific and educational spheres is here due to old methodological foundations, technology and society reserves. Science and education often work in the coordinates long outdated system requirements "feudal" right. For example, copyright and the right professionals for personal enrichment at the expense of their knowledge "distorted" so often research or educational institutions we deal in inventions and scientific discoveries of its employees without their participation. It is believed that for the work they receive salaries, but copyright - is, above all, reputation, allowing talented people to qualify for higher salaries (higher wealth) reward academic title, the right to switch to other organizations on more favorable terms. We have not eradicated the practice submitted for publication scientific publications on the plan and free, prompting not do science, and simulate scientific work, so young people rightly believe that when not pay money and human authorship is not, then what is the point work? There is in us and is unacceptable in civilized countries the phenomenon of "didovschyna" - among our academicians and professors rather large stratum of those of his name (and often first) traditionally enters into the copyright collectives, although no longer generates new ideas. Numerous examples show that the present practice of higher education in Ukraine (in terms of independence and, at the same time, information) was irrational, and sometimes - just wrong. Even so the science continues to show significant results. Information technologies contribute to this by integrating state of the global economic, political, social and cultural space. Information and knowledge generated by our experts, their level of education have a high demand and confidently overcome geographical and time barriers at all levels of communication. Admittedly, the first major obstacle to the practice of the widest exchange of knowledge was ignorance of foreign languages by our experts. However, again thanks to the development of global services network channels of information and communication networks, improved the structure of our citizens interact with the world, language barriers gradually erased that increasingly makes us competitive in the dynamic growth of the knowledge society. Analysis of the research and publications of recent years shows that the global information society we stimulated all the processes of international cooperation, increased needs of society and its citizens in diverse information and communication services. The rate of accumulation of information resources (now largely their volumes exceeding even the rate of growth of the information needs of man) began to cause a public information glut and, consequently, the emergence of information management, enhancing the appearance of new and modification of existing threats, even at the level of National Security [ 1]. The main information threat can be accurately divided into the following classes: breach of confidential information - involves receipt of information by users or processes contrary to the rules of access; violation of the integrity of information - provides complete or partial destruction, distortion, modification, imposition of false information; violations of access to information - involves loss (partial or complete) system performance, blocking access to information; Loss of control information processing system - describes the infringement procedures for identification and authentication of users and processes, granting them powers of control over their activities, denial of receipt or forwarding. All this makes the need for informed policy action in the state to implement information and communication functions. The main issue here is certainly a problem-solving security features information and communication activities in the implementation of new ICT. In the natural process of showing problem definition freedoms and rights of person to information must always correlate two categorical concepts that reflect universal values "freedom" and "necessity", "freedom" and "responsibility." The experience in the field of information and communication activities of man, society and the state, should always be made to a reasonable value for the safety of existence. It has traditionally been present in our culture, but much has changed with the development of ICT and objective and subjective circumstances prevent us from constantly link them to coordinate the requirements of general information and communication functions of the state. All leading countries openly and pragmatically, even aggressively protect its interests in the information and communications field. Today and outside their states they consider foreign objects information and communications infrastructure, including education, as their own. Released recent evidence of leakage of information through technical means of intelligence suggest that the role of the latter is growing and remains an integral component in international relations, that is, diplomacy, business systems and governance . To counter this process, we are sorely lacking specialists for information and communication, analytical, advocacy and management work in the dominance of digital technologies. The problem is growing and can not be solved by the rhetoric of political leaders, political scientists, sociologists and other professionals Humanities. The situation makes a new and more thoroughly examine all the issues and training for information and communication activities, i.e. to create, store and effectively use information resources. Analysis of how science and type of work, there is no doubt is the most critical area for us. In the cycle of any process it most requires active mental highly professional work, so mastering the education system knowledge of technology strategic analysis of information, including the operation of automated networked information management systems and systems becomes extremely important task for national science and education. To understand the situation and accurately determine the range of problems that we now need to know and decide we are not yet able to fully. To this end, in addition to achieving the relevant scientific and technological level requires constant and frank public discussion of experts on the return to the origins of the use of humanistic management society and information and communication sphere in modern conditions. For example, we particularly thoroughly examine the growing problem of large amounts of information that is stored in electronic databases. Today the actions of the authorities of all countries at the same time there are two opposite in direction but closely interrelated processes - on the one hand, the openness States (makes it super-fast development of computer and ICT Ultralight their entry into all areas of life) on the other - increases the government's desire to secrecy, public and political control over information and communication processes. In domestic policy the trend seen in significantly expanding the powers of law enforcement and intelligence agencies in the fight against crimes in the use of ICTs in the protection of intellectual property, as well as activities related to public dissent, and in foreign policy - diplomatic activity, advancing ideas (sometimes amateur), for example the controlled management process of information exchange in global networks. For example, today, everywhere there is a need to make them more stringent, although all are aware that modern ICT regulate the actions of traditional public services almost impossible . Our country has not held a third industrial revolution, the main feature of which is widespread robotics production, but with the other we move into the digital era. Under these conditions, knowledge and ability of students of technical universities (netokrativ) to work in the global information and communication space are particularly values as they will be involved in the management of tangible and intangible resources of society. The needs of the real economy and life require drastic changes in higher education. Development vector of Information and Communication of the country is increasingly orienting us in the international scientific and technical cooperation, requiring higher school specialists from other qualities. What is the particular complexity of the situation? It's not easy to overcome difficulties - old or those occurring today, crisis, deficits and imbalances. Despite the importance of this work, in all the difficult circumstances of today is important to realize the strategic goal: to organize effective activities of scientific and educational spheres. Only this task will allow Ukraine to enter (I want to say "make a breakthrough") to the number of countries with the highest standard of living of its people.
1. Voronkova V.G. Philosophy of modern society: theoretical and methodological context: [The book] / V.G. Voronkova. - Zaporozhye: RIO DIG, 2012. - 262 p.2. Dzoban O., Sosnin O. Information Security: a new dimension of threats associated with the intensification of international activities in the field of information and communication / O. Sosnin // Bulletin of Lviv University. A series of "International Relations". - 2015. Issue 37 Part 3 - C 35-43.3. Sosnin O.V., Voronkova V.G., Azhazha M.A. Philosophy humanistic management (socio-political, socio-economic, socio-anthropological measurements): Textbook / O. Sosnin, V. Voronkova, M. Azhazha. - Zaporozhye: Wild field, 2016. - 356 p.4. Maksymenyuk M., Nikitenko V. Information and communication society as a kind of complex social systems and interaction / Maksymenyuk M., Nikitenko V. // Humanitarian Bulletin Zaporozhye State Engineering Academy [Coll. Science. pr.] - Zaporozhye: Izd DIG, 2016 - Issue number 66. - P. 266-278.5. Sosnin O.V. Threats and challenges in the implementation of public information and communication science and educational systems and technology / O.V. Sosnin // Humanitarian Bulletin Zaporozhye State Engineering Academy [Coll. Science. pr.] - Zaporozhye: Izd DIG, 2016 - Issue number 67. - S.49-58.
Word about Eugene Chykalenko
The article is devoted to Eugene Chykalenko. Tracing the journey of life of an outstanding personality, we discover а new horizons for inspiration, research and knowledges. Today, Ukraine needs understanding of what happened and what is happening, Ukraine needs to give a proper assessment of everything that happened. Ukraine needs to understand where we are and what we do; to know where we are and who we are. The author hopes that exploring ideas of Eugene Chykalenko will help us find ourselves.Keywords: Eugene Harlampiyovych Chykalenko, personality, the Soviet cliches "nationalist", outstanding, famous son and great patriot of Ukraine and Ukrainian people. On the famous Ukrainian says a lot. What forced the author's to turn to this figure? Maybe a chance meeting at a conference invitation to the opening of an exhibition dedicated Eugene Chykalenko and subconscious desire to find lost family ties. Fluctuations - to go or not to go - just being dropped when it became clear that the grandson of Eugene Chykalenko would visit this event. December 21, 2016 was opened the exhibition "Eugene Chykalenko. Family and community ties." It was dedicated to the 155th anniversary of this extraordinary figure, a prominent Ukrainian public figure, benefactor, a talented journalist (I'd add - a prominent politician, a successful business executive, expert, agronomist, etc.). The exhibition contains unique documents from private archives grandson E. Chykalenko and stock the museum's collection, personal belongings Eugene Chykalenko and his family - wife Maria and children Anna, Victoria, Leo, Peter and John Chykalenko and documents and materials that cover public, publishing, journalistic and patronage activities. Among the exhibits - historical edition of the dedicatory signed by prominent national figures: Sergei Yefremov, Mychaylo Kotsiubynskyi, Mykola Lysenko, brothers Tobilevyches, Eugene Chykalenko. Eugene Chykalenko was born on December 21, 1861 in the village Pereshory in Kherson in the family of a wealthy landowner. There he spent his childhood among ordinary Ukrainian peasants in the atmosphere of Ukrainian folk traditions. He studied at Elisavetgrad (now Kropivnitskiy) in real school for the first time in his life faced with humiliation and insults, as possessed in Russian, but Ukrainian, which it considered "peasant". In college, he met with Mr. Tobilevych (later a famous actor P. Saksahanskoho) and became interested in Ukrainian theater Kropivnitsky. Tried in 1881 to enter the University of Kiev in natural faculty, but at the time when real schools students in the best universities of the country did not take. In Kiev Eugene acquainted with the history professor Vladimir Antonovich (in Kiev and now lives his granddaughter), composer Mykola Lysenko, a student, and later rector of Kharkov University D. Bahalii and others. Together with them in the "vocabulary Commission" how to write "Ukrainian Language Dictionary" edited by Boris Grinchenko. In 1883 he was enrolled as a volunteer natural faculty of Kharkov University, where students keen on the ideas of Drahomanov "Community". For it was under police surveillance. In April 1885 he was arrested and expelled from the university. Sentenced to five years of being under police surveillance without accommodation in Kharkov, Kiev, Moscow and St. Petersburg. The place of exile were five people Pereshory. Almost ten years in Pereshorah, where he studied agriculture. In his estate is introducing the most modern agriculture, uses machine provides breeding cattle. According to his grandson, E.Chykalenko especially loved horses - he grew a hundred heads of liquid gray rock. Having gained some experience of management, Chykalenko had idea to popularize the idea of agronomic knowledge among peasants, began to teach them management system Tripoli, publish pamphlets on agriculture, to promote the latest achievements in this field. He has arrived to Odessa with his family. It is engaged in publishing and in particular the collection of own resources issue "300 Best Ukrainian songs" that were collected in his youth. In 1897, in Odessa, he published his first book "Conversation on Agriculture. Black couples, plodozminy and sown grass" which was a huge success with the peasantry. Total for the period from 1897 to 1918 were published six books: "Cattle, horses, cattle, pigs, sheep", "Conversation," "Cultivated grasses, corn and weeds," "Grapes", "Garden", "Lad in the field." When in 1895 his eight-year daughter Eugenia dead, Chykalenko decided all the funds that were expected to be her dowry to pay for public purposes and such way to honor her memory. First, he contributed in the magazine "Kievan antiquity" one thousand rubles a prize for the best written popular history of Ukraine. Additionally, took over the payment of royalties in the same journal, thus supporting the well-known historian and writer B. Grinchenko, D. Yavornytsky, M. Kotsyubinsky and others. He Establishes Foundation for Ukrainian writers names D. Mordovtsya. In Pereshorah he founded the library to farmers for which bought many books. A lot of money he spend on Ukrainian business: together with O. Konysky and O. Yefremov creates a common Ukrainian organization that was to unite all the disparate Ukrainian community. Later on this organization, there were several political parties, including the Association of Ukrainian progressives (TUP). In autumn 1900 Chykalenko moved to Kyiv, where Ukrainian intelligentsia were united. Later on he recalled: "At that time, it took a lot of courage and faith in the revival of Ukrainian hopes to the people, the former public service, burdened with family, belong to the Community unlawful" for which the threatened settlements in Siberia. E. Chykalenko counted a lot of money on the functioning of the Scientific Society named Taras Shevchenko in Lviv. In 1904, funded summer courses for Galician university students. In the years 1902-1904, when Hrushevsky called by the public to raise funds for the construction of the Academic house in Lviv, E. Chykalenko gave 25 thousand rubles, especially for rooms for students from Dnieper Ukraine. December 7, 1930 in memory of the great Ukrainian grateful students solemnly in the presence of Metropolitan Andrey Sheptytsky, found on the wall of the house Academic memorial plaque with the inscription: "In memory of the great eternal citizen Eugene Chykalenko, founder of the House. - Ukrainian students. 07.HII.1930." Now in this room located hostel students of the Academy of Printing (st. Kovel, 21). Unfortunately, the plaque is not preserved. In 1903 he moved to Kyiv. Looking for the author to write the "History of Ukrainian people." He found such author - Olexandra Efimenko. In Kiev Eugene actively involved in public life. Later, reflecting on this period of his life, he wrote that "... had nothing against the revolutionary socialist parties, if only they were in Ukrainian national basis ... that now Ukrainian youth is not so denationalized as still as the best, energetic young people ran away in our Russian revolutionary party, but will work on Ukrainian soil and we do not perish." His sympathy underpinned financially. For example, in 1903, transferred to the Revolutionary Ukrainian Party (RUP) thousand rubles, which is produced weekly "farmer". In letters to friends he said that circulation of newspapers depends on the harvest in his fields. In its place in Kononivtsi, Cherkasy, stopped for a break Kotsyubinsky, Skoropadskyi, Lysenko, Yefryemov and many other prominent personalities of Ukrainian revival. According to the memoirs, the excellent feature of E. Chykalenko was the ability to reconcile the irreconcilable parties to find compromises between warring people, politicians and parties. In 1905, during the Russian Revolution he organized a national daily newspaper initially called "Public opinion", and later - "Council". According Chykalenko, this newspaper was "the only magazine in Ukraine daily, which wakes the national consciousness and death, would be the publication of the second Berestechko for us." For the financial support of the newspaper had to sell some land in Pereshorah and raised 10 thousand rubles to use newspaper. The magazine came before the First World War. The newspaper worth 20 thousand rubles a year, and it was quite a large sum at the time. He took care of Ivan Franko, collecting funds for him and giving his own. In a letter to Ivan Franko February 20, 1909 he wrote: "You will not believe me when I tell you that from the new year I live in debt ... All stocks that the "Council" had swallowed, and I have loaned until the next harvest as for my friends, almost all of them do not have any money, and who has in fact not pluck nor for what purpose". In the fall of 1914, fearing possible arrest, Chykalenko went to Petrograd, and then - to Finland, which long treated. Ukrainian national movement brightened considerably after the February 1917 revolution. The fall of the tsarist regime made it possible to activate the Ukrainian organizations. For March 4, 1917 on the initiative of the Society of Ukrainian progressives - D. Doroshenko, Yefremov, Chykalenko and others - was created by Ukrainian Central Rada. Chykalenko had to elect the Central Council, but he declined in favor Hrushevsky. From March to October 1917 he lived in Pereshorah, which is engaged in agriculture. There he produced the second edition of the book "Talking about language," which proves the need for the introduction of the mother tongue in education, media, science, government and other institutions. On this occasion wrote: "Re-read the past life of all people, you will see that only education in their native language awakens people from everlasting sleep, deliver it from darkness and poverty in bright light for a better life." Sick Chykalenko moved to Galicia, in 1920 - o Austria, and in 1925 moved to Czechoslovakia, where he worked as chairman of Terminology Commission at the Ukrainian economic academy in the city Podebrady (modern Czech Republic and Moravia earth - L.C.). Deep setbacks suffered by Ukrainian revolution caused by the invasion of the Russian Bolsheviks. June 20, 1929 Chykalenko, grief-stricken at the news of the death in the Bolshevik transit prison of his son Peter - UPR diplomat in Turkey, died in hospital a Czech university. Buried in Podebrady. In his works - "Memories" (in two volumes) and "Diary" written in exile - Chykalenko writes the history of the Ukrainian movement XIX - early XX century. According to historians, linguists and journalists, the best Ukrainian history of the events of that era is not. He deeply believed that Ukraine will be free, "Although Ukrainian people many lost what lost its ancient name and many of his talented sons enriched the treasury neighbors, but still approached the time when the Ukrainian people still occupy an equal position alongside other cultural nations of the world are under its new name "Ukrainian". Eugene Chykalenko never betrayed his credo: love Ukraine "not only to the core, but also to the depth of your pocket," as he wrote in a letter to Hrushevsky. All those who had the good fortune to communicate with E. Chykalenko, think of sincerity, sacrifice, generosity, broad knowledge, kindness and commitment to the Ukrainian cause of our talented countryman. The fate of his son Peter Chekalenko said in a letter sent to the author of this article on the museum named after Andrei Sakharov, in Russia. Attention is drawn to the fact that the name is written after "e". Peter Evgenievich was a diplomat and worked at the Embassy of the Ukrainian National Republic in Turkey. Manual Soviet Ukraine has encouraged all staff of diplomatic missions returning from foreign countries to the then home. Peter returned. He was arrested and destroyed as many other prominent contemporaries. We have some information about the widow Ksenia Chycalenko due to employee named after Andrei Sakharov Museum Galina Atamashkinoyi got from Maya Ulyanovska, whose mother was imprisoned in the same camp as the widow. That piece of mail from the museum with memories recorded Maya Ulyanovska words of his mother (served in original): "One of my friends, Ksenia Borisovna, was also not released. She was the daughter of the tsar's general, the chief of the South-Western Railway. Her father left with the whites. A seventeen-year-old girl, she remained for the head of the family. In the 1920s she married a famous Ukrainian nationalist Chekalenko, lived with him for a short time, he was arrested and shot. You can imagine what her life was like. No wonder she left with the Germans. She translated documents in Germany in some institution. There she was taken. Kapitsa, a cousin of Ksenia Borisovna, helped the surviving son of Ksenia Borisovna. Son was 15 years old when ours took Berlin. He became a great patriot, like many white men, joined in some part.Strongly suffered because of her arrest, wrote to her very rarely. Chekalenko Pyotr Evgenievich (1892-1928), the husband of K.B. - politician, diplomat, repressed, died in the Kursk transit prison. Chekalenko (born Stelletskaya) Ksenia Borisovna (18th leaf 1904-1975)". This ends the letter from Sakharov Museum. Further exploration add new information. While reports of partial discovered Chykalenko grandson Alexander Petrovich, born in 1926, who seems to live in Kazakhstan.  Ksenia's father - Boris Stelletskyy (of Brest-Litovsk), general, historian, chief of staff Hetman Skoropadsky. In Kiev served as a senior aide headquarters of the Kiev military district. District headquarters was located at the time at st. Bankova, 11 (now - building Administration / Presidential Secretariat Ukraine). Boris Stelletskyy 27 June 1918 was appointed head of the headquarters and Own Staff Hetman Skoropadsky. October 24, 1918 the general was dismissed. However, the hetman himself sent "retired" army UNR Directorate headed by Petliura. Over the years Boris Stelletskyy was editor of the magazine "Military History Journal", published by the Kyiv department of the Russian Military Historical Society, wrote the article. After the defeat of Hetman Pavlo Skoropadsky he had secretly go to Berlin, and B. Stelletskomu lucky escape to Yugoslavia, where he lived until 1939. He could take their children: daughters Tatyana and Kseniya and son Fedir. He left memoirs (already in Prague). After the Second World War, the establishment of the socialist camp, deepening conflict Yugoslav general manager Broz Tito with Stalin and the Soviet leadership at the end of 194 -1956 in Yugoslavia unfolded persecution of refugees from Russia. Perhaps this is what prompted Ksenia return home of father. She lived in Brest, Shyroka Street. She was arrested in 1948 under "treason." Survived. Released from the camp in 1956. Lived in Kiev. In 1975 buried in the cemetery Berkovetsky .
1. Eugene Chykalenko is a famous activist, publisher, writer, philanthropist Ukrainian culture. №12 (202) December 2011. Bogdan Dobriansky. - Access: sde.org.ua/zmi/zvoda/<wbr>item/1975-jevgen-chykalenko.<wbr>html2. Now Saharovskyy center. By 2012 - the Museum and Public Center named after A. D.Saharova city. Moscow.3. Ulanovskaya Nadezhda and Ulanovskaya Maya: The history of one family. 3rd ed. S.-Petersburg: Inapress, 2003. - Access mode: www.jewniverse.ru/<wbr>biher/Ulanovskaya/4. Boris Stelletskyy of Brest-Litovsk. General, a historian, chief of staff of Hetman Skoropadsky. - Access: www.bk-brest.by/2014/<wbr>03/7971/5. Chekalenko-Ksenia B. Stelletska. Born in 1904, p. Bulohovo Oster district, Chernihiv region .; Ukrainian; Education primary / secondary; typist. Then - in the original language: work in the Office of the architectural architecture and obl.proekt.kontory. Lived: Brest region, Brest district, Brest, st. Wide 27, ap. 5.Arrested on November 18, 1948.Sentenced: the judicial authority on January 19, 1949, the district: 63-1 of the Criminal Code of the BSSR - treason.Verdict: 25 years ITL, 5 years p / n, confiscation of property, departing: Dubravlag.Released: 05/25/1956.Rehabilitated on March 1, 1995. The Presidium of Brest. Regional court. - Div: Belarusian Memorial. - Lists of victims - Memorial. - Access mode: lists.memo.ru/d36/f29.<wbr>htm
Giovanni Boccaccio (1313-1375):Florentine diplomat, politician and writer(By the institutional origins of European humanist traditions)
The basic directions of political, diplomatic and literary working of the famous contemporary of the Renaissance - Giovanni Boccaccio, because his practical experience and literary and poetic heritage had not lost their relevance to this day, and his name and work closely to bind Italy and Ukraine through the centuries and millennia of European history is analized at the article.Keywords: diplomacy, history of diplomacy, institutionalization, the Renaissance, Giovanni Boccacciо, Italy, Ukraine. Among foreign-policy tenets of the Middle Ages and early modern times has become a tradition to consider Italy with her favorite city-states of implementation and promotion of political and diplomatic ideas and traditions of European diplomatic practice. In fact, Italy is the ancestral home of modern diplomacy, particularly its European institutional model. In Italy, there was the residence of the Pope - the center of Catholicism, with countless international communications and relations, and in that time formed the first European system of international relations, and leading by áktors were France, Italy and Spain. At this time in Europe the first Pan raging war with the umbrella name - Italian war (1494-1559). The Italian city-states of Venice, Genoa, Pisa, Florence and Milan ensure the protection of the interests of its citizens abroad through the organization of consular services. Venice, Florence and Genoa were medieval states of European importance. Genoa and Florence were consular communes and Venice ruled elected doge for life, which limited the power of the Great Council of representatives of noble families. In the hands of Italian consuls focused civil and trade jurisdiction in matters of their compatriots. Florence supplied (delegated), even for diplomats of foreign countries. When Pope Boniface VIII made in 1300, the first year of jubilee, among many ambassadors who have come to Rome from various nations, was 12 Florentines. They were not only his hometown but also France, England, Czech Republic. Because of this versatility, Florentines Pope jokingly called them "the fifth element". The long list of outstanding and brilliant Florentines diplomats are such world-famous names like Dante Alighieri, Francesco Petrarch, Giovanni Boccaccio in the XIV century, Niccolo Machiavelli and Francesco Guicciardini early XVI century. Among the diplomats of other Italian states are also many well-known figures. Thus, in Milan in the middle of the XV century at the head of the diplomatic service was Francesco Sforza - coach Louis XI secret diplomatic Italian art. Brilliant diplomats were among Popes Gregory VII and Innocent III . Venetian Doge Enrico Dandolo, energetic 90-year old, managed to turn the fourth crusade brilliant transaction. However, the Republic of St. Mark characteristic not individual diplomats, no matter how talented they are, and the whole system, the whole diplomatic affairs organization, created from Venice, as they said, "school of diplomacy to the world." Florentine diplomatic school competed with it at the time. Florence and Venice diplomacy has been characterized as the spirit of secrecy and distrust, and professionalism, skill, finesse, consistency and commitment, which has been characterized over governance of city-states. Byzantium adopting methods and techniques of diplomacy, Venice and Florence raised them to the level of art. All the ways of seduction, bribery, hypocrisy, betrayal, treachery, espionage diplomatic office in Venice and Florence were brought to virtuosity. Florentines and Venetians distinguished special skills to use in their diplomatic purposes merchants. Often Florentine and Venetian embassy received information from visitors and foreign merchants and even international students. One of the first famous humanists and representative cohort of prominent diplomats Florentine Renaissance was Giovanni Boccaccio (1313-1375. Italian. - Giovanni Boccaccio), friend of Francesco Petrarch. In the biography of Giovanni Boccaccio are gaps that they could not fill the long-vigilant research of historians and philologists. Is there information on which among scientists still no unanimous opinion. Only some can be set to give some events of his life [2; 6]. About his childhood almost nothing is unknown. It is unlikely that it was happy - the nature of his father was difficult. At the time of his son's birth Bokkachino worked at the Florentine banking house of Bardi. In 1316 or later recalled his employers from Paris to Florence. He took with him his son, and the early years of the future writer spent in charitable atmosphere of the city, where the time flourishing commerce, diplomacy and art. Under the guidance of Giovanni da Strada, the father of the poet Dzanobi, he studied the "grammar" (Latin). Later my father decided to acquaint him with the "arithmetic" - art wage bills. He took Giovanni in Naples and gave training to the great merchant. Merchant of Giovanni obviously did not work. Then he was ordered to go to university and study canon law. However, revenue for the legal profession young Boccaccio felt no inclination. In 1327 the house Bardi sent Bokkachino to Naples managing local bank. Living in Naples has developed extremely Giovanni Boccaccio. The son of an influential banker who repeatedly borrowed money to King Robert of Anjou (1309-1343), had adequate access to the court of an enlightened monarch, which met diplomats, soldiers, sailors, wealthy merchants and philosophers. Then Giovanni Boccaccio experienced several amorous conquest, until March 30, 1336 in the little church of San Lorenzo never met the woman, Mary d'Akvino from which the history of literature under the name Fyammetta (from Italian. - "Light" or "Ohnynka"). For her or her written almost all the early books J. Boccaccio. Originally developed novel in the tradition of courtly love, but soon became the mistress of Giovanni Maria. It has long maintained his loyalty. Shaken by the betrayal of Boccaccio wrote a sonnet - one of the most evil exposures in Italian literature. The first (Neapolitan) the period of the works of Boccaccio almost entirely poetic, which dominates the medieval tradition. During this period he created a lyrical sonnets novel "Filokolo" ("Filokolo", 1336-1341), A poem in octaves "Philostratus" ("Filostrato", 1338), then "Tezeyidu" ("Teseida"). Money and position of his father discovered him access to the grand society, and opened the doors of literary and scientific circle humanistic orientation that was going to the court of King Robert of Anjou. In the years to reach Naples became poetry of Petrarch and rumors about his unusual learning. Reading sonnets of Petrarch, Giovanni Boccaccio burned all his youthful poetic experiences. By opening humanistic world and person J. Boccaccio came his way - not as a result of new reading classics, as influenced by the perception of the reality of Anjou of Naples. This Naples helped Giovanni Boccaccio in a new thinking on the role played in the life of the human mind, generosity, courage, fate, chance, and instilled in him the son prudent Florentine merchant, the love to romance, which is one of the most attractive features of his best works. Full disclosure aesthetic ideals of humanist received Boccaccio's "Decameron" (1351). This book is the first major victory of Renaissance realism, but humanists recognized "Decameron" is not right. More than a hundred years before the ideas, language and style of the work were ideas, language and style of the new Italian prose. The "Decameron" by Boccaccio century surpassed even himself. Fate graciously determined so that Giovanni Boccaccio settled at the court of King Robert of Naples, which greatly expanded its range of political and diplomatic dating at the time. In addition, since the 1341 Florence became his main home. The young poet returned to Florence, was a respected diplomat Florentine commune. Boccaccio served it not out of fear but out of conscience. Giovanni Boccaccio Florence appointed its treasurer, commissioned to buy in Naples city Prato and at least seven times sent him with important diplomatic missions, including three times - in different Medieval institutions. For duty service, he traveled the whole of Italy, visited Avignon and probably in Tyrol. Florentine people helped Giovanni Boccaccio come to Renaissance humanism that pervades almost all the works created him for Florence "Amet or Comedy of Florentine nymphs" ("Commedia delle ninfe fiorentine"), "Ljubovnoe vision" ("Amorosa visione"), "Elegy Madonna Fyametty" ("L'Elegia di madonna Fiammetta"), "Fezolinski nymph" ("Ninfale fiesolano"). Florence is the largest medieval political and diplomatic, cultural, commercial, financial and economic center in Europe. Florence emerged as the ancient settlement of veterans of Rome in 59 BC, and was named "Blooming." Florence melodious dialect became the basis of the Italian language. Here at different times were born, lived and created their masterpieces by such famous personalities as Dante Alighieri, Giovanni Boccaccio, Donatello, Michelangelo Buonarroti, Leonardo da Vinci, Giotto, Niccolo Machiavelli, Galileo and others. Linking their fate to Florence, Giovanni Boccaccio completely immersed in diplomatic activities and develops diplomatic virtuosity Florentine school. He successfully connected diplomacy of literary works, and perhaps this is the diplomatic and literary symbiosis allowed him to leave a fame worldwide. The second period (Florence) and blossoming writer came in 40-50 years the XIV century. In 1340, Giovanni Boccaccio returned to Florence, he entered one of the shops of commune, taking an active part in its political life. In 1349, after the death of his father, he was appointed ambassador of Florence in Romagna, but he soon came back and performed diplomatic missions, continuing to do what literary activities. The main work of Boccaccio - "Decameron" ("Decameron"), conceived in 1348 and established in 1351-1353 [3; 8]. Book Title - Greek origin, translated - "desyatydennyk" that is "a collection of short stories from the frame." The composition has become a tradition in medieval literature, just to mention eastern "A thousand and one night" Italian collection "Novelino" on the brink XIII and XIV centuries. Boccaccio at the same time and became a pioneer of this form because it subordinated the law "vertical Gothic" (low - to high) appropriately placing stories. And the notion of low and high-author of "Decameron" interpreted with humanistic position, so that the stories themselves, and how these songs have become humanistic tendencies [4, p. 3-26]. Immediately after the plague, he finished the "Decameron" (in 1351), and his fame as a diplomat and writer, his status in the European world to bring him various signs of respect from the Commune of Florence. Already in 1350, he was sent to Ravenna to give daughter Dante nun Beatrice, money awards to the ten golden florins as a sign of belated recognition Florentine achievements of the great poet, who died in exile [5, p. 30-31]. Thus, in the same 1350 he was invited Petrarch as professor in Florence. This meeting was decisive for J. Boccaccio. Meeting with Petrarch initiated their long-term friendship and common humanistic studies. Gradually Boccaccio immersed in the life of his native city - Florence and his interest became a prominent political and diplomatic figure in Florence. It was recorded in one of the city's shops, repeatedly ran errands (mainly diplomatic) of the Government of the Republic. It is appropriate to briefly resting on the political and diplomatic-political views of the writer to the extent that they are reflected in his works. Of course, we must bear in mind that he was neither a politician nor a political thinker with clearly formed, slim institutionalized system of beliefs. His remarks sometimes not without contradictions. Sometimes it can be seen some changes in the way of solving a particular problem - for example, in relation to Boccaccio monarchical power and government Republican. Here is what he wrote in "Amet" about his Republican city "Florence powerful than ever. Its boundaries ran away. Conquering national law capricious pride Grande and nearby towns, it is a glory, ready for further expansion, if passionate jealousy, lust for profits and unbridled pride, which it dominated, will not it is in the way - and this can be feared" [ 6; p. 196-199]. It is interesting to compare this apology of Florence (apology, not without, as we see, a lot of reservations) with one concession after written "F'yammetty" where the heroine tells her lover that's going left Naples to return to Florence, "Because you say yourself, that your town is full of envious, greedy, vain people there innumerable worries - it's not you to the heart. Yet you want to leave Naples, funny, gentle, gorgeous, full of prosperity city, which also is still ruled by a king. I know that you like it" [7, pp. 88-93]. But over time republican sentiment deepened Boccaccio, in these statements, such as the public passage of Latin treatise "On the unfortunate fate of famous people": "Why should I call the tyrant king or prince and maintain confidence in him, as its owner? No, because he is an enemy of society. Against him I have the right to fight weapon, conspiracy, spy, ambushes and cunning. This case is holy and necessary. No sacrifice dearer to God than the blood of tyrants." Added to this is also "antityrant" meditation in some stories "Decameron" - at least the end of seven stories tenth day or words of Nathan the third stories of the day: "Famous kings and great kings caused their kingdom his and his glory nothing like those that killed (and not one as you like, and the multitude of many things), let the fires objectives edges and plundered the city" . It is interesting to compare this "antityrant" focus Boccaccio some of his personal traits: the citizen, which is a decree of 1289 was eliminated the dependence of farmers, he observed a heightened sense of personal dignity and desire for independence. Quite normal for that time the situation of the poor, deprived of livelihood writer - stay at the court of a ruler: it though and put it in a dependent position and are often forced to endure humiliation, but gave some leisure and opportunity exist. In his youth partially faced with this life and Boccaccio. We cannot assure that later he avoided this temptation: a few such attempts, and he did. Were ready to concede, he did not go to any concessions, barely seemed to him that it is treated without due respect as soon he noticed the slightest hint of humiliation as soon indignantly left the house where he was invited. He wanted to live in misery (which he, however, was too exaggerated in his letters) than losing independence. Upon learning that his friend Petrarch accepted the Milanese tyrant Visconti and lived at his court, modest Boccaccio, who watched Petrarch upwards, honoring him as their teacher and seeing it as an unattainable model for themselves respectfully, but with great perseverance and inexorably questioned him about the reasons for such action. However, "municipal interest" Boccaccio had its limits. He stood aside from the intense social struggle that was fought in Florence, because here in 1343 and 1345 took place earlier than elsewhere in Italy, speeches laborers. To the urban poor movement Boccaccio ambivalent attitude. In Florentine period he performs numerous diplomatic missions countrymen: it is a messenger Astarro di polenta, then sent in December 1351 - January 1352 in Tyrol to Ludwig of Brandenburg (Bavaria) as the applicant benefits and agreements against Milan Visconti, with the same mission against Visconti Boccaccio visiting Forlì and Ravenna, and in 1354 he participated in the organization of diplomatic visits between Innocent VI and Charles IV and so on. But no successful diplomacy or good poetry or literary work studio gave him enough money to exist, forcing him to settle at the end of life in a small estate in Certaldo and live on meager savings and undermining. There he wrote a new Latin works (among which "Genealogia deorum gentilium" - Genealogy pagan gods) and volhari (traditional Italian) ("Corbaccio"). But occasionally he still returned to Florence, also made the trip to Ravenna (winter 1361-1362), Naples (winter 1362-1363) And Petrarch in Venice (spring 1363).  Although Boccaccio valued the Latin and had it well, but he used it as a literary work is much less than his other contemporaries, including Petrarch. In addition to scientific papers, he wrote another 16 Latin eclogue (in 1348-1363), Only interested in biographical terms. In general, Latin works by Giovanni Boccaccio are far less important than the addition of Latin Petrarch. Latin Tsytseronova Giovanni Boccaccio was transformed into a weapon of diplomacy. The organization of embassy services Florentine diplomacy has created its own diplomatic school. It can be considered only rival Venetian Diplomatic School. Other Italian state only followed suit. Preserved sources that give evidence of the fact that since the XIII century, began publishing a series of resolutions in which every detail governed the behavior and activities of foreign representatives of the Republic. The ambassadors were to return after transfer to the state they have received gifts. They were forbidden to seek foreign courts under any titles or titles. Ambassadors can not be administered in those states where they had their own possession. They were forbidden to talk to foreigners about the public affairs of the republic. Ambassadors are not allowed to bring their wives, so they do not publish state secrets. However, ambassadors were allowed to take their own cook to avoid being poisoned. When established permanent diplomatic missions, the ambassador could not leave his post until the arrival of a successor. On the day of his return to Venice or Florence ambassador had come to public office and entered in a special register, which was in charge of the Grand Chancellor, notification of their arrival. After returning ambassador was obliged to submit a report on the costs made. Reward ambassadors were fairly modest and not meet the costs they had to bear the post. In his dispatches envoys complained bitterly of this fact. As noted in the report of one of them is not surprising that many citizens prefer to stay in Venice or Florence, and individuals living there and not go ambassadors to foreign parts [5, p. 26-31; 9]. With the strengthening of diplomatic ties stay in the country ambassadors gradually extended. In the XV century the Court held that time spent ambassador abroad should not exceed two years. In the next century the term was extended to three years. Ambassadors were required to inform the Government of the Republic on the status of the state of their stay. To this end, they regularly once a week at first, but with improved means of communication much more often sent home dispatches. These reports, which came from the ambassadors of all states, like giving a snapshot of political and diplomatic situation in Europe and in the world. The part of embassy texts were encrypted. Diplomatic ciphers have always been the subject of increased attention Florentine and Venetian rulers who were too jealous to the mysteries of its own diplomatic correspondence. Already in the early days of Florentine and Venetian Governments have special coders, and further special state institutions were mandated to monitor government cipher and take care of the new invention. Art encryption were then still in its infancy. Once the wrong hands, codes relatively easy. Code usually consisted in replacing the letters of the alphabet or other letters or Arabic numerals, dash, dot, arbitrary figures. One letter often answered two or three characters. There were also signs that had no value - in order to confuse and complicate its code interpretation to outsiders. Other states of Italy also began to apply the code in their diplomatic messages. In the office of the Pope codes used in the first half of the XIV century and originally was to replace some other words - conditional. So, instead of "Guelph" written "children of Israel" instead of "hybelliny" - "Egyptians" instead of "Rome" - "Jerusalem". Well-made systems of ciphers used in the XV century in Milan. Encrypted diplomatic correspondence caused dissatisfaction and sometimes protests and repression by the concerned courts. Thus, Sultan Bayezid II, knowing that the Venetian bayyulo Gerolamo Marcello government sends its encrypted emails ordered him three days to leave the country. Sultan said he did not intend to tolerate an under these conditions bayyulo Venetian. Meanwhile, the political and diplomatic situation in Europe has changed dramatically: in 1365 Florence entered a new period of international political and diplomatic relations, and Giovanni Boccaccio received a new post, he was asked to oversee the hired troops. Very important was his diplomatic trip to Avignon in August and November 1365, during which he offered to Pope Urban V support Florence for the transfer of the papacy to Rome, and later, in November 1367, Boccaccio was in Rome on diplomatic missions, to greet the pontiff on successful completion of the exercise. Giovanni Boccaccio last appeared in public in 1373, when he was asked to read Florence lectures on Dante. However, his strength left, so of course he read conceived only a small part. At the end of the life of the author of "Decameron" has changed repeatedly wanted to renounce his masterpiece, and would destroy it if it were possible. Increasingly, it is submerged in thoughts of death and fear of otherworldly torments, made friends with many churchmen and repent in the former faults. Unlike the great Florentines Dante and Petrarch, Boccaccio spent his last years in Florence. Already seriously ill Giovanni Boccaccio came to die in Certaldo, a small town near Florence, where they came from his father's ancestors - probably just farmers.  Biographers say about another episode that played a significant role in the "conversion" Boccaccio. In 1361 it appeared with some of the teachings monk Gioacchino vat. He persuaded Boccaccio, his poetry - the great sin before God. Those doubts and hesitation that they experienced Boccaccio, even intensified after the sermon. In a state of extreme confusion, Boccaccio decides not only to refuse poetic work, and even sell his library.Not to recall another episode - the story of Nikolai Gogol, who experienced something similar, with the same tragic consequences for their activities.An interesting work of mood old Boccaccio - Letter to Mainarda Cavalcanti (1374), in which he rejects the "Decameron" as immoral work. The last years of his life Boccaccio devoted exclusively to scientific work, written in Latin. The largest of these works, the result of more than two decades of work - "Genealogy of the Gods": a huge treatise on ancient mythology. Simultaneously Boccaccio has worked on several smaller treatises: a collection of biographies "about the unfortunate fate of famous people", "the famous women" "On the names of mountains, lakes, rivers, swamps and seas" - a sort of geographical dictionary. At the time, these treatises were quite well known, appreciated them, and now they are only interested researchers era, historians and literary scholars who study Boccaccio, is the indisputable evidence of his hard work and knowledge, reflects his inclinations scholar-collector, cataloguer events and facts. Giovanni Boccaccio died December 21, 1375. According to the will he was buried in Certaldo near Florence in the church of St. James. The last period of the life and work of Boccaccio was marked by friendship with Francesco Petrarch. He wrote works in Latin Petrarch and with laying the foundations of humanistic "sciences of humanity" at the end of the XV - beginning of XVI century will be an important ideological precondition for the flowering of Renaissance literature in the national language, not only in Florence but throughout Italy. Effect of Giovanni Boccaccio on literature of the Renaissance was significant, he became a teacher for almost all writers of Italy, his students saw themselves Sakketti F., P. Bracciolini, M. Huardati A. Firenzuola, M. Bandello, J. Chintio in England, his successor John was. Chaucer, who originality potraktuvav stories "Decameron" in his "Canterbury tales"; in France it was admirer of Marguerite de Navarre, who wrote "Heptaméron"; Spain - Lope de Vega and Miguel de Cervantes. "Decameron" had a significant impact on the German anti-clerical story of the Reformation. Boccaccio had a great influence on the further development of realism in literature of the Renaissance and later - in the XVII and XVIII centuries. . In Ukraine late XVII - early XVIII century was the first Ukrainian-ninth verse retelling stories fourth day of poetic Polish-made version. Boccaccio among Italian Renaissance poet recalls the hero of the story Shevchenko "convict." In 1879 in Lviv newspaper "Pravda" published a translation of a fragment of the work. Fully "Decameron" was published in 1928 in the translation of L. Paharevsky and P. Mayorsky, and in 1964 - the unrivaled translation of Mykola Lukash. Thus, we can say that Giovanni Boccaccio (1313-1375 years.) Was one of the first cohort of humanists and one of the most educated people in Italy. Giovanni Boccaccio is one of the first prominent representatives of humanity not only in Italian, but also in European literature. Belonging to Boccaccio the humanist movement determined not only features his work, not only the nature of its political, diplomatic and literary work, but some facts and features of its political life. In his diplomatic work embodied the then best practice and diplomatic tools diplomats Florentine school, which is personified by Giovanni Boccaccio. In the period of his diplomatic activity - day Middle - European models formed the basis of national diplomatic services of the region. Diplomatic instruments and techniques Italian - especially Venetian and Florentine - diplomacy made a significant impact on diplomacy model of diplomacy, foreign relations bodies that were formed at that time in Europe, diplomacy states - Spain, England, France, Sweden and Austria. Complete this scientific exploration we would like of the appropriate wise words of Giovanni Boccaccio, very relevant for today's politicians and diplomats: "The threats is the weapon of those who had threatened ..."
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