Досягнуті успіхи Європейського Союзу підтверджують життєдайність ідеї європейської інтеграції, доводять високий рівень утвореної інтеграційної системи впорядкування. Інтеграція по-європейськи дійсно є вінцем попереднього політичного, економічного та соціального розвитку Західної Європи.

№11 / 2016
27.03.2017, 22:40

International environmental law as a regulator of relations in the field of environment

Oksana Gyrych

Summary

The research paper includes international environmental laws overview, taking into account as the basis for the environmental protection relations establishment. The essential features of the phenomenon, the current challenges are being investigated. The author suggests the recommendations for the Ukrainian national environmental protection legislation advancement through the the international ecological rights standards implementation and their further harmonization.Keywords: Ukraine, international environmental law, environmental policy, environmental management, environment Compliance with environmental law is a requirement for harmonious existence in the modern world. Environmental issues are not limited to the scope of individual countries or regions - they become global in nature, as environmental law is closely linked with international as well - with environmental policy, because the problem of environmental safety of regional and national transformed the global. The need to address it on a planetary scale requires joint efforts of the international community, to deepen international cooperation to protect the environment. This process is extremely important for Ukraine, the legal framework which environmental protection is still in its formative stages. Although Ukraine is currently in the economic and political instability, and environmental security fades into the background, the moment can be used to study international standards for the implementation of environmental legislation in the near future. Signing of Ukraine in the 2014 Association Agreement with the EU Ukraine confirms the desire to follow European trends and intends to introduce European standards in their own legislation. Accordingly, in these conditions, environmental and legal aspects of this area instead of merit, study and improvement, including in terms of political science. International environmental law is a set of principles and norms of international law governing the relationships of its subjects in the field of environmental protection and rational use of its resources. Under environmental law is often understood as a set of principles and rules governing the activities of States to prevent and eliminate damage to different types and from different sources, applied national systems of environment of individual countries and systems environment, which are outside national jurisdiction [1, with. 5]. The scientific literature is more widespread name of "international environmental law", while the term "environmental law" is more common only because of its international use [2, p. 160]. In the general sense of environmental law is a system of legal norms that regulate specific environmental public relations in the process of interaction between society and nature in two areas - the right to a clean environment and natural resources. The first environmental documents put in order the use of cross-border natural objects. Thus, in 1909 the agreement between Canada and the United States on border water bodies, which assumed the obligation not to pollute the water these objects. Currently, there are about 500 international agreements on various aspects of environmental protection. The major sources of international environmental law is the Convention on the Prohibition of Military or Other Hostile impact on the environment in 1977, and the Convention on the Protection of the Ozone Layer in 1985, the Convention on the Conservation of Migratory Species of Wild Animals in 1979, the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and flora that are endangered in 1973, the Convention on the protection of the World cultural and natural heritage in 1972. Subjects of international agreements in the field of environmental relations are the states, but significant role belongs to international organizations. The most successful example of the implementation of the international standard of environmental law is the European Union agreed policy of the Member States, which reflected typically in the declarations, and recommendations that are binding on member states. Mechanisms for protecting environmental rights and international legal responsibility for violation of environmental legislation aimed at preventing environmental violations - through penalty for a legal act that infringes on established environmental legal causes harm or creates a real danger of the infliction. For environmental violations officials and citizens shall bear disciplinary, administrative, criminal, civil and material responsibility, enterprises, institutions, organizations - administrative and civil liability. Also, in accordance with international law and judicial practice, there are cases in which State responsibility was recognized for the actions of individuals [3, p. 338]. In international law, creating legal, social, economic, environmental guarantees of the rights laid primarily at the state and international legal mechanisms designed only to promote the human rights or monitor their implementation. At present environmental policy implemented in many respects quite effectively, but the situation of environmental rights still needs legal development. International environmental law and order as a legal phenomenon formed on the basis of international legal instruments that guide the state and other subjects of international law to ensure a healthy environment and environmental management for the benefit of present and future generations [4, p. 279]. The current international law proclaimed the right to a healthy environment, access to environmental information, public participation in decision-making concerning the environment, etc., but environmental rights, as a separate legal category is not defined [5, p. 177]. Despite these contradictions, is notable progress in recognizing the relationship of human rights to the environment and the recognition of environmental rights as human rights. This contributes to the development of international environmental law, which only began to emerge in the declaration of fundamental rights, but at the beginning of XXI the situation has changed because in many international legal agreements established or referred to environmental law. In the European system, there is a clear link between the human right to privacy, the right not to be subject to contamination, the right to know about the negative impact on the environment. According to experts, the Ukrainian legislation in the field of environmental protection today is quite substantial. However, active development of regulations in this area started recently. A significant impetus to that caused worsening environmental condition, explosion at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant, the deterioration of the quality of life and, consequently, increased incidence among the population of Ukraine. Our country is a party to over 20 international conventions and bilateral agreements related to the protection of the environment. Important is the adaptation of Ukraine to the European Union. M. Mamedova said that in Ukraine implementation of international standards to ensure procedural environmental rights (right of access to environmental information, participation in decision-making and access to justice in environmental matters) enshrined in the Convention 1998 on access to information, public participation in decision-making and access to justice in environmental matters (hereinafter - the Aarhus Convention), is extremely poor, the process of harmonization of national regulations with the provisions of the international treaty deliberately delayed and hindered [6, p. 49]. According to N. Shparyk, it is important to achieve compliance with the legal system of Ukraine System acquis communautaire on the criteria put forward by the European Union (EU) states that intend to join it [7, p. 126]. Ecological Acquis is much smaller in volume than all the environmental legislation of the EU and contains about 145 legislative instruments (directives, regulations and decisions), of which slightly more than half set requirements for environmental quality products, its marking, labeling, etc., that is, affecting the functioning of the common market. In the context of the adoption of the Seventh medium-term program of EU action in the field of ecology, which includes the requirement to adapt environmental legislation of European countries that are not EU members, this aspect seems essential in view of the path chosen by the Ukrainian government to achieve full membership in the European community. Conclusions. In modern conditions of social development among the priorities of national interests of Ukraine highlights the environmentally and technologically safe living conditions of citizens and society, preserve and restore the environment. Most important regulator of global environmental problems is the system of international environmental law. The human right to a clean environment in the constitutions of modern states is considered legal ground legal confirmation of ecological functions of the state. The interest Ukraine as a state most affected by the Chernobyl nuclear power plant and having on its territory a large number of potentially dangerous man-made objects in the formulation, development and implementation of international environmental law in recent years has increased significantly. Ukraine, taking part in various international environmental projects, is making significant efforts to form a global concept of environmental security. However, despite this, we can conclude a lack of effectiveness of environmental policies to ensure environmental rights in Ukraine, and to increase attention to environmental issues in general. In order to correct the negative situation of the environmental rights of Ukraine as a subject of international relations, can and should be more involved in the development and adoption of international sources of environmental law, which play an important role in global environmental protection, defending with full national interests. Protection and restoration of the environment, as a general support system man turns to the task of primary importance in terms of preserving the gene pool of the people of Ukraine and the prospects for economic and social development. At this stage of the complex political and economic transformation of international practice approaches can be a reference for our country in the field of mineral resources for the implementation of effective protection of environmental rights.

References

1. V. Korneev European legal mechanism regulating the environmental problems of transport / V. Korneev, R.V. Yatsyshyn // Legal. Visn. Air. and co. right. - 2010. - № 4. - P. 18-222. Usmanov E.M. Role of international environmental law in the regulation of international environmental policy // Age of globalization.- 2010.- № 2.- pp 160-1623. Seibert Fort A. The international legal responsibility of States for the acts of individuals: the need for a reorientation? [Electron resource]. - Access mode: dpp.mpil.de/02_2013/02_<wbr>2013_333_364.pdf4. Pyts V. International environmental legal / V.M. Pyts // Scientific notes Lviv University of Business and Law. - 2013 - Vol. 10. - P. 278-2805. Truba V.I. On the international legal aspects of ecological understanding of human rights / V.I. Truba // Scientists note Taurian National University them. V.I. Vernadsky: Series "Legal science". -2010.- Volume 23 (62) .- № 2. - P. 177-1846. Medvedeva M.O. The implementation of international standards to ensure environmental procedural rights in Ukraine // Scientific Proceedings of the National University of Kyiv-Mohyla Academy / National University of Kyiv-Mohyla Academy. - Kyiv, 2014. - T. 155: Jurisprudence. - P. 49-517. Shparyk N.Ya. Problems of implementation of international legal acts in the environmental legislation of Ukraine / N.Ya. Shparyk // Law and Society. - 2014. - № 4. - P. 124-130

 

 

Singapore in ASEAN(Historical-political essay)

Sergiy Shergin, Denys Kobzev

Summary

The article reviews the main issues of relations between Singapore and ASEAN in the historical and political context starting from its entry into the Association of South East Asia Nations. The evolution of relationship between Singapore and the key member-states of ASEAN is considered. The main attention is given to the specific features of relations between Singapore, Malaysia and Indonesia.Keywords: ASEAN, Singapore, Malaysia, Indonesia, regional integration. ASEAN was the first successful regional organization that was formed in South East Asia. In 1961, the Association of Southeast Asia (ASA) was founded Malaysia, the Philippines and Thailand - collapsed through the territorial conflict between Malaysia and the Philippines. Another group - MAFILINDO (MAPHILINDO) (Confederation Malaysia, the Philippines and Indonesia, proposed in 1963) - was divided at the planning stage through the confrontational policies of President Sukarno of Indonesia on Malaysia. Indonesia was the most interested in the development of regional cooperation at the time of formation of the ASEAN. In numerous speeches and articles of the former Foreign Minister of Indonesia Adam Malik emphasized the importance of regional cooperation in the economic sphere. Then part of Indonesia in ASEAN have for the Association of vital importance. Indonesian population in 1966 numbered more than 100 million (Singapore had in 1966 only 2.3 million), with significant human resources and strategic location, and its claim to regional leadership resulted in the leading role of Jakarta in the early stages of ASEAN. In organizational terms, the Member States of ASEAN sought voluntarily decide to what extent and in which areas to implement regional cooperation. "Declaration of ASEAN", after a long debate, was signed in Bangkok August 8, 1967 The Declaration was not clearly defined intentions for regional cooperation on political and military issues. However, at the request of Indonesia, the fifth and sixth paragraphs of the preamble of the Declaration included the following: "determination to ensure the security of external interference ... all foreign military bases are temporary and will not be used to undermine the national independence of countries in the region." The general concept of regional cooperation to counter the communist threat was also excluded from the Declaration. Member States agreed to discuss political issues outside the formal framework of the Association. During the formation of the ASEAN raised two main issues: first, the mechanism for resolving disputes; secondly, the role of the Central Secretariat - whether it be a catalyst of integration processes, or perform only administrative tasks? Both issues were recognized as being in the future can lead to significant problems and political disagreements. ASEAN member countries have agreed that the emphasis within the formal structure will be made on economic, cultural and social development as well as promoting trade and establishing joint ventures. In 60-70 last century the attitude of "five" member countries to ASEAN have been very different - from maximum to facilitate the development of the Association (Indonesia and Thailand) reluctance to join (Philippines). In turn, the official Singapore believed that no harm from participating in ASEAN will not, and then the property can get. As for Malaysia, it has taken a neutral position on the Association. Administrative enthusiasm and high priority given by ASEAN Foreign Minister Alexander Malik of Indonesia and President Suharto of Indonesia, far supported the organization in its early years. A. Malik acted as chief mediator to resolve the territorial conflict between Malaysia and the Philippines, which threatened the collapse of ASEAN in the first year of its existence. So, without much support from Indonesia to ASEAN in the most difficult years, she would have no chance of political existence. The participation of Malaysia in ASEAN marked by considerably less enthusiastic that of the Indonesia and Thailand. Malaysia was economically more developed (ranked second in terms of GDP per capita in ASEAN) and not expect significant economic benefits from cooperation within ASEAN in the future. Philippine claims to Sabah, the activities of rebel movements on the border with Thailand, Singapore branch of Malaysia aggressive policy of former president Sukarno of Indonesia on Malaysia caused quite cool relations Kuala Lumpur with its partners in ASEAN. For these and other reasons, Malaysia performed relatively limited role in the early years of ASEAN.The participation of the Philippines in ASEAN in the early years of the Association marked by very weak activity. This is primarily because by 1970 Philippines foreign policy was closely associated with the anti-communist stance of the United States to guarantee security of the Philippines. This situation changed in 1971 after a trip of US President R. Nixon to Beijing. Since 1971 Manila has diversified its foreign policy and began to show more active interest in the development of regional cooperation within ASEAN. Considerable enthusiasm of Thailand to ASEAN in its early years was caused by policy Tanat Homan (Thanat Khoman), then Minister of Foreign Affairs of Thailand. T. Homan had a strong and professional team, and most committee meetings, conferences and ministerial meetings was held in Bangkok. The Minister also made significant personal effort to resolve the territorial conflict between Malaysia and the Philippines around the State of Sabah. During the formation of the ASEAN Thailand had one of the strongest anti-communist governments in Southeast Asia and has provided significant support both administrative and financial establishment of the ASEAN, thus giving a good example to other countries of the Association. At the time of the founding of ASEAN Thailand with Indonesia were the main founders of the Association. Analysis of the first years of the ASEAN proves that almost nothing important on the path of political and economic development was implemented. However, in 1970 the situation changed for the ASEAN - Singapore and the Philippines are starting to show much more interest in its development. In addition, Malaysia, seeking to strengthen its position in the region, was paying more attention to regional cooperation within ASEAN. The decision to participate in the Singapore ASEAN was due to political necessity - comes from Malaysia. By the time Singapore had to prove their ability to be independent. People's Party of Action - Singapore's ruling political force - led an active foreign policy even at a time when Singapore was part of Malaysia. The actual founder of Singapore - Prime Minister Lee Kuan Yew - effectively used his personal relationships with the leaders of ASEAN member countries to improve relations with Indonesia and Malaysia. Political mechanisms of ASEAN also seen as a way to improve trade ties. However, it is worth noting that in the first 5-6 years of the Singapore Association of the position it was "wait and see". In the 1967-69 the position of Foreign Minister S. Rajaratnam of Singapore on ASEAN was convinced that the Association has significant benefits in helping to solve economic and social problems of the region. At the same time, he said that ASEAN will have major problems when it begins to worry about issues of politics and security. [1] In 1970 the leadership of Singapore, it became clear that a number of serious problems may delay progress in economic cooperation between ASEAN countries. Finance Minister of Singapore Goh Keng Svi and S. Radzharatnam made speeches, which highlighted the fact that the level of economic development, ASEAN is very different, and four ASEAN countries, moreover, depend on exports of commodity products and natural resources. For these reasons, much of the economic and social projects in ASEAN were not successful. Specifically S. Radzharatnam noted "ASEAN has a lot to do on the way to establish clear regional interests." He also said: "... the only thing that unites the ASEAN countries - is the fear of communism. However, fear the expansion of communism in the region is not sufficient, and no states in ASEAN priorities for developing regional economic ties caused the lack of tangible progress in the Association" [2]. In early '70 Singapore began to express concern about the significant difference in economic development between Singapore and its partners in ASEAN. ASEAN researchers are unanimous that the fall of South Vietnam and Hanoi quick military victory in 1975 has made ASEAN a much more dynamic organization. Communist Vietnam was considered a real threat to the continental member countries of ASEAN. Although Indonesia and the Philippines were not so vulnerable, this event greatly stimulated their diplomatic activity in the region. ASEAN countries recognize that South Vietnam, Laos and Cambodia fell under the blows of communism in part because of the weakness of its internal political, social and economic systems. Most ASEAN countries have begun to make significant efforts to bring order within their own countries, particularly in the socio-economic field. Indonesia urged other ASEAN countries to implement its program of national unity, which establishes equal economic opportunities and political equality of all races and nationalities as key elements of political stability. Singapore has always been very consistent in its support of the US and other Western powers in his opposition to communism. After the victory of communist Vietnam, Singapore ranked the most anti-communist position in ASEAN on security issues in the region. In the 1975-80 Singapore has taken on the role of press secretary ASEAN, calling a spade a spade in the dialogue with partners, even if it was unpleasant to other members of the Association. In the political context, Lee Kuan Yew took an active part in solving immediate "Cambodian problem." Most of the anticommunist Singapore's position on security issues, in particular on the role of the Soviet Union in Asia, Cambodia and the Socialist Republic of Vietnam, expressed strong very clearly. Singapore was not the only ASEAN country with a competent leader. Meanwhile, Singapore was the only country in ASEAN, which had the same guidance in 1959, did not share borders with Vietnam and had internal discussions about the content of their foreign policy statements. Singapore's Economic Development markedly different from the other member countries of ASEAN. Unlike other countries in the region, whose economy was based on labor-intensive industry, Singapore early 1970s move to high-tech, capital-intensive enterprises and the development of financial services. Throughout the history of Singapore ASEAN policy was aimed at reducing competition from countries of the Association and to promote other ASEAN countries. Singapore for a long time expressed disappointment at the low level of economic cooperation in ASEAN. The country needed access to regional markets and reduction of tariff barriers among ASEAN countries. Since the founding of the Association of Singapore actively supported the FTA ASEAN, which would significantly liberalize regional trade. However, countries such as Malaysia and Indonesia to defend their labor-intensive industries, opposed this idea selective trade liberalization - reduction of tariff barriers only for individual products. In 1976 at a meeting of heads of governments of the ASEAN members were asked to approve the scheme of regional industrial cooperation. Singapore was not too interested in the development of regional industrial development under the auspices of the government. Republic has always advocated the active participation of the private sector in the regional ASEAN projects and the reduction of state for the implementation of such projects. Singapore, however, agreed to take part in industrial cooperation scheme and in exchange, received a regional project to build a diesel plant. But Indonesia has blocked the draft ASEAN manufacturing diesel engines that can compete with engines that already were manufactured Indonesia. Disagreements on this issue and other issues led to the decision to change the status of Singapore diesel plant project in ASEAN national project that would realize the diesel fuel in foreign markets. Further negotiations "in the spirit of ASEAN unity" and in the hope of saving "consensus" led to the fact that the republic still agreed to maintain the status of the plant project as ASEAN [3]. This case illustrated the basic incompatibility of the Singaporean model of free economic competition and ASEAN policy that sought to provide regional manufacturers exclusive marketing rights in Southeast Asia. This and other cases have led to the nomination of Singapore's initiative to review the principle of "consensus of ASEAN" in the economic sphere, in particular at the meeting of Ministers of Economy of ASEAN in April 1980 Lee Kuan Yew suggested that: "One of the basic principles of ASEAN is the principle of decision by consensus . Consensus ensures that the national interests of any member will not be rejected. I believe that it is time for a broader interpretation of the definition of "consensus" in order to expand areas of cooperation. When four agree, and one is denying it still can be considered a consensus - and four can begin to implement a new regional cooperation schemes. ASEAN Scheme "five minus one" can benefit the four parties without violating the interests of one who abstained. Thus one who abstained, could later join such regional cooperation schemes. The success of the European Monetary System (European Monetary System) has demonstrated the value of this approach. Till this time national interests of ASEAN members not yet ready to participate in certain regional cooperation schemes are not violated - the right of veto should not be used" [4]. Singapore economic contribution to the development of the region is undeniable, with the early stages of ASEAN, he did not give the country significant economic benefits. Highly developed and economically and technically Singapore greatly helped transform the economies of other countries associations [5]. The role of Singapore in ASEAN countries was transformed from a competitor in the country that provides financial, educational, and logistical expertise to other members. In the context of security is worth noting that Singapore has always taken a radical anti-communist stance. One of the main reasons for the establishment of ASEAN was opposition to the spread of communism in Southeast Asia. During his appearances Singapore Foreign Minister S. Radzharatnam repeatedly warned of the intentions of the Socialist Republic of Vietnam and the Soviet Union in the region. The Foreign Minister of Singapore pointed out that the war unleashed Vietnam and the Soviet Union in South East Asia, could lead to decades of instability and crisis in the ASEAN region. Singapore has always been an active advocate of strict compliance with international law, including the sovereignty and territorial integrity. Thus, in a speech in Singapore Foreign Minister K. Shanmuham in the country's parliament March 5, 2014 emphasized that "Singapore opposes the annexation of Crimea by Russia and calls on all parties to respect international law ... Singapore opposes the annexation of any country or territory, as it is contrary to international law. We also object to any invasion of a sovereign country under any pretext" [6]. During the last summit of member countries of ASEAN in Malaysia (Kuala Lumpur, 2015) and Laos (Vientiane, 2016) the management of Singapore confirmed its position to strengthen the fight against international terrorism and called ASEAN "ten" to make the necessary efforts to prevent international conflicts to preserve the territorial integrity and sovereignty of states. [7] Singapore had initially extremely important for the development, operation, political and economic survival ASEAN and always successfully used his position in the organization, which gave him an opportunity to strengthen and mobilize world public opinion on international issues in their favor. Constructive and clear political stance Singapore on many international issues tends to gain exposure to other member countries of the Association who often hesitant to express their positions on topical international political issues. In particular, can give an example as to position Singapore Soviet occupation of Afghanistan (1979-1988), as well as the annexation of Crimea by the Russian Federation in 2014. Information: The diplomatic relations between Ukraine and Singapore was established 31/03/1992. The highest volume of bilateral trade recorded in 2008 - 532 billion dollars. In 2014 the figure was 168 billion dollars. In December 2014 a working visit of the President of Ukraine P. Poroshenko to Singapore, and in May 2015 Singapore Foreign Minister K. Shanmuham official visit to our country and met with the President and Prime Minister of Ukraine. There were also discussions between C. Shanmuhamom and Minister of Foreign Affairs of Ukraine Pavlo Klimkin. Singapore side reiterated its position condemning Russian aggression against Ukraine. During the visit, the sides exchanged views on regional issues outlined promising areas of cooperation

References

1."StraitsTimes".- 1969. - December 19, - P. 1.2.See the same. - С 1.3. Susumu Awanohara. -"Keeping the Team Together'' // "Far Eastern Economic Review". - May 2. - 1980.- P. 153.4. Opening speech of the Prime Minister of Singapore Lee Kuan Yew, at the opening of the 9th meeting of Ministers of ASEAN economies, April 21, 1980, Singapore.5.RajaratnamS. "Defend Our System While We Can" // "Mirror". - 1980. - April 15. - P. 1.6."Straits Times". - 2014. - March 5. - P. 1.7. ASEAN Summit take place in Malaysia, the parties signed the agreement. - [Electronic resource]. - Access: www.5.ua/svit/u-<wbr>malaizii-vidbuvaietsia-samit-<wbr>asean-storony

 

Brexitization of European UnionEvgen

Ryabinin

Summary

The article is devoted to the urgent problem of the modern times that European Union faces today, that is the possible exit of Great Britain from the EU. The author analyzes the main reasons which formed the basis of a positive decision on the "Brexit". Among the main he emphasizes the dissatisfaction of the population that EU is governed by Brussels, the immigration crisis and internal migration processes, namely from Central and Eastern Europe to Western Europe. The author analyzes the European elections in 2014 and elections to national parliaments, which indicate a shift of political preferences of the population of Europe in the direction of right-wing radicalism.Key words: European Union, immigrants, Brexit, brexitization. In the UK, the EU is not very popular both the representatives of the working class and the businessman of the City. Some unhappy that Brussels is trying to impose its rules. A main cause for indignation middle class - the influx of migrants. More than 3 million EU citizens live and work in Britain, taking in the indigenous population of jobs and claiming social benefits - financial assistance, housing, free medicine. While this idea is not just the British. A large European family becomes less friendly. According to the Pew Research Center proportion of those who believe that European integration is beneficial to the national economy in France over the past two years has fallen from 36% to 22%, and in Italy and Greece, this figure completely fell to a record low of 11% - from 22% and 18% respectively. Even in Germany, the inhabitants of which most are sympathetic to the EU, similar to the figure fell by 5% to 54% [1, p. 40]. Among the main causes of frustration, experts unanimously called the economic challenges facing the EU in recent years. Many political forces, this situation was a wonderful opportunity to bring down the political capital: in Europe the number and weight of parties that openly called for a break with the EU, or at least to limit the powers of Brussels. Thus, the UK Independence Party increasing its ranking Kingdom demanding his time a referendum on withdrawal from the EU and increased immigration. As elsewhere in Europe, British hostility to the EU is related to the inability of authorities to cope with unemployment and other economic problems. Before the crisis, Greece was one of the most pro-European countries. However, in 2011-2012. External debt increased from 126% to 156%, and the unemployment rate in early 2013 was a record 26.8%. Communists and ultra "Golden Dawn" is an outspoken opponent of the EU. A coalition of the radical left (SYRIZA) showed a phenomenal rise in the parliamentary elections in 2012, winning second place and increasing the number of its members from 13 to 71. A large protest potential is in Germany, and the popularity of "Alternative for Germany" is growing. For the Italian protest "movement of five stars" the first national elections were a triumph. Taking advantage of the growing wave of lack of confidence to EU, the party won 25.6% of the vote, becoming the third most popular political party [1, p. 41]. There is not the best situation in Eastern European countries. Support economic integration with the EU in Poland fell by 7% in 2012, down to 41%. Every fifth Pole thinks that the country loses only alliance with Brussels. In Bulgaria, ultra party "Attack", which opposes NATO membership and EU also enjoys a growing dissatisfaction with the European Union. In elections in 2013 it won 7.3% of popular support, taking 23 seats in the National Assembly of Bulgaria [1, p. 42]. Five years ago, the first candidate to withdraw from the euro zone and perhaps the EU was Greece. In 2011, the national debt of Greece reached 160% of GDP (340 billion euros), thereby provoked a new round of Europe-wide crisis and the EU closer is supplied to decay. Nicolas Sarkozy, in his time said that Greece joined the eurozone was flawed. Greek Prime Minister George Papandreou made a statement that his country could finally abandon European assistance, the final decision on this will be taken on an urgent referendum, and the popular "no" would mean a de facto state out of the eurozone. However, he was persuaded not to hold a referendum. Howard Archer, economist at leading international research firm HIS Global Insight, said that the debt crisis threatened the very existence of the eurozone in its current form [2, p. 48]. Sarkozy also stressed that "the euro is our heritage, it is a guarantee of peace on the European continent, and should be protected. We are in no case can not prevent the collapse of the euro, which would mean the explosion of Europe." If the national debt was 160% of Greek GDP, Italy also came close to this milestone - 120% of GDP [2, p. 50]. With the approaching elections to the European Parliament's 2014 popular anti-European parties significantly increased. Irritation of EU bureaucrats were so great that in some countries, voters were willing to vote for Eurosceptics in the face of the European Union, and therefore in surveys related to euro elections ratings of these parties is higher than in surveys related to internal race. For example, the UK Independence Party (United Kingdom Independence Party, or UKIP) in popularity in most polls ranked third after Labour's traditional and conservative, solidly surpassing last. But, for example, a survey conducted by ComRes, found that the elections to the European Parliament UKIP came in first place [3, p.A3]. It is hard to imagine how serious tectonic shift occurred in the electoral preferences traditionally conservative British society when the party that received only three years ago, 3% of the vote so quickly climbed to the top of the ratings, surpassing two political mastodons! However, UKIP largely made it through the rejection in recent years of radical anti-immigrant slogans and delimitation of far-right organizations like the British National Front. That is why the leader of "independent" Party Nigel Farage tried to speak cautiously about the prospects of the block Le Pen or Wilders, who constantly build their campaign on anti-immigrant sentiments. There is no doubt about solidarity deputies from UKIP with the French and Dutch skeptics in matters of EU disintegration. Le Pen - history old, laid back her father, who was released in 2002 for the second round of presidential elections. Daughter largely moved away from the more extremist slogans father suddenly backed feminists held a solid ideological reconstruction of the party that got her inheritance, and largely thanks to withdraw it from the marginal condition. For the first time in the history of FN came in first place in the rankings related to future euro elections, ahead of the UMP of former President Nicolas Sarkozy (Union pour un mouvement populaire, or UMP) and catastrophically losing popularity Socialists. The Dutch anti-immigrant, anti-European Party for Freedom demonstrates more striking growth over recent years. In October 2006 the rating of the party, which was in the shadow of political forces killed in 2002 Pima Fortayna, was only 3.33%. In October 2013. PVV sure took first place with 33.6% in the ratings (and not only in elections to the European Parliament). Rise in popularity anti Europe movement has been accompanied by a catastrophic collapse of yesterday's rankings opinion leaders - Christian Democratic Alliance (CDA) and Labour Party (PvDA). Before establishing his party Geert Wilders pushed the murder of Dutch filmmaker and renowned journalist Theo van Gogh committed by Moroccan Islamists in the fashionable district of Amsterdam, November 4th, 2004 hours early years of the party have been associated with unrestrained criticism of Islam (especially "political Islam") and Muslim immigrants. Now the Netherlands are faced with another problem - the influx of Poles, Lithuanians, Estonians, Romanians and others. Because of significant growth in the ratings PVV is associated primarily with the noise that rose in 2013, when the party launched a website called "Notify about immigrants from Central and Eastern Europe." The Dutch called openly inform the police of violation of law by the Poles, Bulgarians, Romanians. During the first two days of the site received 32 thousand of snitching! European officials, embassy of Poland, left the Netherlands demanded the closure of discrimination, they think of the site. However, the Government of the Netherlands, which largely depends on the support of powerful faction in parliament PVV, refused this, and the popularity of Wilders - a fighter against the eastern Europeans - has increased dramatically. When in January 2014 ended the period set by the EU so-called transition period for Romania and Bulgaria, which preceded their accession to the Schengen area, the most scared in the UK. From the first days of 2013 filled the country's press publications estimate how many migrant workers from Romania and Bulgaria have come and what the consequences. Under assumptions London non-governmental organizations (NGOs) Migration Watch, during the 2014-2019 biennium. Arriving into the country each year about 50 thousand. "Unreliable" Europeans. This, according to experts, NGOs will have a huge impact on the national labor markets and real estate. According to official data, in 2001 the territory of Great Britain lived up to 8 thousand Romanians. In 2009, it was nearly 60 thousand, in 2014 - 80 thousand. In early 2011, with the number of applications for employment, 90 thousand. Romanians wish to move to Albion. According to police, over the past five years 28 thousand Romanians were arrested on charges of serious crimes [4 s.A3]. Against this background, in 2014 elections to the European Parliament, the results were predictable and shocking at the same time. The most notable result of the elections to the European Parliament of the 8th convocation has been a reduction in its representation of the three main coalitions, which can be attributed to the political center, European People's Party, the Progressive Alliance of Socialists and Democrats and the Alliance of Liberals and Democrats for Europe. In total they received 479 seats (just under 69% of the total) to 553 (72%) in elections in 2009 [5, p.5]. In the UK, the European Parliament elections largely reflected the political mood of the country: first, strengthening the right ideas and the growth of euroscepticism. First place was taken by UKIP, which significantly strengthened their positions. This party, which advocated the withdrawal of the British EU voted 26.8% of voters compared to 16.1% in 2009 [5, p.8]. In France, the ultra-right National Front M. Le Pen collected 25% of votes, taking first place. The main reason for the growth of nationalism and euroscepticism in France was the economic stagnation. In 2013, GDP fell by 0.1%, unemployment reached 11%, taxes were raised. Another reason was not effective migration policy pursued by the governments of France over the past 30 years. According to Le Pen, strengthening the fight against migrants could give budget of 41 billion euros over five years, and the eviction of illegal migrants and the abolition of social benefits for foreigners will save respectively 2.5 and 18 billion euros in the same period [5, p .10]. In Poland, which can be regarded as the citadel of modern euroentusiasm turnout was quite low - less than 20%. In Italy, the second ranked "Movement 5 Stars" headed by B. Grillo (21.2%). Greece won a landslide victory radical left SYRIZA, for which 26.57% of voters voted; third place went to the extreme right party "Golden Zarya" (9,39%). Analysis elections to the European Parliament showed that the population in most countries criticized the attitude to European policy. Skeptics and nationalists have achieved impressive results in all major European countries except Spain, but there was a radicalization of public sentiment, as reflected in the successful outcome of the Left parties [5, p.18]. On the background of euroscepticism and anti-immigrant sentiment on June 23 in the UK held a referendum in which 53% of the population supported the UK out of the EU. The main reasons why Brits voted for withdrawal from the EU is a weekly saving of 350 million pounds; reduction of immigration; the threat of the growing number of migrants another five million to 2030 when Turkey and four other countries to join the EU applicants [6]. After this country a number of racist crimes on the basis, in particular against the representatives of the Polish nation. Thus, images of graffiti was painted on the building of the Polish community. Police said that the number of image increased by 57%, namely 85 cases compared to 54 in the period before the vote. The same images in his address received and the Jewish community. [7] Parliamentary elections in Berlin on 18 September completed a new - fifth in a row - the defeat of the Christian Democratic Union (CDU), the party of German Chancellor Angela Merkel. Political union split between supporters and opponents of mass migration, gained 18% of the vote, behind the Social Democratic Party (SPD) with 23%. The result obtained Merkel's party members, significantly below the 2011 Opinion polls show that voters are moving to the CDU party ultra "Alternative for Germany" (ADH), which won the elections in Berlin, 12% of the vote. Poor performance of the ruling party can be explained by two reasons, and only one of them - the obvious problems with the placement of workers. Indeed, social media Berliners complain of ineffective service of their admission, known as LAGeSo. No less important and another - the frustration of traditional CDU voters, the Conservatives, the most controversial decision of Angela Merkel, the refusal to set a final limit on the number of refugees who are willing to accept Germany [3]. 2 October in Hungary held a referendum in which the citizens of the country had to answer the question: "Do you want the European Union has the right to compulsorily resettled persons who are not citizens of Hungary to Hungary even without the approval of the National Assembly?". Hungarian Prime Minister Viktor Orban called the results of the referendum victory for opponents of forced distribution of quotas for migrants within the EU. 98% of those who voted, voted against the intention of the EU to place in the member states of the bloc 160,000 workers, 1 294 of which was to shelter Hungary. All these people - refugees from Syria, Iraq and other Middle East and North Africa. This turnout at the referendum was below the minimum required, voted 45% of voters eligible to vote, and at least 50%. However, Prime Minister called the outcome of the vote exhaustive and politically, and in terms of legality. Orban urged EU leaders to pay attention to the results of the vote and warned Hungary that triggered inclusion in the constitution changes needed to make the result of the referendum was binding. In December last year, Hungary has filed a lawsuit challenging the Commission decision of mandatory quotas. According to the proposal of the Hungarian Prime Minister Viktor Orban of migrants should be directed to the huge refugee camps in Libya, from where they have to apply for admission to Europe [8]. Today the issue of holding referendum on leaving the EU is on the agenda of Denmark and the Netherlands. A newspaper Washington Post, in addition to these countries, has called France, Greece, Sweden, Hungary as the main contenders to withdraw from the EU. [9] So, the situation in the European Union, makes think about the prospects of this association. Based on economic considerations, the European Union worked out and common political approaches to solving most problems. However, the referendum failed in 2005 to implement a common constitution, "defeated" by France and the Netherlands, was the beginning of centrifugal processes that are now crystallized in brexitization and against the backdrop of the immigration crisis is only gaining momentum.

References

1. Golubov A. Europe Sunset / Golubov A. // Reporter. - 2006. - №24. - S.40-42.2. Pryadko I. Fall of Greece / I.Pryadko // Reporter. - 2011. - №44. - S. s.48-50.3. V. Kornilov Anti-European Europe / V. Kornilov // "2000". - 2013. - №45. - S.A3.4. N. Belous Duplicity euro-greatness/ N.Belous // "2000". - 2013. - №16. - S.A3.5. Avilova A. Gutnik A. Elections to the European Parliament 2014 / A.Avilova, A.Gutnik // MEMO. - 2014. - №11. - S.5-20.6.​ The leave campaign made three key promises - are they keeping them? [Електронний ресурс] - Режим доступу: www.theguardian.com/pol<wbr>itics/2016/jun/27/eu-referendu<wbr>m-reality-check-leave-campaign<wbr>-promises Cameron condemns xenophobic and racist abuse after Brexit vote [Електронний ресурс] - Режим доступу: https://www.theguardian.com/<wbr>uk-news/2016/jun/27/sadiq-<wbr>khan-muslim-council-britain-<wbr>warning-of-post-brexit-racism?<wbr>utm_source=esp&utm_medium=<wbr>Email&utm_campaign=GU+Today+<wbr>main+NEW+H+categories&utm_<wbr>term=179379&subid=10713800&<wbr>CMP=EMCNEWEML6619I28. The referendum in Hungary against the EU quota for refugees, but below the low turnout [Electron resource] - Access mode: www.bbc.com/russian/<wbr>news-375377829. Washington Post has named six more candidates to withdraw from the EU [Electron resource] - Access mode: https://russian.rt.com/<wbr>article/309435-washington-<wbr>post-nazvala-eschyo-shest-<wbr>kandidatov-na

 

Public diplomacy in Mexico-US relations

Olesyas Stolyar

Summary

The article examines the state of US - Mexico political relations. It describes the historical background that determines the course of the current cooperation in the political and public spheres. It considers the content of the interaction between countries on the official level. The author pays special attention to the local governments in this context. It outlines the non-governmental and community organizations cooperation. The article defines also interaction in educational and cultural spheres.Keywords: USA, Mexico, relations, asymmetry, public diplomacy Mexico's relative isolation from global events allowed the government to use foreign policy as a tool of domestic politics virtually without serious consequences for external relations. During the twentieth century. in the mass consciousness of Mexicans dominated the slogans of the revolution 1911-1917 - protection of peasant and labor rights and the struggle against imperialist oppression and the Catholic Church. The issue of land reform, expansion of anti-imperialist rhetoric and become the main theme of public legitimacy of post-revolutionary governments. But with the growth of the Mexican economy in 50-60 years of the twentieth century aggressive promotion of peasant and workers' rights has become increasingly more difficult; therefore, that foreign policy has become a beneficial tool to demonstrate the legitimacy of government. This explains the strong support of the Cuban Revolution, Mexico, its leadership among developing countries, in bringing claims to increase economic aid, expanding importance in the international arena and its steady opposition to US military interventions around the world during the "Cold War". The trend for the "revolutionary" foreign policy against the United States also supported by a complex history of relations with the northern neighbor. Wars and armed conflicts 1846-1848, 1914, and 1917 formed the basis of modern Mexican nationalism and anti-Americanism. Meanwhile, the US government traditionally ignores anti-imperialist and sometimes openly anti-American rhetoric Mexico, because Mexico does not pose a direct threat to US security and stability interested in strengthening relations with its southern neighbor. [1] The need to think in strategic scale in public diplomacy was recognized by Mexico in the 1970's. Because of political and economic changes that occurred with deepening integration with the US. During the 60's. The Mexican government has made efforts towards promoting economic development by attracting US investment to the tourism industry. This resulted in a gradual erosion of economic isolation Mexican heritage and its real international interest, which could damage the speculation revolutionary rhetoric to obtain internal benefits. Decision of Mexico in 1986 on opening the economy to international trade and concluding in 1993 a trade agreement with the United States and Canada to create a free economic space (NAFTA) greatly deepened economic interdependence of Mexico and the US, which also contributed to the understanding of Americans need to take into account the national interests of Mexico. However, this does not mean the complete elimination of anti-Americanism rhetoric of Mexican foreign policy. Public diplomacy strategy aimed at re-branding of Mexico as a loyal partner of the US, has led to reactionary sentiments in the domestic environment, who are trying to use opposition politicians to criticize the government and its own differentiation on nationalistic grounds. Despite the aforementioned conditions of development of bilateral relations between the two countries occurred gradually deepening cooperation at the official level between different branches of government, and the more informal and local level. Considering the interaction between the executive authorities, it should be noted that in 2007 the Embassy of Mexico in Washington was the largest in the country and had a network of 46 consulates in the United States. US embassy in Mexico was one of the largest missions and nearly every major US federal government has its own office in Mexico [2, p. 13]. Over the past decade has been established constant communication to ensure the continuity of continuity on both sides to solve pressing problems. Thus, the bilateral commission (The Binational Commission), which was established in 1981, is annual meeting secretaries of governments and heads of key institutions of both countries. Partnership for Security and Prosperity (The Security and Prosperity Partnership) was established in 2005 on the initiative of the United States to deepen cooperation in various fields between countries of the continent. As part of this initiative, each State Party has the opportunity to regularly meet and discuss key economic and security issues, including at the highest level. Both these mechanisms serve to ensure the effectiveness of cooperation in a wide range of problems that can be addressed daily by government agencies in bilateral and trilateral basis. In addition, almost every public authority is faced with the need to interact with another country. Yes, there are frequent visits by secretary's governments established close cooperation between the Department of Homeland Security and the Ministry of the Interior of Mexico, and between the US Department of Justice and Prosecutor General's Office of Mexico and others. It should be noted that although the US State Department and the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Mexico plays an important role in determining the course for official relations at the government level, but nearly every public authority is working closely with colleagues across the border in matters relating to international relations. There is active cooperation at the parliamentary level, of the 1960 parliamentary group are the US and Mexico. Also actively supported numerous informal links between MPs, senators and key committees that have great influence on the relations between the countries. The scope of cooperation of local authorities and the United States of Mexico caused by the population of both countries who live in cities, counties, municipalities along the common border, as well as the population of the border states. One of the most important forms of cooperation are the annual conference of border governors (Border Governors' Conference) [3]. There are also periodic meetings with the mayors of border communities. Mayors and governors in neighboring towns near the border often have intense working relationship for a wide range of everyday problems - from planning economic development strategy for tracking stolen cars. Some joint commissions have many years of interaction ( Sonora-Arizona Commission was founded in 1959.) [4]; others are created to solve specific problems on a temporary basis. In recent years, significantly increasing the number of governors and mayors of the border regions involved in bilateral cooperation. US governors and mayors are responding to the interests of their voters of Mexican origin, and their Mexican counterparts attending community in the US, where their voters with their relatives. It is also associated with finding new investors or the markets for the products of the region. Educational and cultural exchange between the countries has a long history. Traditionally, training in the neighboring country is attractive to Mexican students heading there for higher and further education. In turn, the majority of American students participating in programs of educational exchange in Mexico only a few semesters. Also in the educational and cultural exchanges are actively involved thousands of Americans traveling to Mexico to study Spanish, as well as teachers, artists, scientists who spend some time in the country for the purpose of professional development, research and participation in cultural events. The governments of Mexico and the United States cooperate in this area through exchange programs, including the Fulbright program is considered the most Garcia Robles. The governments of both countries through the Mexican-American Commission for Educational and Cultural Exchange (The Mexico-U.S. Commission for Educational and Cultural Exchange) jointly fund it. However, these programs do not enjoy high popularity, at least by American students. Thus, in 2005 Mexico ranked seventh among countries that have sent students in the United States (total 13,063 persons), and sixth among countries that accept students from the United States (of 9,244 people). In government, there is an exchange program set up at the initiative of US and Mexican universities as well as private foundations. NGO sector is an active participant in international relations. First of all, this applies to associations engaged in the affairs of workers, and organizations involved in financing and implementing development projects in Mexico and the US. It is necessary to mention border cooperation of NGOs and associations that maintain a close working relationship in various fields of public relations, including human rights and the environment. Also in the international cooperation involved in business organizations and trade unions that address issues of interest to their activities. Traditionally close ties with religious organizations of the USA and Mexico, including the Catholic and Protestant churches. The growing demographic integration of Mexico with the United States, meanwhile, creates additional obstacles to deepening cooperation in the social sphere. Attempts to use cultural and educational factors to improve Mexico's image among US citizens of Mexican origin and Mexican immigrants were perceived by the American public as an attempt to influence Mexico's US policy through the creation of an ethnic lobby, which would have defended the interests of Mexico. The researchers note that a significant asymmetry in these bilateral relations will cultivate a sense of superiority and arrogance of the Americans and sense of vulnerability and inferiority among Mexicans. It is appropriately reflected in diplomacy Mexico to the US, which tried to shed the image of a backward, corrupt and dangerous country. Although polls indicate, overall, a positive perception of Americans their southern neighbors, the possibility of using public opinion to expand cooperation in the public sphere is rather limited [5, c. 49-67]. Mexico is an important direction for US foreign policy, but takes priority in its foreign policy. In turn, Mexicans tend to distrust in relations with the northern neighbor and traditionally occupy nationalist position, but at the same time, a pragmatic approach to cooperation in specific areas. Thus, despite the difficult history of relations between the US and Mexico, the interaction between them deepened and filled with new formats of cooperation both at the official and at the unofficial level. It is worth noting the intensity of interaction between local governments along the common border, due to the population in the border areas and the migration of Mexicans to the United States. In the educational and cultural field both governments support exchange programs, but greater interest in these programs show Mexican students. In other issues, including migration, combating drug trafficking, foreign policy, Mexico maintains a strategy of voluntary restraint, which can be regarded as a pragmatic response to the realities of the historical and structural relationship between the US and Mexico. This strategy is aimed at maximum improvement of relationships while reducing the risk of reaction and opposition sentiment in domestic politics and in the perception of Mexico in the US. However, the lack of political confrontation allows entities of both countries to exercise rational, mutually beneficial cooperation in addressing the many issues of migration, education, culture, local government, regional economic cooperation and so on.

References

1.​ Border Governors Conference 1996-2009 [Електронний ресурс]/ Texas Secretary of State. - 2010. - Режим доступу: www.sos.state.tx.us/<wbr>border/bmaconf.shtml (21.11.2015). - Назва з екрану.2. ​ COMEXUS: Becas Fullbright-Garcia Robles [Електронний ресурс] / The Mexico-U.S. Commission for Educational and Cultural Exchange. - 2015. - Режим доступу: www.comexus.org.mx (22.11.2015). - Назва з екрану.3.​ National Association of Latin American and Caribbean Communities [Електронний ресурс] / NALACC. - 2015. - Режим доступу: www.nalacc.org/about-<wbr>us/history/ (22.11.2015). - Назва з екрану.4. ​ Randall L. Structure of Mexico: Political, Social and Economic Prospects/ L. Randall; 2nd edition. - M.E. Sharpe, 2005. - 512 p.5.​ U.S.-Mexico Binational Commission [Електронний ресурс]/ U.S. Department of State. - 2015. - Режим доступу: www.state.gov/p/wha/ci/<wbr>mx/c10787.htm (21.11.2015). - Назва з екрану.

 

Congagement strategy as a synthesis of "hard" and "soft" power

Vyacheslav Tsivatyy

Review of monograph: Vishnevskaya-Cherkas I.G. US-China: Congagement strategy. - Kyiv, Ukraine Diplomatic Academy of the MFA of Ukraine, 2016. - 328s. (ISBN 978-617-7037-09-4). Structural monograph consists of four sections, where in the first - "Conceptual and methodological framework and source base study" - analyzed existing categorical-conceptual apparatus, based on what made the author further development; singled out the main approaches and methods congagement strategy; systematized and classified source base. The second section - "Background of congagement in US foreign policy" - investigate the genesis of the strategy and its causes, namely the rapid economic growth of China, which leads to the emergence of large Chinese ambitions conflict value paradigms, the presence of nuclear weapons, maintaining an authoritarian form of government, appeal to a large group of "third world" and so on. The third section - "Mechanisms for implementing the congagement strategy" - dedicated to the analysis of containment and engagement in combination and isolation. The fourth section - "Efficiency of congagement" - thoroughly analyzed the impact of the implementation mechanisms of the US strategy in terms of "efficiency/inefficiency." Noteworthy bibliography that is given at the end of each chapter. There are contemporary sources that best fit the theme of the study, and in English.The book description of congagement is considered on many levels: the content and direction of the target; implementation mechanisms; at the functional level; at the institutional level; analysis of the effectiveness of its implementation. This distinction was necessary because the object of study in each of these levels has its specific features that are important to distinguish. The author of the monograph reveals the desire of American strategists combine different paradigms in a foreign policy strategy as the answer to different scenarios of China. As unproductive were both preventive containment of China, and the previous calm of its capabilities, there threefold policy of trying to use all possibilities for cooperation with China and, secondly, more integrated into the international political system and, the context of US interests, encourage the democratization of power. Third, do not give China opportunities threaten the fundamental interests of US national security in Asia and beyond; Fourth, be prepared if necessary to confront the diplomatic, economic and military means (S. 174). The internal structure of the congagement strategy is built on contradictions - containment + engagement. One concept stresses the importance of maintaining US military capabilities and alliances as a barrier against the possibility of China in the future become more powerful and aggressive, and one that will pose a threat to US interests, and the second - emphasizes the role of cooperation and integration of China into global institutions (including the global economy), which would impact on China's behavior, making involvement in a positive direction. In turn, the strategic partnership with China is presented: (a) optimistic, that is, those who believe that China in the coming decades can not really confront the US because China containment strategy is irrelevant, and the partnership will contribute to the democratization of Chinese society; (B) the pragmatists who expect the economic interconnectedness between the US and China, which makes it impossible for the Chinese threat (p 170-171). As congagement synthesizes two polar categories - containment and engagement, I. Vishnevskaya-Cherkass notes the similarity typological features of the strategy of "hard" and "soft" powers. Congagement strategy (A) and "hard" power (B) researchers describe a mechanism of "carrot and stick". The book masterfully singled fundamental difference in the clustering of effects between A and B if, for example, the "hard power" include military capabilities and economic strength, the congagement strategy economy is usually associated with "involvement" that corresponds to "m" which "cluster, not "solid" as theorists are "hard" and "soft" power. The author aptly compared congagement of "smart power," which is a synthesis of "hard" and "soft" power. The author of a monograph on concrete examples illustrating the difference between strategic style of foreign political and diplomatic games US and China: the root of Chinese doctrine of absorption lies in the fact that after the division only two, the Chinese are third, while it excludes West. In Chinese, the only consistently forks, but the changes occur through a combination of not two but three forces. If, according to Z. Brzezinski, the world-famous American political scientist, sociologist and statesman, world history - a "great chessboard" struggle between the two, the Chinese are sitting at the card table story, which ties up the three forces. Therefore, the Chinese benefit, besides - unexpectedly. Unlike international chess, the Chinese can play three: the chessboard on white and black lining and even red. According to the principle of Chinese chess, where the three parties involved and the winner is not the one who broke the figures over the enemy, and the one who was able to deviate from the fight and save the greatest number of figures in key positions based foreign and domestic policy of the government of the PRC (S. 224). Disclosure inefficient mechanisms of congagement is a difficult task considering undisputed world leader and authority of its sophisticated strategic developments. However, author of monograph able to cope with this scientific problem and introduce a system of substantiated evidence, in particular to prove that the "pendulum policy" US contributed to an increasing development of China, creating a situation where at the time of "involvement" China gets preferential treatment from the United States, and in moment of "containment" - from other countries. Thus, China gets into the most advantageous position, as is always the subject of the involvement of competing powers. According to game theory, it has minimal risk and maximum gain (S. 220). Among the features of the monograph is oriented and focus primarily on the analysis of new phenomena in international politics and international diplomacy, the main trends of development in the contradictions and ambiguities, attempts to identify "weak signals" that could lead to the events of "wild cards". Particularly impressed by the successful use of the author of the monograph mathematical tools that are not so common in political science research. Analyzing theoretical and conceptual basis of different scientific fields and schools, I. Vishnevskaya-Cherkass represents not duplicate ideas and provides a new approach to the problem, particularly in the study of complex power state in the context of US-China relations. Only in the theory of international relations and diplomacy the author for the use of exergy that is certainly constructive innovation proposes theory. The book exergy seen as a means of using specific "gift," resources having characteristics states of manifestation, are "trump cards" in the conduct of political and politico-diplomatic games, because during their transfer from passive to active there is an opportunity for the least cost to get the most benefit. For the purposes of political studies used some copyright concepts, including the method of "inverted glasses", which is based on the performance impact of suddenly actualized radically opposite current state paradigm that violates the rhythm of public opinion and causes instability or even collapse of the state and lihandyzm as a method of high efficiency due to the impact of action characteristic of implicit factors on the micro- and macro-level system, changing it according to the purpose. Among the significant achievements of the peer-reviewed work should be noted exhaustive analysis of the concepts of "containment", "attraction", and "hedging" and major transformational steps of congagement - "responsible member", "strategic reassurance". It is appropriate that author gives the analogy between congagement and konkuperation and that the balance between mutually exclusive mechanisms: curb - attraction, cooperation - competition. The book of I.Vyshnevska-Cherkasy "US-China: Congagement Strategy" not only sets the bar high enough scientific exploration, and becomes the starting point for further exploration of strategic planning in international relations. All this suggests the high professionalism and maturity of the author. Achievements of I.Vishnevskaya-Cherkassy is that for the first time the reader is able to make a mosaic methodological framework cybernetics and synergy, game theory, fuzziness of L.Zadeh, "adding parallel forces" analysis of Pareto efficiency in "Edgeworth Box" and modeling based on spiral Fibonacci vortex coherent panorama of congagement strategy and its impact on how US-China relations and the global transformation of the international political and diplomatic system. It is hoped that this book will be useful for political scientists, future diplomats and modern practitioners, which she addressed first. As well as those interested in modern approaches to the study of theory, history and practice of diplomacy and its institutional dimension of globalization. Historical and diplomatic lessons of Monroe Doctrine for international political region of Latin AmericaVyacheslav Tsivatyy, Ilona Lukach SummaryThe article focuses on the impact of the Monroe Doctrine on the primary issue of the American diplomacy of the early 20th century - The Panama Canal building. It is pointed out that the unilateral construction and control over the Canal allowed the USA to dominate the Western Hemisphere as well as led to the broad interpretation and modernization of the Monroe Doctrine as a traditional foreign policy principle.Attention focused on the institutional and diplomatic influence of the political doctrines on efficiency and effectiveness of political doctrines on the example of the doctrinal policy of the US in the historical retrospective and perspective. Analyzes the historical and diplomatic lessons of the Monroe Doctrine for the international and political Latin America region.Keywords: foreign policy, diplomacy, institutionalization, USA, Latin America, the Panama canal, the Monroe doctrine. Analysis and comparison of specific political doctrines and puts the first major prerequisite for a level of abstraction from the historical, political and institutional context of events and individual factors of political and legal processes in international political regions. The primary objective of all political and diplomatic and defense strategy of the United States during the presidency of Theodore Roosevelt (1901-1909) was the construction of the Panama Canal. Getting the United States unilateral control over the future mizhokeanskym channel in the newly created Republic of Panama, whose separation from Colombia was not without the White House, you can rightly be considered the most important achievement Washington and Theodore Roosevelt personally Latin American direction. Conceptually similar active policy is still based on the principle of the Monroe Doctrine, laid in 1823 [1]. Roosevelt repeatedly stressed its commitment to foreign state this tradition: "Our rights and interests lie in keeping the Monroe Doctrine ... This is especially true in the construction of the Panama Canal issue" [2]. The idea to replace the overland route transport of goods and people from one coast to another ocean water emerged in Mexico conqueror Hernan Cortes. In 1835, US President Andrew Jackson for assessing the prospects canal sent to South America, Colonel Charles Biddle, who after an exhausting four-day journey through the jungle concluded that the inability to complete this grand plan [3]. President Jackson reported to Congress on the results of the expedition in a special message of January 9, 1837, and in view of the findings Biddle, suggested inexpedient at this stage of negotiations with other countries about the possibility of laying waterway between the two oceans. By the mid nineteenth century between leading world powers ensuing political and diplomatic struggle for the right construction of the canal. Not reaching a stable agreement, in 1850 the United States and Great Britain signed the Clayton-Bulvera (names Secretary of State of the United States and the British ambassador), which both countries take the responsibility not to make unilateral steps to establish control over the future channel. One of the most famous women in the US historians of the twentieth century Mary Wilhelmine Williams suggested that the treaty signed with Britain on joint issues related to the future of the channel was the first and only example in the history of the United States withdrawal from the policy of the Monroe Doctrine. [4] Clayton-Bulvera Treaty was intended to prevent an attempt to monopolize the construction of the canal each of the countries that signed it, and at the same time - to prevent the concession of any other state. This happened in 1879 when the diplomatic scene was a new political áktor - France. Paris Geographical Society founded the company Universal channel chaired by Count Ferdinand de Lesseps, known for the construction of the Suez Canal. 1 January 1880 at the mouth of the Rio Grande ceremony bookmarks channel. US officials kept abreast of events in Panama. In a special message to President Rutherford Hayes Senate clearly issues combined control channel of the Monroe Doctrine, stating that "subordination channel America" ​​is a political priority for his country. US Secretary of State in the 1889-1892 biennium. James Blaine due to the ups and downs "Panamanian diplomacy" even put forward its own interpretation of the Monroe Doctrine. He believed that the proposed Colombia right to free navigation channel for all naval forces is a direct violation of the doctrine, since, in the event of war involving the United States, the passage channel state armed enemy ships will be threat to the Union. Later French initiative failed - the word "Panama" has become a symbol of a grand scam. Perhaps the idea of ​​laying channel in Central America by the French was doomed from the start because, from the perspective of Washington, the transfer of territorial concessions to the European continent, the country was severe violation of the Monroe Doctrine. In the United States calls for the unilateral construction of the channel increased after defeating Spain in the war in 1898 during the war cruiser "Oregon" took more than two months to get from the naval base in San Francisco to the Caribbean [5]. This convinced the American command in a strategic necessity channel, controlled by the US. The economic benefits would be invaluable Channel greatly expanded access to markets in China, where the US now, thanks to the policy of "open doors", were level with the Europeans right. Impediment remained treaty with Great Britain from 1850, which also is not combined with an updated interpretation of the Monroe Doctrine - not only to prevent the spread of European control on the American continent, but also to consolidate US control this. A new agreement on the treatment channel was signed November 18, 1900 US Secretary of State John Hay and the British ambassador in Washington, Lord Paunsfotom and predicted the US exclusive rights for the construction of the channel - by government or private company [6]. Maintained the principle of neutralization channel, which now only have to provide the United States. Channel hailed as free swimming for all military and merchant ships of all nations on terms of complete equality. Under the new agreement, the United States also received the right to place military protection. The next day after signing John Hay spoke at the US Chamber of Commerce with a special speech titled "American diplomacy". Secretary delivered a phrase that became famous all over the country: "If we are not allowed to be proud that we made, we at least can say that trying to implement and what principles guided in their actions. Probably it should be said that our behavior is the epitome of the Monroe Doctrine and the golden rule of morality" [7]. Open questions remained route-laying channel of the future: the territory of Nicaragua or Panama. Panama trend appeared attractive because of technical simplicity and, consequently, lower financial costs. In 1902, the US government bought the French company of its concession rights. January 22, 1903 John Hay concluded with Colombian Charge d'Affaires Thomas Herran Treaty on assignment for the US $ 10 million and an annual rent of 250 thousand dollars 100 years on the territory of the Isthmus of Panama from one ocean to the other, for the construction of the canal. Soon after the contract was ratified by the US Senate, but in Bogota refused to accept very low because of the amount of compensation. Concession agreement with the French company ended only in 1904, and his conditions if channel by the time begins to function, doubt what was left - all the buildings erected by the company moved to Colombia free. The country at the time of signing the contract for three years in a state of civil war, and the president sought to present Marrokin agreement with the US and demand 40 million dollars as compensation for the care of national interests, which would provide him the support of the people. Roosevelt refused to return to the table of political negotiations with the Colombians. Washington is considering a delight isthmus on a legal basis, namely - the legal right to state expropriation of private property in the public interest without the consent of the owner (with the possibility of compensation). This practice really existed in international law and was generally recognized, unlike the Monroe Doctrine. But Washington's attention was attracted by the revolutionary activity Panamanian separatists. Support fighters for independence of the province of Colombia looked much more attractive for the frank, though not illegal, colonial annexation. Lobbyists revolutionary separation of Panama from Colombia became CEO canal Philip Byuno-Varilya. As a citizen of France and one of the main contributors Lesseps bankrupt French company, he was personally interested in the construction of the channel is in the territory of Panama. American gunboat headed to the isthmus as the port of Colon on the Caribbean coast and the city of Panama on the Pacific, landing here and prevent from Colombian government forces and thus ensuring the victory of the rebels. November 3, 1903 was proclaimed the independence of Panama and 6 November was proclaimed a new state and its government and it was recognized by the United States. Such rapid development and especially their role in the US caused concern and indignation throughout the Latin American world. November 22 the same year George Haye signed with Byuno-Varilya already as a representative of the Panamanian government, the new contract. His conditions were not much more beneficial for the US in the previous Hay-Herran Treaty - the amount of 10 million dollars and one-time payment of 250 thousand dollars a year remained unchanged. But under the agreement all the canal area (which increased from 6 to 10 kilometers) passed the US in lifetime use. This zone of the United States "will own and use as if they were sovereign territory" [8]. Work on the construction of the canal were the War Ministry with the United States in 1904, and Oct. 13, 1913, US President Woodrow Wilson in the White House, pressing a special button called dynamite explosion that destroyed the last obstacle on the waterway between the two oceans. August 15, 1914 the ship "Cristobal", F. Byuno-Varilya on board, took the first channel from the Atlantic to the Pacific Ocean. In the case of any political threat in the canal treaty Hay - Byuno-Varilya gave US law and even obliged them to invade Panama and the Monroe Doctrine could easily become an excuse for intervention anywhere in Central America under the pretext of protection channel. In the first decade of the twentieth century society on both American continents were justified fears of possible expansion of the US border to the south up to the limit of the Panama Canal. Indeed, the unprecedented conditions of the agreement in the area of ​​construction of the channel formed colonial enclave. Panama retained formal sovereignty, but at the same time, all areas of the state were under the control of the United States. Evaluation of these methods of international dialogue to achieve national important goal for today is quite controversial. Most historians, politicians and diplomats from different times, including Henry Kissinger and George F. Kennan, emphasize the primacy Roosevelt to US national interests. A researcher from Indiana University professor Robert Ferrell, thorough work in "American diplomacy" suggests that a number of interventionist measures to Washington early twentieth century. Panama branch is the most shameful and outrageous mistake by the government. Recognized authority on the evolution of the Monroe Doctrine, Dexter Perkins, in his study "History of the Monroe Doctrine" notes that the Monroe Doctrine did not play a decisive role in the result of diplomatic negotiations with the British. According to the researcher, it was more powerful weapon in the formation of public opinion in the United States, for which the exclusive right to control the country over the canal arose a national priority. President Roosevelt, whose personal merit in the actual monopolization of the construction and future control channel is certainly never saw the Panama Canal, although it lived up to its opening. Theodore Roosevelt himself clearly highlighted the link between natural law of the United States to control and channel compliance with the Monroe Doctrine in his "Autobiography", a section of which is called "Monroe Doctrine and the Panama Canal." The President stressed: "Philippines, Cuba and Puerto Rico are our scope of government action. In addition, we declare certain rights Western Hemisphere through the Monroe Doctrine. My desire was to not only assert these rights, but also openly acknowledge fully the obligations that exist alongside these rights" [9] In fact, on the eve of the official opening of the Panama Canal correspondent of the newspaper "The Times" in Washington concluded its importance in finance, feed into a "commercial character of panamerikanizm." US in the early twentieth century set out to do the American trade more closed from the Old World. Panama Canal, built and fully controlled by the US, became a symbol of the Monroe Doctrine in politics and diplomacy, commerce and economics. So, for contemporary twists and turns around the construction canal development symbolized Monroe Doctrine in politics and diplomacy regarding Latin America. Although the means of achieving the goal, the success of American diplomacy in the Isthmus of Panama have strengthened the authority of President Roosevelt and the Republican Party. Unprecedented US law in Central America associated with the relevant obligations paved way for a new vision of the traditional policy of non-interference, which is embodied in Roosevelt amendment to the Monroe Doctrine in 1904 and qualitatively new role of the US in Latin America. Documents and evidence confirms significant and undeniable impact on the Monroe Doctrine priority of American diplomacy early twentieth century - the construction of the Panama Canal. Unilateral construction and control channel allowed the United States to occupy a unique position in the Western Hemisphere, leading to modernization and broad interpretation of the Monroe Doctrine as traditional foreign policy principles. Particularly worth emphasizing institutional and diplomatic influence political doctrines on the efficiency and effectiveness of political doctrines in general and in particular - the defined and analyzed in this scientific exploration doctrinal examples of US policy and in historical perspective. Monroe Doctrine to international political region of Latin America has significant and politically important historical and diplomatic lessons in terms of polycentric present.

References

1.​ Monroe J. Seventh Annual Message. December 2, 1823 [Електронний ресурс] // The American presidency Project. Режим доступу: www.presidency.ucsb.edu<wbr>/ws/index.php 09.11.2016.2.​ Roosevelt T. Fifth Annual Message. December 5, 1905 [Електронний ресурс] // The American presidency Project. Режим доступу: www.presidency.ucsb.edu<wbr>/ws/index.php. ​ Williams M.W. Anglo-American isthmian diplomacy 1815-1915 / Mary W. Williams.- New York: Oxford University Press, 1916. - 356 p. - P. 1.4. ​ Arias H. The Panama Canal: a study in international law and diplomacy / Harmodio Arias. - New York: P.S.King and Son, 1911. - 192 p. - P. 75.5. ​ Sexton J. The Monroe Doctrine: Empire and Nation in Nineteenth-Century America / Jay Sexton. - New York: Hill and Wang, 2011. - 290 p. - P. 220.6. ​ The Hay-Pauncefote Treaty, 1901 // Latin America and the United States: A Documentary History / Edited by R.H. Holden, E. Zolov. - New York: Oxford University Press, 2000. - 363 p. - PP. 83-84.7. ​ Thayer W.R. Life and letters of John Hay / William R. Thayer. - Boston and New York: Houghton Mifflin Company, 1915. - Vol. II. - 448 p. - P. 296.8. ​ The Hay-Bunau-Varilla Treaty, 1903 // Latin America and the United States: A Documentary History / Edited by R.H. Holden, E. Zolov. - New York: Oxford University Press, 2000. - 363 p. - PP. 90-92.9.​ Roosevelt T. An autobiography / Roosevelt Theodore. - New York: The McMillan Company, 1913. - 647 p. - P. 546.

 

Afghanistan in war and peace being XIX-XXI centuries: foreign policy, military and diplomatic, cultural and institutional context

Vyacheslav Tsivatyy

Review of monograph: Ablazov V.I., Ablazov I.V., Ablazov K.V. Afghan arena. War of the XXI century. - Kiev: Myts "Medynform", 2015. - 547s .: ill. 57. (ISBN 978-966-409-158-6). It is no coincidence that the book formed of three authors.

Valery Ablazov from 1957 to 1991 - the military, combatant in Afghanistan, a military advisor (1979-1981), from 1992 to 2012 - in the civil service, the author of over 120 scientific works, inventions, publications, monographs on the analysis and prediction of politics, books on the history and present day Afghanistan, dozens of publications in the media and on Internet sites.

Konstantin Ablazov from 1986 to 1994 - the military, from 1994 to today - in the diplomatic service, the author of analytical materials and publications on European integration, foreign policy and diplomacy.

Ivan Ablazov from 1992 is in the military, political science, author of scientific papers and publications on globalization, military defense and security, life safety diplomats, international humanitarian law and human rights in the fight against terrorism. Each of the co-authors is an expert in its field, allowing a professional to present the relevant sections of the book. In the book "The Afghan arena. War of the XXI century "numbering used to refer to world wars - first and second, respectively, and war from first to fifth in the Afghan arena (Afghan territory). 1st, 2nd and 3rd in the history of the war in Afghanistan known as the Anglo-Afghan war. To the fourth war included events related to the participation of the armed forces of the Soviet Union in Afghanistan during the 1979-1989 biennium., And the fifth - of the US forces and the International Security Assistance Force in Afghanistan under NATO in the period 2001- 2015. Events and military operations in Afghanistan during the 1979-2015. Considered as local conflicts, which were the result of world politics and influenced her. Description Fifth war is through subjective perception, personal experience and personal destiny top military leaders of NATO led military operations in the region. Short stories from the political and politico-diplomatic history of Afghanistan in the first chapters of the book gradually lead the reader from the early nineteenth century events for many years of civil war in this eastern country in which all warring groups used foreign military aid. On the side of official power in this struggle in the years 1979-1989 participated militias USSR and Soviet military advisors were there even longer period. The authors of the monograph in its conclusions agree with the views of his associates, who introduced scientific use extension numbering world wars. Thus, the "cold war" which ended in defeat socialist states, military bloc states of the Warsaw Pact, the collapse of the USSR into separate states, changes of political regimes in them, the destruction of a single economy and armed forces, is the Third World, already a thing of the past. This prominent role in the World War III event played fourth war in Afghanistan in the period 1979-1989. According to study authors, the fifth event of the war in Afghanistan, the war of the XXI century, in the period 2001-2015. Fourth fit version of the world that continues to this day. Officially, the fourth world war no declared. In this, it differs from the First and Second Wars, and even the Third World War (1946-1991). Its beginning is considered to be performance March 5, 1946 at Westminster College in Fulton (Missouri, USA) Winston Churchill, who proclaimed "crusade" English-speaking Union nations against communism in general and the Soviet Union in particular. The authors of the monograph suppose the starting point of the Fourth World War can take 1991, when US President George Bush said the need to establish a new world order. At the Fourth World War, as the authors say, along with the traditional aspirations of member states receive for himself material and other benefits in the event of victory, solved the most important task of the global order in which, in one of the architectonic models, it is about creating a unified network structure without state national groups with a single cosmopolitan ideology and morality, based on the unification of world views and differences between civilizations on a single ideology of consumption, based on erasing national, ethnic and religious differences and more. The Fourth World War is permanent and it is constantly expanding in space and time, consistently develops region by region, the scope for spheres of life, creating a network of support controlled spaces towards world domination and the establishment of a new world order. It may take a century because of the enormity and complexity of the problems of today.The model of armed struggle in the Fourth War is clearly a tendency warfare contactless method - causing massive long unmanned precision strikes by means of air, sea and land-based air through space. Among non-military methods of warfare proportion of acquired information component, which practically turned into independent information war. The effectiveness of information weapons is manifested in the fact that it affects the essential foundation of human culture its core, its morality, mentality and beliefs. This book can be another tool for protecting information about events, transactions and people from local wars artificial transformation and distortion in the information war. In the book are essays on the war in Afghanistan and historical figures of birth of the state to this day, a summary of the limited contingent of Soviet troops (OKSV), biographical reference materials on Soviet military leaders who served in Afghanistan in 1972-1992, their view in battles and political and diplomatic events. The bulk of the book contains information about the composition, structure and loss of the International Security Assistance Force in Afghanistan (ISAF), and reference biographical material, interviews commanders of NATO, who commanded ISAF in Afghanistan and Coalition Armed Forces in the US-led "Operation Enduring Freedom" in the 2001-2015, and fragments of media publications of the period needed for comparative (comparative) analysis of issues related to the preparation of higher command personnel, management of multinational fighting troops, military-historical heritage and the problems of the state of Afghanistan, in which the fighting took place, the interaction with the leadership of the country. Peer-reviewed publications of authors is original, modern and relevant information and scientific study, which analyzed and systematically outlined the origins and the real state of international relations, foreign policy and diplomacy in Afghanistan XIX-XXI centuries in the global context as an important part of the evolution and transformation of political and diplomatic systems and international relations of the globalized world in general. Key findings of work done because of involvement in the scientific analysis of the new documents Ukrainian and foreign archives, materials, domestic and foreign periodicals, publications Ukrainian and Afghan diaspora. During the long history of the individual states and regions as a whole often acted as independent players not only at national level but also in the international arena as a whole. The main purpose of this study is to teach the thoughtful reader to navigate the trends of modern international political, geopolitical and global processes, and assist in the realization of the driving factors influencing the political, diplomatic or economic activity of the state áktoriv as on the world stage, so and within a geographically defined international political regions in Afghanistan and the region of South Asia. A new book on the one hand, is a continuation and part of published works on the history of the Afghan war that consistently produces the Ukrainian Union of Afghan Veterans (soldiers-internationalists), on the other hand, indicates directions for further work on creating reference biographical books about the participants of the Afghan war. Reviewed work written language very bright and easily seen that promotes understanding of complex geopolitical, geostrategic, geoeconomic, geodiplomatic and change of foreign policy and diplomacy in Afghanistan during the XIX-XXI centuries. Overall, the book is designed for a wide range of readers who work professionally in the field of military history and those interested in contemporary politics, diplomacy and the events in Afghanistan and in historical perspective. Evolution of internal relations after 1991: the conceptualization of problemSergiy Troyan SummaryInternational relations are a new phase of development from 1991 to modern international system can be called post-bipolar world. It has a complex structure and requires a systematic analysis of contemporary international relations. Conceptual approaches to understanding the current stage of the evolution of international relations is actively developed by scientists from different countries.Keywords: international relations, foreign policy, post-bipolar world, international system, second cold war. Conceptual approaches to understanding the current stage of the evolution of international relations was laid during the destruction of the bipolar world era of "Cold War" and the creation of new foundations and international world order. Post-bipolar international relations as the scope and interaction of numerous and various state and non-state actors in the political, diplomatic, economic, cultural, humanitarian, scientific, etc. planes are the subject of systematic analysis that organically combined with isolation and detailed description of important structural and functional components of all international complex. The feature of this process is that the collapse of the postwar held in a peaceful environment. There were, respectively, the definition of a new era in international relations, which gained rapid spread and even became airborne. We say, for example, the "Clash of civilizations" S. Huntington or "End of history" by F. Fukuyama, "Future Shock" and "Third wave" E. Toffler, "Information age" M. Castells, "A world without borders" Z. Brzezinski or "World-system" I. Wallerstein, "Unipolar international system" A. Straus and others. However, none of these definitions does not reflect the complex characteristics of modern - after 1991 - the system of international relations. For the general outline interconnectedness and interdependence processes in world politics after the fall of the "Iron Curtain" often use two terms - or post-bipolar international system of international relations after the "cold war." In the first case tend to emphasize the disappearance of dualism in the arena of international politics after the collapse of the Soviet Union as a superpower. US remained the only superpower, although some elements inherent super power influential actors of international relations. First case of the People's Republic of China, the Russian Federation and the European Union. Renowned American scholar of international affairs S. Huntington article "Isolated superpower" (1999) even suggested regarded international system after the "Cold War" as the combined model in the "uni-multipolar world" in which US dominance bordered polycentric conglomerate rest countries. In the second case - the system of international relations after the "Cold War" - the key to assess the current state of international relations in favor focusing on the disappearance of key dividing lines in the arena of world politics - between socialism and capitalism, between government regulation and market economy after the USSR and the United States. Hence, according to president of the Council on Foreign Relations United States Robert Haas, the modern world can be interpreted as "without polar" where power is divided among numerous, but "relatively equal" centers [1]. The system of international relations in the modern world has a very complex structure, and any definition or typology only more or less conventionally reflects international realities. It should be noted, and the fact that fundamental role in understanding the laws of the international system plays its structure. According to the basic idea, uncoordinated activities of sovereign states with their own interests forms the international system, the main feature of which is the dominance of a limited number of the most powerful states, and its structure determines the behavior of all international actors. Hence, the most common of international law is considered dependent behavior of actors on the structural characteristics of the system. Another the most common legal scholars, such as Raymond Aron called the law of equilibrium of international balance of power or the law, which allows to keep the relative stability of the international system [2]. Regarding the transformation of the international system of law is considered a major law correlation between polarity and stability of the international system. However, the collapse of the Soviet bloc and the collapse of the bipolar global system put on the agenda are questions that can not be solved in the traditional terms "poles", "balance of power", "configuration of power relations", etc. As a result, the global international system is undergoing profound upheavals associated with the transformation of its structure, changes its interaction with the environment, which accordingly affects the peripheral and its regional dimensions. Proof of this event serve around Kosovo, Georgia, Iraq or Afghanistan, and more recently North Africa and the Middle East, which, according to experts in the field of international relations, joined the band long "emergency." In the book "The New World landscape" Belgian scientist A. Samuel even said that humanity has entered a "new international world." American scientist G. Rosenau at work "Turbulence in World Politics" talked about "the world post international policy" [3]. First, we are talking about a policy of "bifurcated world", which formed two irreconcilable and simultaneously interconnected field. On the one hand, a traditional inter-state relations, which are determined by the "laws" of classical diplomacy and strategy; on the other - interaction "outside actors sovereignty", i.e. non-state actors in international relations. Relations between the two groups of international actors - public and private - are very complex and have the structure of the web. This means that any turmoil in one of the areas immediately reflected in the other, regardless of the boundaries between internal and international processes which, although leveled, but still kept. The depth and speed of the changes observed in this "world post international policy" have at least three major consequences. First, the transition from a bipolar world to a certain extent complex or transitional post-bipolar world. "Network" theorists (especially G. Rosenau and spouses A. and D. Anderson) stipulate that in the modern world is so intertwined that a return to the previous structure of world order impossible. Secondly, this transient world has become unpredictable, and it is already impossible to address issues of international security only old military by force with the participation of government members only international political process. Thirdly, it is extremely important in today's world, including in the sphere of world politics, played by information technology. It is possible to characterize modern society as information that has crucial influence on the evolution of traditional politics, diplomacy and strategy in international relations. These effects can be reduced to one conclusion: there is restructuring of the world political space, and therefore the patterns of international relations although preserved, but acquire new features and are often viewed as universal patterns or trends of modern international relations. On this basis, one could argue that the most common or universal laws must meet the criteria of space-time and the structural and functional nature. This means that, firstly, their performance should relate to not only certain regions and the world at large. Secondly, they must be observed historically in the current period of international relations, and not be excluded in the future. Thirdly, they should cover all members of the international relations and all spheres of public life. Hence, there are two main universal patterns or two major trends in contemporary international relations. These include globalization and fragmentation of international relations, the establishment of a single, integrated world and all the new shapes his division [2]. These universal laws are dialectically opposite sides of internally contradictory trends - the growing interdependence of the modern world and its specific, often contradictory and unpredictable manifestations even in international relations. Director of the Institute of Political Analysis and International Relations S. Tolstov reasonably noted that the specific feature of the current international system, if it is interpreted as a state of "diffusion" unipolar or as the initial phase of the transition to a multipolar (polycentric) model, there are changes that relate to the interests and political motivations complications in relations between major countries and a significant increase in the number of states that take part in the dialogue on key global issues and finding potential joint decision [1; 4]. In this sense, the polarity is reflected primarily as a complex of factors and motivations between "old" and "new" great powers (economies growing), including former third world countries with significant projected potential. Indirectly involved in these processes are other countries that are attached to the regional situational combinations of interests and forms of cooperation, and, depending on their individual characteristics and opportunities involved in regional balances, communities and coalitions. It should be emphasized fundamentally important, in our view, rice tendencies of the evolution of international relations after the "Cold War": they have no direct vector of development, but rather form a zigzag line, zigzag evolve. This reflects not just the difficulty of the course and, accordingly, analysis and dialectic and deep inner contradictions, often ambiguous and even tactical or strategic uncertainty. The assessment of the overall process of the evolution of the basic trends of modern international relations is not only contrary to the last, and actually reflects their existing and implicit state. G. Rosenau said that the world "post intarnational policy" chaotic and unpredictable, distortion identity reorientation of traditional authority relationships and loyalty. [3] In other words, the increase in the number of participants makes the system of international relations large uncertainty. Ensuring military security remains an urgent task. In addition, it added to the challenges associated with the growing influence of globalization and integration processes in the rates of economic competition, problems of international terrorism and so on. It is necessary to pay special attention to the fact that in today's world, the transformation of the existing concepts and security structures confrontational type concepts and structures of security based on cooperation. This aspect characterizes the interplay and interdependence of national and international security issues. There is a new understanding of each subject and interest in ensuring national security through the strengthening of international security. However, such an understanding, even in light of contemporary challenges and threats is not a panacea for the traditional tyranny internationally powerful state actors. One recent example is the annexation and militaristic policy of the Russian Federation to Ukraine [5]. The growth of conflict are as globalization, for them are enormous interests (economic, political, informational, military, etc.), fundamental differences between the potential and opportunities around the world, cultural and civilizational differences and challenges, as well as the emergence of new and worsening many older global problems. All this is reflected in the conservation impact of geopolitical, economic and financial, demographic and environmental factors on international relations. Swedish researchers A. and D. Anderson even created a "network" model in the modern world economy and international economic relations. [6] Based on scientific evidence and international practice, the main cause of transformational shifts believe Anderson rapid integration of national economies into the global economic system. "Network" Anderson model can be called a model of the global economy, based on the theory of social networks. From the point of view of the evolution of the modern system of international relations must be stated clearly that everything tends to increase the value and role of geo-economic factors that significantly complement and extend the field of classical geopolitics. In a National Intelligence Council of the US outlook "Global Trends 2020" indicated that geopolitical space, which is dominated by American power, become more complex [7]. These symptoms can lead to significant changes in the positioning of the US, because of the rise of China USA gravitate to as a "balancer" between China on the one hand and Japan and other Asian countries - the other. It was alleged that the trends of global development require leadership from the United States, but American leadership talent and ingenuity will be needed to reach consensus. Sharp debate on ethics and morals accompanied by expectations of international actors to preserve the role of the US as a leading guarantor of international security, as only such rule for US forces and that military means. However, the architecture of international relations is not suited for the distribution of responsibility in security matters. According to the American expert community than any other NATO structure or regional organization is not able to assume this responsibility, although the role of NATO in recent years has caused major objections from other actors of international relations, especially the Russian Federation and its allies. On the other hand, in today's post-bipolar relations delicate balance obvious direction for the transformation of the international order in the "post American world" (as defined by the known American political scientist F. Zakaria [8]). In his book of the same name, he drew attention to the critical dynamics of the relationship between the old and new actors in the global level. In this context, the question of how other countries react to a possible reduction or a fundamental review of the role and influence of the US in the international arena remains open. It means nothing, as the relative instability and further developments in the restructuring of the entire modern system of international relations under the influence of transformational evolution and changes in the world "post international policy." The result at the current stage of the evolution of international relations "after the Cold War" was the so-called "second cold war". This term is used with the 2010's to describe the political, economic, military and other standoff between the EU and the US on one side and Russia on the other side. According to Academician Yuri Ryzhov, the principal difference between a new Cold War is that it is in war a new character - a hybrid. In August 2015, he said that the Russian authorities by launching aggression against Ukraine, Russia introduced a historical and strategic trap, and a second cold war is approaching its climax. "Welcome to the second Cold War" - so called Article political scientist D. Trenin, director of the Carnegie Moscow Center, published recently in the prestigious journal "Foreign Policy" [9]. The author apparently first described what political analysts think on both sides of the Atlantic: the system of international relations has changed, and even if Russia will reduce pressure on Ukraine, to an earlier state will not return. D. Trenin believes that Russia's occupation of Crimea was the beginning of a second Cold War, a new round of global confrontation between Russia and the West. And even states that the previous 20 years of peace that was not the end of the old conflict, but only a temporary truce. Now season the competition between the West and Russia for influence, particularly in Eastern Europe and the Middle East, reopened. Remains open question and the further evolution of the entire system of international relations in the post-bipolar world and the trend of transformation of confrontation into cooperation system. The answer should give primarily leading international actors present, among whom fate weighty responsibility falls on the United States as the sole superpower in the complex coordinates of the current system of international relations.

References

1. Tolstov S. International system XXI century / S. Tolstov // Foreign Affairs. - 2013. - № 10. - P. 9.2. Trojan S.S. International relations in the post-bipolar world: the main patterns and trends in the evolution / S.S. Trojan // Foreign Affairs. - 2013. - № 12. - P. 40 - 45.3. G. Rosenau. Changing individuals as a source of global turbulence / G.Rozenau // M. Girard (hands. Aut. Coll.) Individuals in international politics. - M .: IPA 1996.4. Tolstov S.V. Trends in international cooperation in the twenty-first century: the experience of political analysis and modeling. - S. 298 / S.V. Tolstov // [electronic resource]. - Access: 6872-17005-1-B.pdf (Access - 11.8.2016).5. The Ukrainian revolution of dignity, Russian aggression and international law: Collective monograph / Compiled and edited by prof. A. Zadorozhnii. - K .: KIS 2014 - 1016 s.6. Dudinskaya S.I. Network "model of the modern world order / S.I. Dudinskaya [Electron resource]. - Access mode: www.confcontact.com/<wbr>2010alyans/ist_dudin.php (access - 11.8.2016).7. Bilous O. Patterns and new trends of global development / O. Bilous // Global crisis or anti-crisis growth trends: Proceedings of the International Conference (m. Kyiv, June 24, 2011) / Ans. Ed. OG Belorussian. - K .: Institute of World Economy and International Relations of NAS of Ukraine, 2011. - P. 32 - 37.8. Zakaria F. The Post-American world of the future. - M .: Europe, 2009. - 280 p.9. Cold War without the Iron Curtain // [electronic resource]. - Access: www.polradio.pl/5/39/<wbr>Artykul/165118 (Access - 11.8.2016).

 

Country without science is a country without a future(For example, Russia and China)

Oleksandr Vasylyev

Summary

The development of sciences and high technologies is the most real way for Russia to occupy a worthy place among developed countries. The level of national sciences to a great extent determines the fundamental basics of economical and military security of a state. The modern state and transformation of Russian scientific and technological complex tendencies show that the country will not be able to become a leader of global and regional integrations.Key words: science, economics, economy, modernization, innovation, technology. Current trends of globalization and integration of world economy characterized by extensive use of information technology, the formation of an innovative economy, the internationalization of research, development and knowledge-based production, aggravation of global competition in world markets investment, high technology products and services. Changing traditional forms and mechanisms of international cooperation in science and technology, and the role of government in the regulation of these processes. Outlines the close relationship of science and technology, foreign trade and economic policy in the field of science and technology to overcome the economic crisis [1, 2]. Modernization, as the global socio-political thought is a prerequisite for the establishment of a new world along civilizational change. It is based on a definition of what modernization is the main law of social development constant change, complexity of political, economic, government agencies and other features according to the needs effective functioning of society. The theory of modernization has gone through several stages of development, acquiring new characteristics and trends that have made social, political, scientific, technical and managerial achievement. The current phase of modernization of civilization called postindustrial or postmodern. Its basis is the primary role of theoretical knowledge as the core around which to create new technology, there are economic and social progress of society. Its main features are changing the system values ​​(the desire to discover their talents and abilities), increasing the role and value of "human capital" understanding high price intelligence, the formation of high management culture, the growing importance of information changes the human being towards culture, of education you have, spirituality and more. The current state of the Russian economy and prospects for its modernization are closely linked with the state of the world economy, which is in the process of transition to a new technological and economic structure. Recovery of the world economy linked to the wave of innovations that pave the way for the emergence of new technologies. The current systemic crisis should end in a few years with flow available for capital while producing the new technological way. It is in such times of global technological shifts occurring opportunities for lagging countries making a leap forward and show the world "economic miracle". Conditions necessary for successful implementation of development strategy is the development of basic industries advance of a new technological structure and output of the economy in the associated new long wave of growth. This requires concentration of resources to create the nucleus of a new technological structure and achieve synergy, forming clusters of new industries, providing consistency of macroeconomic policies with the priorities of long-term technical and economic development. To implement such a policy must create a strategic management system that could provide promising areas of economic growth and direct the activities of state institutions and instruments of economic regulation for their implementation [3]. This requires forecasting science and technology, strategic planning, choice of priorities of their scientific and technical potential, their implementation through the adoption and budgeting programs and indicative plans, methods and implementation of effective control mechanisms. A key role in the modernization and development of the economy based on a new technological structure plays a sharp increase in innovative activity. In today's economy, the share of STP accounts for 90% of total deposit growth of all factors. Given the critical and high uncertainty of research results state should take over the functions of intellectual and information center management and strategic planning for economic development, support for relevant scientific and technological environment, which includes the advanced base of fundamental knowledge and exploratory research institutes of applied research and experimental development, system development and stimulate the diffusion of new technologies. Throughout the world, consistently increasing R & D funding, whose share in GDP is 4%, which is three times more science in Russian economy [4]. Today in Russia there is a critical situation with the development of research and implementation of technological modernization of production associated with the transition to a new technological way. The reasons for the unfavorable situation is chronic underfunding of science, the destruction of the cooperation of science and industry, scientific personnel aging, "brain drain". Mostly they were the result of privatization, which led to the destruction of the industry sector of applied science. As a result of the disintegration of scientific production association KB, research institutes and design institutes, which were part of their lost funding sources and virtually ceased to exist. The new owners of privatized engineering companies failed to ensure the production of technologically sophisticated products and change the profile most of them. In August 2013 adopted the federal law "On the Russian Academy of Sciences, reorganization of state academies of sciences and amendments to some legislative acts of the Russian Federation." RAS ceased to exist in the previous historical form, losing the bulk of its features and benefits. In addition, in March 2016 the Government's decision to Russian Foundation for Basic Research (RFBR) was joined Russian Humanitarian Science Foundation (RGNF). RFFR was founded in 1992, two years in connection with the specifics of humanitarian research RGNF was separated from RFFR. According to said law was created federal agency research organizations (Faro), the jurisdiction of which received all the scientific institutions of RAS and with all their possessions [5]. It was expected that the agency will provide all the financial and economic activities of the institutions, and directly Sciences - scientific management institutions. In fact, Faro manages not only the property of the institutions, but also by academic institutions. Faro commends the work of institutions can combine and distribute them into different categories, which determines funding. Scientific Coordination Council of the Faro has developed various means of digital evaluation of institutions, including the Hirsch index, which shows the frequency of citations of publications employees of institutions. But this figure can not be the main criterion for overall assessment of research institutions. In practice, Faro, without experts of high scientific level, is one of the main subjects of the formation of the state science and technology policy and considers it possible to manage the fate of Russian academic science, expressing a consolidated opinion of the scientific community. University science, which bet the last decade, is aimed at improving the Hirsch index as a key indicator reporting to the Ministry of Education and Science. Because of this, in terms of funding a researcher in high school science sector are 2.7 times higher than the funding of Faro. By 2013, only RAS has strategic subject of science and technology policy. In early 1999, RAS was concentrated in 57% of all doctors and candidates of sciences 40.7% [6]. Ongoing reform today RAS passes basic problems of management of STP, does not provide for the improvement of institutional forms and methods of applied research is not focused on the development and implementation of highly efficient high technologies. Now the most important goal of scientific, technical and structural and investment policy of Russia was to be the creation of powerful and innovative mobile capabilities that should cover and mutually bind large level of R&D, higher education and investment sector, especially engineering. The challenge is to generate and implement engineering and technology innovation to ensure their implementation accelerated in the economy. As a result of the normalization of economic production, the emergence of sustainable demand for innovation and applied science to strengthen national scientific and technical policy should concentrate primarily on ensuring a broad front support basic research and long-term, resource-intensive and risky areas of improving technology. The report RAS leadership of the Russian Federation "On the level of basic science in Russia. Moscow 2016 "states that for the period 2000-2014. Number of researchers who perform basic research in the natural sciences, decreased approximately 10.5 thousand. People, and in technical sciences - 20 thousand. People [6]. Lack of funds for the state program "Development of science and technology" can lead to significant layoffs scientists. According to the MES of Russia, the share of the state program research budget in total expenditures will be reduced in 2019 from 0.98% in 2015 to 0.87%. The reduction will apply, above all, academic institutions Faro, Russian Academy of Sciences and the National Research Centre "Kurchatov Institute". Thus, the exemption can get about 10 thousand scientists. In foreign policy, Russian Federation follows the concept of a multipolar world where trying to play the role of one of the poles of attraction. Russia is in integration projects BRICS [7] and SCO [8] with China, which demonstrates the great achievements in science and technology. Chinese science emerged and developed as an applied field of defense industry. All outstanding scientists in China and graduated from American universities have provided a strong impetus to national science. Today China, where 40 of the last century, in fact, not a single university, holds leading positions in science and technology field. In early 2016 Harvard Institute of World Economy said that China has moved from the country to copy the innovation state. Beijing reoriented internal parks of foreign investment on development, training and promotion of invention. At the beginning of 2015, China had 1,600 science and technology enterprise incubators, investment of more than 1 000 public institutions from the fund over 350 billion yuan, which specialize in investing in the invention. In 2016 China's State Council unveiled a program to promote the conversion of science and technology for wealth production, reflecting the crucial role of science market [9,10]. Since 2010 China ranks first in the world in the number of patents. Office of China on intellectual property showed that in 2014 from 928 thousand. 663 thousand inventions. Have a market value and 485 thousand. Performed by specialized research centers. In 2000-2007. The number of engineers and technical workers in China doubled. It is predicted that in 2024 scientists and researchers in China is higher than in the US, EU and Japan combined. Already in 2013 China came in first place in the world in terms of scientific and technical workers. Number of scientists from the total number of people employed in manufacturing in the EU is 22%, in China - 19% in the US - 17%, in Russia - 6%. According to UNESCO, the Russian Federation is the only country where the number of scientists is declining, particularly in the period 2007-2013. From 7.3% to 5.7% [9, 10]. A quarter of high-tech exports in 2014, which amounted to $ 2.5 trillion belongs to China. In 2014 China reached parity with the US in respect of value added in high-tech industries, where the US - 29%, in China - 27%, with ten years its share has grown 10 times. Russia's share in the global market high-tech products is only 0.3% [9, 10]. According to forecasts, in 2018 China surpass the US in the amount of investment in research and development, accumulated a lot of knowledge and analytical results of scientific experiments that will contribute to the scientific breakthrough. Today China demonstrates the high efficiency of investment in education, particularly occupies one of the first places in terms of education (for example, the United States - just the eighth-tenth). It is believed that the level of education for the future of China is the most important factor for competitiveness. [10] The current and future state of Russian science - one of the key factors of national security, including many defense companies no scientific developments to create a new generation of weapons. Analysis of the strategy of scientific and technological development of Russia for the long term indicating that the destruction of the Russian Education and Science of the decline will continue. To science played an important role in the defense of the country and its economy, there must be a vicious circle of reproduction of innovation, problem analysis, trends and space capabilities - aim and planning - basic research and training specialist - application development - development work, creating technology - output products on the market and sales - investments derived from those activities funds in all of the elements of the cycle. An important role in this must play a major high-tech companies that create robust efficient technologies, perform experimental development, manufacture products and display it on the world market. The main consumer of technology is industry. Large technology companies in the reforms in Russia did not appear. In addition, after the collapse of the manufacturing industry of Russia became attached to western parts. All competition in the sector of high technology products in the world based on the fact that some companies are trained to do what others can not do, earn it and are not going to share secrets. In Russia, in terms of sanctions is an issue import substitution, especially in the interests of defense. Experts estimate the number of positions that need to be replaced, tens of thousands, while the current capacity of the country allow you to replace only a few hundred a year, as technological and scientific superpower actually became a raw material appendage of the developed countries. Russia's defense budget in 2014 amounted to 84 billion USD, In China - 216 billion in the US - 610 billion, and NATO as a whole - 950 billion dollars. [10]. To have a solid defense in conditions far less funding necessary scientific and technological breakthroughs in the field of defense, since nuclear weapons in the twentieth century. not a panacea. To ensure the necessary import of new industrialization. Build new plants, reviving whole industries need on a new technological basis. This is due to planning, strategic outlook, what role science immense. The leading countries provide scientific and technological development (Israel, USA, Japan, China, Finland, Republic of Korea) have scientific strategy put massive challenges for scientists and investing heavily in science. Officially, Russia is a widespread belief that the country is in transition to innovative development, which is characterized by the introduction of tools to support innovation. Created Institutes of innovative development of international, state-owned companies in knowledge-intensive sectors are supported by research and development of world-class in the university sector, formed federal tools and digital infrastructure that implements common approaches to the management of public research organizations, including universities and institutes of the Russian Academy of Sciences. It is believed that in Russia the most important trends affecting national science policy are: exhaustion of conventional resources, socio-economic growth of industrialized countries; slowing down the playback of the environment due to increased anthropogenic load, the Industrial Revolution and the isolation of a limited group of countries that have new technological package; reduce complexity and increase manageability of socio-technical systems; demographic transition and change the way of life. For the transformation sector research and development has changed the key tasks of state institutions, control functions and network administration scientific organizations minimize the efforts aimed at the development of the regulatory system to ensure that the knowledge, stimulate their development, access to national and global technology market and high technology products. Along government activities focused on creating high-quality and affordable services necessary for the implementation of creative and intellectual potential teams of researchers and developers [3]. Russian Joint Stock Company "Rosnano" was launched in 2007 for the development of nanotechnology. [11] The main form of business is to invest in private projects on creation of new nanotechnology industries. In 2010-2012. The participation of "Rosnano" in Russia was established 30 such plants using nanotechnology. The volume of output in 2012 amounted to 25 billion rubles. But the Russian Chamber found that during the period 2010-2015. Half of the investment corporation was ineffective: the cost of state-exit them brought a loss of 13.1 billion rubles. In projects where costs exceeded revenues consisted of share of state guarantees in the amount of 7.7 billion rubles, that goal was not met, and implementation proved ineffective. For two years, "Rosnano" spent on the payment of "success fees" management company projects a loss of 25.4 million rubles. Innovation Center "Skolkovo" is a modern scientific and technological complex of development and commercialization of new technologies, which is based in Moscow. [12] Federal Law № 244-FZ "On the innovation center "Skolkovo" was signed by the President on September 28, 2010 One of the most important elements of Skolkovo is international cooperation. Among the partners of the project - research centers, universities and large international corporations. This is the first in the post-Soviet era "scientifical towns" which is built from "scratch". In the complex will be provided with special economic conditions for companies operating in priority sectors of economy modernization of telecommunications and space, biomedical technology, energy, information and nuclear technologies. State funding Skolkovo to 2020 should reach 152.2 billion rubles., with approximately 50% of the cost of establishing this center planned to raise from private sources. In an area of ​​about 400 hectares will live about 15 thousand people, 7 thousand of them would daily come to the Innovation Center to work. The result of Skolkovo should become an ecosystem that developing and is able to develop business and research, creating favorable to companies successful in the global market. The most serious drawback of the project - the lack of strategic vision, which is the basic cause of major risks and existing problems, including corruption, financial irregularities, too much overhead and more. A complete innovation center with laboratory facilities, experimental production (parks), social infrastructure has virtually no opportunities available to accommodate Skolkovo territory. Economic sanctions, which entered the US and EU after the annexation of the Crimea and Donbas aggression led to significant isolation of Russia from access to new technologies. If it finds a way out of this situation a few years, the Russian economy will be in a state of irreversible lag and development of new technological way. Russia today needs to create a modern system of scientific and technological development of the country, given that the main structural components of applied science were destroyed during the mass privatization. Total annihilation design institutes and design bureaus led industry trend of transition for foreign technological basis. Extension of sanctions could lead to the destruction of many production cycles in different sectors of the economy, layoffs and bankruptcies of a number of enterprises, a significant drop in living standards. Without long-term commitment, no common system of state enterprises and citizens to implement rate on sovereign development based on advanced technology to ensure the stability of the domestic social and economic order is not possible. Saving a situation of dependence of the economy on the western core of the global financial system leads to the extension and deepening of the crisis. Improvements impossible without changing the current model of raw embed countries into the world economy. Conclusions- Only relying on a strong scientific and technical complex may be most real way for any country to take its rightful place among the developed countries economically, promote social approval-oriented, structure-innovative development model. In the present state and trends of the transformation of scientific and technological complex of Russia the country will not reach the level of developed countries to lead global and regional integration, particularly in the integrated economic and political associations SCO, BRICS. Russia can actually serve only a minor partner of China.- In the Russian Federation reforms of science and technology ongoing. Today, there still remained powerful enough scientific community. The number of scientists Russia ranked fifth in the world after the US, EU, Japan and China. But in fact Russia is the only country in the world where the number of scientists is constantly decreasing. Compared with Soviet scientists reduced the number of two and a half times in almost reducing funding for research and development. In terms of the share of R & D expenditure in GDP Russia found itself at the Third World (of the OECD - 2.3% in the EU-28 - 1.94%, Russia - 1.12%.).- The share of the world market of high-tech products at the level of 0.3%. The main problem of scientific and technological complex of Russia is unable to basic science, which is still at the global level and in almost complete elimination of plant sciences sector and in the privatization of industrial enterprises in the 90's of last century. As a result, demand has fallen sharply on innovation on the part of industry and demand from applied science.- Attempts to create new centers of innovation to "scratch" tend to fail, that failure proved beneficial projects "Rosnano" and "Skolkovo". At best, they realize the ideas imported from the academic environment, but usually they provided resources are not spent for its intended purpose, including innovation centers are a form of transformation of budgetary allocations to private development projects. International experience of successful innovation shows that it can develop only in favorable collective scientific and technical work environment that supports academic research institutions.

References

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